Philosopher Thomas Hobbes John Locke What are the philosopher’s main ideas/philosophy? Men are motivated primarily by the desire for power and by fear of other men, and so need an all-powerful sovereign to rule over them. Men are ultimately selfish and competitive. Only matter exists, and human behavior can be predicted by exact, scientific laws. If you turn politics into a science, in which the clash of competing material bodies (men), could be predicted with mathematical accuracy, and thus regulated. What are some quotes that reflect the philosopher’s ideas? …in the first place, I put for a general inclination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, which ceaseth only in death. (Hobbes, Leviathan) What/who influenced the philosopher? The dramatic conflicts that unfolded in Britian between the 1640s and the 1680s The English Civil War: 1642-1649 Galileo During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that conditions called war; and such a war, as if of every man, against every man. (Hobbes, Leviathan) “Of the Natural Condition of Mankind, as concerning their Felicity, and Misery” "The first maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for reputation" Nature of humankind is innately good and A sound mind in a sound body, is a people can live amicably together. short, but full description of a Happy People’s natural rights are life, liberty, state in this World: he that has these and the ownership of property and the two, has little more to wish for; and he task of the state is to protect these that wants either of them, will be little rights. Government is a contract better for anything else. (John Locke) between ruler and subjects. “If any one think I take too much liberty in speaking so freely of a man who is the great champion of absolute power, and the idol of Those who worship it; I beseech him to make this small allowance for once, to one who, even after the reading of sir Robert’s book, cannot but think Glorious Revolution The events of 1688-1689 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Rejection of existing forms of government in favor of a community based on the choice of all its citizens, and their democratic participation in every major decision. Attack on the irrationality of contemporary society and political institutions. himself; as the laws allow him a free man: and I know no fault it is to do so, unless any one, better skilled in the fate of it than I, should have it revealed to him that this treatise, which has lain dormant so long” Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Maker of the world, but degenerates once it gets into the hands of man (Jean-Jacques Rousseau) All my misfortunes come of having thought too well of my fellows. (JeanJacques Rousseau) “Man is born free, and yet we see him everywhere in chains. Those who believe themselves the masters of others cease not to be even greater slaves than the people they govern." Book 1, Chapter 1, p. 5. "My design in this treatise is to enquire whether, taking men such as they are, and such laws as they may be made, it is not possible to establish some just and certain rule for the administration of the civil order." Introduction to Book 1, p. 5 Baron de Montesquieu Human, natural and divine laws guide all things, including forms of government, and can best be discovered by empirical investigation. Liberty is the right to do what the law permits. (Baron de Montesquieu) A fool who, not content with having bored those who have lived with him, insists on tormenting generations to come. (Baron de Montesquieu) Voltaire Praised the customs and institutions of English life. “I ask every sensible man if this chapter is a treatise of divinity? if the author had spoken of original sin, they might have imputed It to him as a crime that he had not spoken of redemption.” Dare to think for yourself. (Voltaire) Man is born free, but is everywhere seen bound by chains. (Voltaire) Denis Diderot Attacks the irrationality of contemporary society and political institutions. "If one religion only were allowed in England, the government would very possibly become arbitrary; if there were but two, the people would cut one another's throats, but as there are such a multitude, they all live happy and in peace." Mankind shall not be free until the last king is strangled in the entrails of the last priest. (Denis Diderot) "If exclusive privileges were not granted, and if the financial system would not tend to concentrate wealth, there would be few great fortunes and no quick wealth. When the means of growing rich is divided between a greater number of citizens, wealth will also be more evenly distributed; extreme poverty and extreme wealth would be also rare." Rousseau How did the Scientific Revolution affect the Enlightenment? Effects of the Philosophers: Ch. 18.2,3,4 The Scientific Revolution helped pave a way for Enlightenment thinkers. After philosophers explained the laws of governing nature by using reason, people started to want and look to apply reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society (government, religion, economics, and education). The effort to discover the natural laws which governed the universe led to scientific, political and social advances.