What is Psychology

C. Lack, Ph.D.
PSY 2003
Exam 2 Study Guide
Page 1 of 2
Exam Two Study Guide
Key terms:
 Concept
 Prototype
 Algorithm
 Mental set
 Cognitive schema
Chapter Six:
Thinking and Intelligence
Mental image
Deductive reasoning
Dialectical reasoning
Key ideas:
 The relationship between concepts, propositions, mental images, and cognitive
 Reasons why people do not think rationally (e.g., avoiding loss, confirmation bias)
 What the psychometric approach to intelligence focuses on
 The original way IQ was calculated and problems with that way
 The parts of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
Key terms:
 Memory
 Flashbulb memory
 Explicit and Implicit memory
Chapter Seven:
Procedural and Declarative memory
Semantic and Episodic memory
Key ideas:
 The conditions where eyewitnesses are especially unreliable
 Problems with relying on children’s testimony
 Be able to describe the parts of the three-box / IPP model of memory
 Difference between maintenance and elaborative rehearsal
 Earliest age when people start to recall events
Key terms:
 Learning
 S-R
 US, UR, CS, CR
 Extinction
 Spontaneous recovery
Chapter Eight:
Discrimination & generalization
Reinforcement & punishment
C. Lack, Ph.D.
PSY 2003
Exam 1 Study Guide
Page 2 of 2
Key ideas:
 The position of the behaviorists on what psychology should study
 Be very familiar with Pavlov’s classical conditioning study
 Learning process that can be responsible for prejudice
 Scientists most closely associated with the different types of learning
 Know the difference between negative and positive reinforcement AND negative and
positive punishment
 How learning accounts for superstitious behavior
 The name for the applied field of conditioning techniques
 Type of learning that occurs when we watch someone do something