IB 132: Physiology Final Exam

IB 132: Physiology Final Exam (Practice)
Circle the letter of the BEST answer (4 points)
250 points
1. Imagine that an alien microbe is brought back to Earth on the space shuttle. The
microbe makes a toxin that interferes with any cellular proteins that pump cations
(+) across membranes. This would cause changes in all of the following
a. volume of urine output.
b. protein digestion in the stomach.
c. neuronal activity.
d. gas exchange between capillaries and body tissues.
e. absorption rate of glucose by some cells.
2. Homeostasis can be maintained in the human body by opposing actions of
a. left and right ventricles.
b. external and internal intercostals muscles.
c. penis and vagina.
d. adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex.
e. all of the above.
3. Structures which prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles of the heart
a. the valves of the veins.
b. the septum separating atria and ventricles.
c. the atrio-ventricular valves.
d. the aortic and pulmonary valves.
e. c & d.
4. The amount of blood pumped from the heart with one contraction is known as the
a. cardiac output.
b. atrial output.
c. stoke volume.
d. minute volume.
e. none of these.
5. Drugs know as Ca++ channel-blockers can lower blood pressure by
a. reducing stoke volume.
b. reducing arterial diameter.
c. reducing breathing rate.
d. a & b & c.
e. none of these. Ca ++ channel-blockers have no effect on blood pressure.
6. Which of the following statements regarding control of kidney function is
a. the cerebellum regulates contractility of the heart, thus moderating GFR.
b. ANF, made by the hypothalamus, increases water resorption.
c. ADH, made by the hypothalamus, increases water resorption.
d. Aldosterone, made by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, increases sodium
e. a, c & d.
7. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all blood vessels?
a. a continuous endothelial layer.
b. presence of striated muscle.
c. a specific direction of blood flow.
d. resistance to bulk flow due to friction.
8. In the disease atherosclerosis, the accumulation of plaque in arterial walls
a. is NOT affected by cigarette smoking.
b. can cause blood pressure increases.
c. decreases the radius of the arterial lumen.
d. b & c.
e. a, b & c.
9. The lymphatic system has the important function of
a. absorbing proteins from the intestinal villi.
b. manufacturing lymphocytes.
c. draining excess fluids from the tissues and returning them to the blood
d. transporting fluids to and from the body tissues.
e. b & d.
10. If a man tries to hide at the bottom of a pond while breathing through a long hose,
a. his respiratory dead space is essentially increased, and alveolar O2 will
b. his tidal volume will increase, and alveolar O2 will not be affected.
c. his tidal volume will increase, and alveolar O2 will increase.
d. there will be an increase in the absorption of oxygen in the alveoli.
e. there will be no effect on his breathing or his alveolar oxygen handling.
11. During normal expiration, all of the following are true EXCEPT
a. at least 90% of CO2 in the lungs is expelled.
b. the diaphragm relaxes.
c. combined alveolar volume decreases.
d. the external intercostals muscles relax.
e. all of the above are true.
12. The higher hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end of the capillary bed
a. pushes oxygen from the blood vessels into the tissues.
b. opposes the net inward osmotic pressure.
c. results in a net absorption of fluids into the bloodstream at that point.
d. all of the above.
e. none of the above.
13. Oxygen & carbon dioxide are exchanged between alveoli and capillaries in the
lungs by
a. active transport mechanisms.
b. diffusion.
c. filtration.
d. hydrostatic pressure gradients.
e. all of the above.
14. Bone marrow production of red blood cells is increased with higher amounts of
a. myoglobin.
b. myosin.
c. erythropeoitin.
d. aldosterone.
e. renin.
15. Cigarette smoking
a. makes you look cool.
b. impairs your olfaction and gustatory senses.
c. can cause emphysema, which reduces lung efficiency.
d. can cause cardiovascular disease.
e. b, c & d.
16. In the kidney, MOST of the water filtered into the tubule lumen is reabsorbed in
a. Bowman’s capsule.
b. the proximal convoluted tubule.
c. the distal convoluted tubule.
d. the Loop of Henle.
e. the collecting duct.
17. Water resorption from the nephron into the ECF is facilitated by
a. ANF.
b. the hyperosmotic kidney medulla.
c. water pumps in the Loop of Henle.
d. a & c.
e. b & c.
18. The macula densa
a. secretes aldosterone.
b. secretes rennin.
c. detects sodium concentration in the tubule lumen.
d. b & c.
e. a & c.
19. If you drink an unusually large amount of water
a. the osmolarity of the blood decreases.
b. production of ADH increases.
c. kidney tubular reabsorption of water increases.
d. the volume of urine decreases.
e. blood pressure decreases.
20. If a person excretes 3 liters of urine a day, it is most likely that
a. the person has ingested food with high sodium content.
b. the person is making less ADH than normal.
c. the person is making more rennin than usual.
d. the person’s breathing rate has decreased.
e. b & c.
21. Clonal selection refers to
a. antigen stimulation of T-helper lymphocytes.
b. variation among B-lymphocytes.
c. proliferations of the one B-lymphocyte that has the antibody for a given
d. selection by a macrophage for a specific antigen.
e. stimulation of T-cytotoxic lymphocytes by lymphokines secreted by Thelper cells.
