Cole Landgraf ESPM 3241W 4/19/2010 Alternative Bills and Policies Several different bills were drafted similar to the 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. One such act was drafted three years earlier known as the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act. This act was formed by the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration to try and help farmers receive more money from their crops. Farmers during this time were struggling from the Great Depression. In fact, according to Cain and Lovejoy (2004), rural income was only 40% as much as urban incomes in 1933. The 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act set prices for crops so that they would never fall below the set price (farmers would always receive the set price or more for their crops under the act). The Agricultural Adjustment Act was financed by a tax placed on agricultural commodities. While this particular farm bill was successful in increasing the incomes of farmers, it was deemed unconstitutional in 1936 because it benefited farmers at the expense of everyone else not involved in agriculture (Cain & Lovejoy, 2004). Another farm bill that was established prior to the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was The Soil Conservation Act of 1935. The Soil Conservation Act of 1935 created the Soil Conservation Service, now known as the Natural Resource Conservation Service, to help farmers implement soil conservation practices (Cain & Lovejoy, 2004). Unlike the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, the Soil Conservation Act of 1935 was not challenged in court and it went on to become the foundation for the 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. The 1938 Agricultural Adjustment Act was drafted following the 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act to continue soil conservation. In addition, the 1938 Agricultural Adjustment Act was developed to assist in promoting agricultural crops (such as corn, wheat, cotton, and tobacco), help regulate availability of such crops using storage reserves and financial help, and aid consumers in finding fair priced agricultural commodities (“Agricultural Adjustment Act,” 1938). Bill Criteria and Enacted Policies There are several criteria that may have been used to select alternatives in other bills. During the 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act conferences to enact the bill, there was disagreement between the Senate and the House of Representatives to implement ‘temporary Federal aid to farmers’ and ‘permanent policy of Federal aid to States’ for farm policy which can be used for conservation and increased production of agricultural land (“Conference Report,” 1936). The conference report shows a tendency to choose the most encompassing and environmentally protective alternatives to include in the final bill. Many revisions were made to the 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act which were adopted in the final bill. One of the revisions was to include the Senate’s policy to promote conservation of the land instead of the House of Representatives’ definition which excludes conservation. A second revision was to make the governing agencies included in the bill responsible for the protection of rivers and harbors from soil erosion and flood control aid. Other alternatives that were elected to be put into the final bill were making funds available to agencies in the Federal and State governments involved in implementing the 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act in their respective areas, allowing apportionments to be made anytime in 1937, a focus on soil restoration practices instead of encouraging the growth of crops that deplete soil, and limits be put on the number of obligations—programs, field sites, financial support—to be fulfilled in the calendar year (“Conference Report,” 1936).