Intro Study Guide

Mr. Deppen
Senior Survey
Intro Notes for Sociology
Define Sociology:
The tools Sociologists use:
What groups have influenced your life?
Define Social Institution:
Define social structuring:
Define Primary social group:
Define Secondary social group:
Define Ascribed Status:
Define Achieved Status:
Define Formal Sanction:
Define Informal Sanction:
Using your homework from last night…Get a partner and explain to them who you are and what
groups have influenced your life. (This is your identity) How will your partner’s identity change
in the next 5 years? Partner name:_________________
Mr. Deppen
Senior Survey
Development of Sociology:
Sociology as a discipline began in Europe in the latter half of the nineteenth century in response
to the impact of the Industrial Revolution. What kinds of social changes were brought about by
this change in production and the growth of cities?
August Comte:
One of the first thinkers that could be considered a sociologist was August Comte. What
problem did he want to solve?
What kind of thinking did he think was necessary to solve the problems of his day? It was
going to replace what prior source of knowledge?
What two aspects of society did Comte study- briefly explain each aspect?
What was Comte’s goal in studying society?
Herbert Spencer:
What was Spencer’s major conclusion?
What phrase usually associated with Darwin did Spencer originate?
In some detail what were the main points of Spencer’s “Social Darwinism”?
What group or class of people would be most in agreement with Spencer?
Karl Marx:
According to Marx, what factor has the greatest influence on society?
What would cause social change in the society?
What is “class consciousness”? Why is it important?
Emile Durkheim:
How did Durkheim disagree with Karl Marx?
According to Durkheim, what is the “collective conscience”?
Mr. Deppen
Senior Survey
What holds a modern society together in comparison to what holds a tribal or agricultural
society together?
What social problems did Durkheim study?
Much is made of the fact that Durkheim used statistics in his research. Why would that be
so significant?
Max Weber:
What aspect of society was Weber most interested in studying?
What three social forces did Weber think were important?
How did he differ from Marx on ranking these forces