22. A patient complains of fatigue and weakness. A blood test shows his hematocrit
to be 34 %. Which of the following diagnoses is LEAST likely to be the cause of
his symptoms?
a. emphysema.
b. kidney disease.
c. dietary iron deficiency.
d. failure of the stomach to make intrinsic factor.
e. internal bleeding.
23. Bicarbonate is produced in
a. parietal cells of the stomach.
b. erythrocytes.
c. kidney tubule epithelial cells.
d. the liver and pancreatic duct.
e. all of the above.
24. Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
a. Antibodies activate complement.
b. Antibodies bind to viruses and perforate them
c. Antibodies are made by B-plasma lymphocytes.
d. Antibodies bind to antigens and present them to macrophages.
e. Antibodies enhance NK cell activity.
25. The placenta
a. functions as lungs and kidneys for the fetus.
b. provides nourishment to the fetus.
c. allows mixing of fetal and maternal blood.
d. a & b & c.
e. a & b
26. Hyaline membrane disease is another name for respiratory distress of premature
newborn infants. Their inability to fully expand the lungs is caused by
a. disruption of hydrogen bonds in the lungs.
b. inability of type II alveolar cells to make surfactant.
c. a defect in chloride channels, leading to secretion of overly thick mucus.
d. pneumothorax.
e. loss of acetylcholine receptors on the skeletal muscle of the diaphragm.
27. The pleural membranes
a. support the chest wall and keep it from crushing the lungs.
b. contain large volumes of surfactant.
c. prevent collapse of the lungs.
d. have no role in inspiration or expiration.
e. b & c
28. The function of cilia in the respiratory tract is to
a. reduce friction, hence resistance, in the bronchi.
b. increase surface area for gas exchange.
c. protect the lungs by filtering out bacteria or airborne particles like dust.
d. move mucus out of the bronchi so it can be coughed out or swallowed.
e. a, b & d.
29. A person has alveolar PO2 of 110 mmHg but arterial PO2 of only 80 mmHg. This
situation could most likely be a result of
a. high hematocrit.
b. a hole in the septum between ventricles.
c. hypoventilation due to respiratory muscle weakness.
d. high altitude.
e. a defect in hemoglobin.
30. Hemoglobin
a. catalyzes the dissociation of carbonic acid into bicarbonate and H+.
b. increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
c. has a higher affinity for oxygen when bound by CO2.
d. a & b.
e. b & c.
31. Hormones can regulate the contraction of
a. skeletal muscle.
b. smooth muscle.
c. cardiac muscle.
d. b & c.
e. a, b & c.
32. The main source of carbonic acid in the blood is a result of
a. intake of food with high acid content, such as vinegar.
b. break-down of proteins into amino acids.
c. carbon dioxide formation from cellular metabolism.
d. strenuous exercise involving skeletal muscles that produce lactic acid.
e. catabolism of fat tissue into fatty acids.
33. In the small intestine, the purpose of segmentation contractions is to
a. mix chyme with enzymes.
b. move chyme in one direction.
c. prevent gastric emptying.
d. a & c.
e. a, b & c.
34. Too much hyperosmotic chyme in the small intestine might lead to
a. increased peristalsis.
b. reduced blood pressure.
c. diarrhea.
d. constipation.
e. intestinal reflux.
35. The rate-limiting factor in angiotensin’s regulation of water retention by the
kidneys is
a. rennin secretion by the kidney arteriole granular cells.
b. rennin secretion by the kidney tubule’s macula densa.
c. angiotensinogen secretion by the liver.
d. angiotensin-converting enzyme secretion by the lung capillaries.
e. aldosterone secretion by the adrenal medulla.
36. Renin secretion is stimulated by
a. low sodium chloride concentration in the tubule lumen of the macula
b. renal sympathetic nerves in response to a change in baroreceptor input.
c. a decrease in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular
d. a & c.
e. a, b & c.
37. What do nephrons, alveoli, and capillaries all have in common?
a. they all are designed for efficient water diffusion.
b. they all have a single layer of epithelial or endothelial cells to enhance
c. they all can increase surface area of an interface between compartments.
d. a & c.
e. b & c.
38. Complement
a. activates antibodies.
b. is secreted by lymphocytes in response to infection.
c. forms a membrane attack complex that pokes holes in bacterial
d. a & c.
e. b & c.
39. A class of chemicals called interferons
a. have functions in both the specific and non-specific immune responses.
b. are secreted by T-helper cells.
c. are secreted by body cells that have become infected with virus.
d. a & b.
e. a, b & c
40. After initial entry of bacteria through a cut in the skin, vasodilation of local blood
vessels and increased capillary permeability occur. These phenomena are
a. part of the specific immune response.
b. initiated by macrophage ingestion of the bacteria.
c. precipitated by antibody activation of complement.
d. components of the inflammation response.
e. all of the above.
