Chapter 29 – Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land

Exam I – Ch. 29 – WS 1
Chapter 29 – Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land
1. Review: Characteristics of Plants
 Eukaryotic cells
 Multicellular
 Photoautotrophes: use photosynthesis to produce glucose
 Chlorophyll A, B, and Carotenoids
 Cell wall made of cellulose
 Large central vacuole
2. Origin of land plants
 Evolved from algae
 Closest relative: Charophyceans
3. What are five similarities between Charophytes and land plants?
 Rose-shaped Complexes: where cellulose is made
 Peroxizome Enzymes: minimize organic molecule loss during photorespiration
 Flagellated Sperm: commonly found in primitive plant species
 Phragmoplast Formation: formation of cell plate during mitosis
 Sporopollenin: protective coating around embryos, prevents moisture loss
4. What are five characteristics unique to land plants?
 Apical Meristem: localized regions of cell division at the tips of shoots and roots
 Alternation of Generations: alternation between multicellular organisms
(gametophytes and sporophytes)
- not to be confused with haploid/diploid stages of other sexually
reproducing organisms (both stages do not produce multicellular
 Walled Spores: enclosed in sporangia to prevent moisture loss
 Multicellular Gametangia: female and male parts of plants that produce gametes
- Archegonium (female):
produces a single nonmotile egg retained for
- Antheridium (male):
produces sperm and releases them into the
 Multicellular Dependent Embryos: retained in the Archegonium
- Placental Transfer Cells: transfer nutrients from parent to embryo
(Kingdom Plantae known as Embryophyta)
5. What are the two types of vascular tissue found in land plants and their function?
 Xylem: carries water and minerals (provides structural support for plants)
 Phloem: carries sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
6. How do plants store glucose? How do humans store glucose?
 Plants: Starch
Exam I – Ch. 29 – WS 1
 Humans : Glycogen
7. Fill in the diagram:
8 . What are some adaptations plants developed to survive on land?
 Roots: to absorb water
 Cuticle: waxy coating to retain water
 Stomata: openings in leaves for gas exchange
 Pollination: rely on wind and animals
 Toxins, thorns, and taste
 Pigments: protect against UV rays