Forensic Science – Chapter 1 Worksheet 1. Define forensic science. 2. Explain why eyewitnesses often give inaccurate information. 3. State Locard’s Exchange Principle. 4. Match each of the pieces of evidence or procedures on the left with the unit from a basic crime lab that would be most likely to perform or analyze it. _______ A soil sample found on the floor at a robbery scene A) Biology unit _______ Hair samples found on a victim’s clothing B) Document examination unit _______ A white powder that is suspected of being cocaine C) Firearms unit _______ Take a photograph of physical evidence at crime scene D) Photography unit _______ Ransom note to be analyzed for indented writing E) Physical science unit _______ Glass fragments near a vandalized room _______ Bits of fiber found snagged in a sharp edge of a cabinet _______ Bodily fluids to be analyzed for the presence of drugs _______ A stain on a dress that is believed to be semen _______ A check believed to be a forgery _______ A shirt that may have gunshot residue on its surface _______ Blood stains to be used for DNA profiling _______ A paint chip imbedded in a tree at the scene of a crash _______ Use special methods to make information that is invisible to the naked eye visible _______ Marks made by a tool when prying open a window. 5. What specialized unit from a full service crime lab examines bodily fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons? 6. What does a latent fingerprint unit do? 7. What specialized unit administers lie detector tests? 8. What specialized unit examines bite marks? 9. List four major reasons for the increase in the number of crime labs in the US since the 1960’s. 10. Describe the criteria for admissibility of scientific evidence as laid out in Frye vs. the United States. 11. In its decision in Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., whom did the U.S. Supreme Court charge with ensuring that an expert’s testimony rests on a reliable foundation and is relevant to the case? 12. What characteristics are important for an expert witness? 13. Name three methods of personal identification that have been used by crime investigators and explain the basis of each method.