41.Under normal conditions, which of these is not normally present in excreted
urine? (circle all that are correct – 4 points)
Serum albumin
Sodium ions
potassium ions
hydrogen ions
42. The substance you selected for question 41, is removed from the tubule filtrate in
the (circle all that apply – 5 points)
a. proximal convoluted tubule.
b. distal convoluted tubule.
c. descending loop of Henle.
d. ascending loop of Henle.
e. cortical collecting duct.
43. Since the newborn infant has an immature immune system, in what natural ways
(at least two, and be specific) is its ability to resist infectious diseases enhanced?
(4 points)
44. a. What part of the nephron is analogous in function to the large intestine? (3
b. In what way are these two structures similar in function? (3 points)
45. a. A patient has a tumor of the adrenal cortex that continuously secretes large
amounts of aldosterone. What effects will this have on the total amount of sodium
and potassium in the patient’s body? (3 points)
b. What effects will this tumor have on the volume of urine produced by the
patient’s kidneys in a day? (2 points)
46. Match the structures below with their functions by writing the appropriate letter in
the space before each structure. A space can have one or more letters in it. A letter
can be used once, more than once, or not at all. (10 points)
_______bronchial cilia
a. increase surface area to enhance efficiency
b. main function is to provide sensory information
c. prevents backflow of blood in veins
d. where blood cells originate
e. stretches to accommodate systolic pressure
f. prevents lung collapse
g. works to prevent obstruction if airways by food,
mucus accumulation, etc.
h. structures involved in gas exchange
47. a. A cystic fibrosis – affected lung has thick mucus deposits on the walls of
several bronchioles, narrowing their lumens. What happens to resistance to bulk
air flow in these broncholes? (3 points)
b. What are the consequences to the patient’s other tissues? (3 points)
48. It takes longer for the same amount of alcohol to intoxicate the same person if he
or she has consumed rich ice cream or a fatty hamburger shortly before drinking
the alcohol. Explain why this is so, using your superior knowledge of physiology.
49. You walk by LaValle’s Pizza shop and smell the cooking pizzas. In response, you
salivate and make more stomach acid.
a. What digestive phase is this cephalic, gastric, or intestinal? (3 points)
b. This phenomenon is an example of which physiological principle?
(3 points)
50. Imagine that a crazy terrorist dumps a powerful toxin into the Petaluma city water
supply. If it interferences with plasma membrane proteins that transport glucose
across membranes, what would this do to physiological functions in the people of
Petaluma at the following locations in the body? (9 points)
a. Kidney tubules:
b. fat cells:
c. small intestine:
51. The skeletal muscle action potential looks like the figure 11-14 on page 302:
a. Draw the action potential diagram for ventricular cardiac muscle and
describe the action of the ion channel that makes cardiac muscle action
potential look the way it does. (14 points)
b. What is the evolutionary advantage of the unique feature of the cardiac
muscle cell action potential?
c. Draw the action potential of a pacemaker cell and identify the one feature
of the diagram that differs significantly from that of skeletal and cardiac
ventricular muscle cells.
d. What extrinsic factors might change the feature you mention in c, above?
52. a. Mechanical digestion occurs primarily in which part of the digestive system? (2
b. What is the purpose of mechanical digestion? (2 points)
53. An XY child is born with perfect testes, but it has female external genitals. Give
two possible explanations for this confusing situation. (6 points)
54. Compare gametogenesis in males and females by completing the chart below: (6
average number of gametes/month | average number of gametes/meiotic division | life stage when gametosenesis ends
Practice Final Key
1) mother’s antibodies through the
placenta during gestation.
2) mother’s antibodies in mother’s milk after
44. a) collecting duct
b)remove the last bit of extra water to
prevent dehydration.
45. a.Na+ increases; K+ decreases.
b. excretion of H2O decreased, hence urine
volume decreases.
a, halveoli
a, hcapillaries
gbronchial cilia
47. a. resistance to flow increases
b.Hypoventilation, leading to hypoxia in
48. Fat slows digestion, so it slows the
absorption of the alchohol.
49. a. cephalic
b. feedforward
50. a. kidney tubules: failure of the proximal
convoluted tubule to absorb glucose from the
filtrateexcretion of glucose in urine
54. male
41. g
42. a
b. failure of fat cells to take up glucose to
synthesize fat for storage.
c. failure of the intestines to absorb
glucose from digested carbohydrates in diet,
hence no sugar in blood for other structures,
including kidney tubule cells and fat cells.
51. a. Figure 14-18. Slow voltage gated Ca++
channels open slowly and close slowly making
inside of cell stay positive longer.
b. longer period of depolarization
reduces the chances of tetany of the heart
muscle, which would cause the heart to stop
pumping blood.
c. Figure 14-19
d. Increased sympathetic activity and
epinephrine in blood increases depolarization
rate of S.A. node. Increased parasympathetic
activity decreases rate of spontaneous
depolarization of S.A.
a. Mouth
To increase surface area of food
to enhance enzymatic to make it possible to
swallow the food.
1) androgen receptor
missing or defective, so no transduction of
Testosterone or DHT.
2) 5-a reductase is missing or defective so no
DHT is made.