Ch 10 RNO

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Biology Reading Notes Outline Name:______________________________

Chapter 10: Cell Growth and Division Period: _________ Date: ____________

Read Chapter 10. As you do so, take notes on the following topics on a separate piece of notebook paper. You will have to study these for tests, so do not just “answer” the topic questions below- write out the info in an outline format that contains the detail needed to understand what the topic is and what it means. Leave space between each topic so you can add to the notes during in-class lectures.

Ch. 10.1- Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction

1. What are the two main reasons that cells divide?

2. Explain what “information overload” means to cells and why it limits cell size.

3. Explain how the exchange of materials in cells creates the need for cells to divide.

4. Explain the relationship between

surface area

and

volume.

a. How is this ratio important to cell size? b. What is the equation for surface area? For volume?

5. What is

cell division

?

6. Describe specific characteristics of

both

types of cell division/reproduction:. Asexual and

Sexual

7. Explain advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.

Ch. 10.2- The Process of Cell Division

1. What are

chromosomes?

a. Describe prokaryotic chromosomes. b. Describe eukaryotic chromosomes.

1. How many chromosomes do humans cells have?

2. What is

chromatin?

2. Why are chromosomes so important to cell division?

3. What are the four phases of the

eukaryotic cell cycle

? a. List and describe the three stages of

interphase

. b. What phase follows interphase?

4. What are the two main stages that involve

cell division

?

5. Briefly describe what is happening in each stage of Mitosis.

6. Briefly describe what is happening in Cytokinesis. a. Discuss the differences in cytokinesis between animal cells and plant cells

Ch. 10.3- Regulating the Cell Cycle

1. What are

cyclins

and how is the cell cycle regulated? a. Describe internal and external regulators.

2. What is

apoptosis

and how is it important in growth/development of plants/animals?

3. What is

cancer

and what happens with regulatory signals as they pertain to cancer cells?

4. What is a

tumor

? a. Describe the difference between

benign

and

malignant

tumors.

Ch. 10.4- Cell Differentiation

1. What is

differentiation

and what does it mean for a developing organism?

2. What are

stem cells

?

3. Discuss the differences between

embryonic stem cells

and

adult stem cells

. a. In what ways can each of these types of cells be used?

4. Differentiate between the following words:

totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent

5. What are some potential benefits of using stem cells?

6. Why is the use of human embryonic stem cells controversial?

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