Section 1 - kjpederson

8th Grade Earth Science
Chapter 1 Key Terms
Section 1
1. Controlled experiment: an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
2. Data: facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations
3. Hypothesis: a possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific
question; must be testable
4. Inferring: the process of making an inference, an interpretation based on observation and
prior knowledge
5. Manipulated variable the one factor that a scientist changes during an experiment; also
called independent variable
6. Observing: the process of using one or more of your senses to gather information
7. Predicting: the process of forecasting what will happen in the future based on past
experience or evidence
8. Responding variable: the factor that changes as a result of changes to the manipulated, or
independent, variable in an experiment; also called dependent variable.
9. Science: a way of learning about the natural world through observations and logical
reasoning; leads to a body of knowledge
10. Scientific inquiry: the ongoing process of discovery in science; the diverse ways in which
scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.
11. Scientific law: a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a
particular set of conditions
12. Scientific theory: a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
13. Variable: a factor that can change in an experiment
Section 2
1. Astronomer: a scientist who studies the universe beyond Earth
2. Constructive force: a force that builds up mountains and landmasses on Earth’s surface
3. Destructive force a force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the
surface of Earth
4. Earth science: the science that focuses on planet Earth and its place in the universe
5. Energy: the ability to do work or cause change
6. Environmental scientist: a scientist who studies the effects of human activities on Earth’s
land, air, water and living things and also tries to solve problems relating to the use of
7. Geologist: a scientist who studies the forces that make and shape planet Earth
8. Meteorologist: a scientist who studies the causes of weather and tries to predict it
9. Oceanographer: a scientist who studies Earth’s oceans
10. System: a group of related parts that work together.
Section 3
1. Engineer: a person who is trained to use both technological and scientific knowledge to
solve practical problems
2. Technology: how people modify the world around them to meet their needs or to solve
practical problems.