Court Cases to Review for the A.P. Exam Zenger Case (1734) - established freedom of the press. Slander is defined by falsehood, not by whether it is positive or negative. Marbury v. Madison (1803) - doctrine of judicial review is established. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – upheld the validity of contracts. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – upheld the validity of contracts. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – Congress could charter a bank under the “implied powers.” Also state could not tax feds because the “power to tax equals the power to destroy.” Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – the feds have authority to regulate interstate commerce. Cherokee Nation v US (1831) – first attempt by the Cherokee nation to seek redress in its dealings with the state of Georgia over land confiscation. Jackson refused, “Mr. Marshall has made his decisions, now let him enforce it!” Worcester v. Georgia (1832) – federal jurisdiction over Indian affairs is absolute. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837) – rights of private property have to be balanced with the rights of the well being of the community. *Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) – labor unions was not conspiracies as long as their methods were “honorable and peaceful.” Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) – Congress cannot prohibit slavery in the territories; blacks are not citizens. Ex Parte Milligan (1866) – military tribunals cannot try civilians, even during wartime in areas where civil courts are open. Munn v. Illinois (1877) – states may set rates for grain storage; private property dedicated to public use is subject to government regulation. First of many state laws pressuring state governments to regulate the railroad industry known as Grange Laws. Wabash Case (1886) – individual stats had no power to regulate interstate commerce. Effectively killing the Grange Laws, the court stated that state governments could no longer regulate interstate trade, that’s only the responsibility of the feds. Led to the ICC. US v. EC Knight Company (1888) – Sherman Anti-Trust Act does not apply to a trust that was “a necessity of life.” Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – declared that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th amendment. Became the legal basis for segregation. Williams v. Mississippi (1898) – upheld practice of literacy tests disenfranchising blacks. Insular Cases (1901) – Territories gained in the Spanish American War were no longer to be considered “foreign countries” but neither were they assumed to be a part of the US and their guaranteed rights. Northern Securities Company v. US (1904) – a holding company formed for the express purpose of limiting competition is guilty of restraint of trade and in violation of the federal antitrust acts and enhanced TR’s reputation as a trustbuster. Lochner v. New York (1905) - overturned a law limiting the number of hours a company may require a worker to work; said it infringed on the freedom of contracts upsetting Progressive reformers. Muller v. Oregon (1908) – upheld an Oregon law limiting the number of hours women could be employed in industry. Bunting v. Oregon (1917) – extended Muller decision to include all industrial workers and a 10-hour workday, effectively overturning Lochner and pleasing Progressive reformers. Schenck v. US (1919) – freedom of speech may be curtailed if exercising that right posed a “clear and present danger” to others or to the state. **Scopes “Monkey” Trial (1925) - Clarence Darrow and W.J. Bryan debated evolution and creationism to an inconclusive end. **Sacco and Venzetti Trial (1927) Italian immigrants found guilty and executed officially for murder but viewed by many as martyrs in a class struggle. Schecter Poultry Corporation v. US (1919) declared NIRA unconstitutional. Began to persuade FDR to attempt his “courtpacking.” US v Butler (1936) – declared the AAA unconstitutional. Hirbayashi v. US (1943) – declared that the application of curfews in Executive 9066 against members of a minority group were constitutional when the nation was at war. Engel v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township v. Schempp (1963) – in both cases the Court invoked the first amendment’s separation of church and state clause and prohibited required prayers and bible reading in public schools. Gideon V. Wainwright (1963) - Defendants must be provided lawyers if they cannot afford one themselves. Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) – Defendants cannot be interrogated or induced to confess a crime without defense counsel being present. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) – Court struck down a state law that prohibited the use of contraceptives, even among married couples. Court created a “right of privacy.” Miranda v. Arizona (1966) – Defendants must be aware of their “Miranda Rights.” Reed v. Reed (1971 and Frontiero v. Richardson (1973) – both cases challenged sex discrimination in state laws and in the work place. Roe v. Wade (1973) – Guaranteed the right to abortion until he 6th month of pregnancy. Bakke v. University of California at Davis (1978) – Affirmative Action or taking into account racial factors with applicants was upheld as constitutional but relying on hard numerical quotas alone was not. Korematsu v. US (1944) – declared that the Exclusion Order 9066 was constitutional and that the need to protect against espionage outweighed the rights of Japanese Americans. US v. Wheeler (1978) – Indian tribes possessed a “unique and limited” sovereignty, subject to the will of only Congress not the states. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS (1954) – Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson decision and all Jim Crow laws ruling that “separate but equal” was inherently unconstitutional. Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (1988) – Court ruled that educators do not violate the First Amendment of freedom of speech or press when editing content in student newspapers.