Chapter 3: Protists and Fungi

Chapter 3: Protists and Fungi
-Kingdom Protista
*Protists—simple, ______celled or _______celled
organisms that live in moist, wet _______________.
1. Their cells are __________________.
2. They can be animal-like, plant-like or fungus-like.
-Animal-like Protists—also known as _________________
*All are complex __________________ organisms.
*Many species are found living in ________, _______ or
within both ___________ or ___________ organisms.
*All are __________________ and can not make food.
*Classified into _________ groups based on how they move.
1. ______________ are sarcodines that live in either
water or soil. They feed on ____________ and
other protists. They move using a false foot
known as a __________________. They change
shape as they move.
2. ______________are ciliates that live mostly in
fresh water. They feed on ______________ and
smaller ____________. They move using hairlike
structures known as __________.
3. ______________are animal-like protists that move
by using one or many tail-like structures known as
______________. Some live inside other
organisms. Ex: flagellates inside termites.
 ________________—when two organisms
live together
 ________________—a special type of
symbiosis where both organisms benefit.
4. ______________are animal-like protists that live as
______________. Most feed on blood of human
or animal hosts. __________is caused by a
sporozoan transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito.
-Plant-like Protists—also known as __________.
*They can be ______celled, ________celled or live in colonies
*They all contain _____________ and are ______________.
*Most species are part of the _________ in lakes and oceans.
*Six different groups:
1. _____________—a common euglenoid that lives in
fresh water. In sunlight, many can make their own
__________. Without sunlight, they can eat food.
2. ________________—plant-like, unicellular protists
found in lakes and oceans. Most contain golden
brown ____________ that hide their green
chlorophyll. Covered by shells that contain
__________. Used to make _________________
Come in many __________ and patterns. Form
diatomaceous earth when they _____
3. ________________—plant-like protist with red
pigments. Also known as ________________. All
are ________ celled. All have _______flagella and
______as they move. Found in ________________
Can cause _________________
4. __________________—plant-like protists that contain
chlorophyll and are _____________________.
Can be _____ celled, _______ celled or live in
colonies. Found in fresh water, salt water or on land.
5. _________________—plant-like protists that live deep
in the ocean. All are _______ celled and _______
in color. Used to make _________________ and
_____________ creamy, to make agar and hair
conditioner, or eaten fresh, dried or toasted.
6. ________________—giant kelps are examples. They
live in shallow ocean waters. All are _______ celled
and grow very tall--______. Used to make
-Algal Blooms
*________________—rapid growth of a population of algae in
either saltwater or freshwater.
1. Saltwater blooms—also known as _______________.
An increase in ________________ or water
________________causes the algae population to
increase. Toxins produced by the algae build up in
fish and shellfish. Organisms that eat these
(_________________) can become sick or die.
2. Freshwater blooms—nutrients, like nitrogen and
phosphorus, build up in lake or ponds and causes
algae to increase, producing a ________________
on the surface water. This is known as
___________________. Sunlight can’t reach the
plants below so they die, bacteria decompose them
and use up all the oxygen so fish die. All that lives
is the algae on the surface. Human activities
can cause eutrophication:
 __________________ into lakes and streams
 __________________ into lakes and streams
-Fungus-like Protists—also known as ________________ and
_________________. They have features of both protists and
-Kingdom Fungi
* Most __________ are many-celled _______________ that
can not make _________ and can not__________________.
*They get food by ________________dead organic matter.
*Some get food from living hosts. (______________)
*They use ___________to reproduce.
*Their cells are arranged in a structure called _____________.
-Obtaining Food
*Absorb food through hyphae that grow into the food source.
1. Hyphae are thread-like tubes of ______________
that contain many nuclei. Substances move
quickly and freely through the hyphae. It is the
___________ part of the fungus.
2. Often, hyphae grow underground and may join
to form above ground structures like ______________
-Reproduction: Fungi reproduce both ________________ and
* Reproduce asexually by forming _______ or by __________
1. Spores are _________________.
2. Produced inside ____________________.
3. Appearance of fruiting bodies varies.
4. ______________ occurs mostly in yeast cells: small
bud breaks off of the parent cell.
*Reproduce sexually when hyphae of tow different fungi grow
together and exchange ______________________.
-Classification of Fungi: Three major groups
*________________—mushrooms, bracket fungi, rusts and
puffballs. They produce spores in club-shaped structures.
Most poisonous fungi are in this group.
*________________—yeasts, molds and truffles. They
produce spores in sac-shaped structures.
*_______________—fruit and bread molds. They produce
spores in round spore cases.
-Role of Fungi in Nature: Fungi play many roles in nature
*Decomposers and recyclers—break down dead ________
and __________ matter and return _____________ to soil.
*Food providers
1. ____________ used to make bread and wine.
2. Some __________ used to make cheese.
3. Some ________________ are edible (some are very
*Fight disease—Penicillin is made from the fungus,
Penicillium, discovered by ____________________
in 1928. Many other _______________ are also
made from fungi.
*Cause disease—fungi cause plant diseases like
Dutch elm disease. ________________ and
__________________ are also caused by a fungus.
*Fungus-Plant Root Association—helps plants grow
better. Hyphae absorb ______________________
for plant; plant makes _____________________ for fungi.
*Lichens—fungus and algae (or bacteria) growing together.
Algae makes _________ for fungus; fungus improves
_______________________ for algae. Known as a