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Title: Direct and Indirect Effects of Task Characteristics on Organizational Citizenship Behavior., By:
Todd, Samuel Y., Kent, Aubrey, North American Journal of Psychology, 15277143, 2006, Vol. 8, Issue 2
Database: Academic Search Premier
Find More Like ThisDirect and Indirect Effects of Task Characteristics on Organizational Citizenship
The purpose of this research was to investigate
Direct Effects Model
how a selection of task variables impacts
Mediated Model
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).
Job Satisfaction
Employees (n = 337) from a manufacturer of
sporting goods products completed a survey
through onsite group meetings. Two models were
estimated to describe both direct effects of task
TABLE 1 Means, SD, Intercorrelations and Reliabilities variables upon OCB and indirect effects through
TABLE 2 Multiple Regression Analysis
the mediator of job satisfaction. Findings were
mixed in that some task variables directly
impacted particular elements of OCB, while other task variables demonstrated a mediated effect through
job satisfaction. Perhaps chief among the discoveries was the positive relationship between job
self-efficacy and OCB.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been a popular target of empirical research in recent years.
The current interest in OCB can be traced back to Katz (1964), who argued that effective organizations
allow for innovative and spontaneous activities by employees that are beyond role prescriptions. Indeed,
every factory, department, and office operates daily on a myriad of these acts consisting of cooperation,
helpfulness, suggestions, selflessness, and other instances that could be considered "citizenship behavior."
Although various descriptions of specific dimensions underlying the concept of OCB abound, the overall
construct is generally referred to as those sets of individual behaviors that contribute to the social and
psychological context in which the task performance of a job must function. Or, stated differently, OCB
can be viewed as the social lubricant of the organizational machinery (Organ, 1997).
In a recent meta-analysis of the past fifteen years of organizational citizenship research, Podsakoff,
MacKenzie, Paine, and Bachrach (2000) outlined the extent to which a compendium of variables
influenced various dimensions of citizenship behavior. Although not previously emphasized in the OCB
literature, task variables have demonstrated significant effects upon OCB in the substitutes for leadership
literature (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1995; Podsakoff, Niehoff, MacKenzie, & Williams, 1993); therefore,
Podsakoff and colleagues suggested this to be a fruitful area of exploration. In response to this call for
future research, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the impact of task variables upon OCB.
There has been much discussion about the effects of task-related variables and work related outcomes, but
their relationship with the OCB construct has only been explored in a few studies (Farh, Podsakoff, &
Organ, 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1995; Podsakoff, Niehoff, MacKenzie, & Williams, 1993). The
evidence does support meaningful relationships between task variables and OCB, but generally, the extent
and nature of these relationships has not clearly been defined. Most of the correlations between task
variables and OCB have been somewhat serendipitously discovered, as they were included in the context
of studies examining substitutes for leadership. As such, the purpose of this investigation was to explore
direct and indirect effects of task variables upon OCB. Designing a study with two similar models that
would allow direct and indirect effects to be tested appropriately was challenging for two reasons: ( 1)
there is a paucity of evidence for direct effects of task variables upon OCB, therefore making it difficult to
know where to begin and ( 2) based upon previous research, the most likely candidate for a mediator of
the relationship between task-related variables and OCB was job satisfaction; however, this literature
stream has produced a multitude of heterogeneous findings that are very complicated to fuse together in a
coherent summary. Nonetheless, our fast model hypothesized a direct relationship between task
characteristics and OCB following limited correlational evidence from the substitutes for leadership
literature and recommendations from Podsakoff et al. (2000), and the other model hypothesized an indirect
relationship through the mediator of job satisfaction after consideration of the well-known literature
following the work of Hackman and Oldham (1976).( n1)
Direct Effects Model
Perhaps the most relevant treatment of direct relationships between task variables and OCB was by Farh,
Podsakoff, and Organ (1990). In this work, Farh et al. postulated a case for the direct relationship between
task variables and OCB, given the concomitant effects they have on psychological states such as
"meaningfulness of the work" and "sense of responsibility." Thus, an employee with job tasks that
intrinsically motivate and produce a firm sense of enhanced meaning would be expected to operate in the
best interest of the company at large (OCB compliance) and be considerate of fellow workers who also
share in the welfare of the organization (OCB altruism). As predicted, Farh et al. found task variables,
measured as task scope, to directly impact OCB in the form of altruism and compliance.
Accordingly, several works in the substitutes for leadership literature have reported positive and
significant correlations between task variables and OCB. For instance, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, and
Bommer (1996) reported that task characteristics had strong relationships with OCB dimensions of
altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, and civic virtue. Generally, task characteristics of feedback and
intrinsically satisfying tasks were positively correlated to OCBs while task routinization was negatively
correlated to OCBs. Similarly, Podsakoff, Niehoff, MacKenzie, and Williams (1993) reported positive
correlations between task feedback and intrinsically satisfying tasks with both OCB dimensions of
altruism and conscientiousness, and negative correlations between task routinization and both altruism and
Settoon and Mossholder (2002) recently tested a model specifying relationship quality and relationship
context as antecedents of citizenship behavior. Among other results, network centrality as a measure of
relationship context demonstrated meaningful effects upon citizenship behavior, suggesting that employees
are more willing to help others when certain structural features are present in the work environment. Thus,
employees with greater centrality should be expected to exhibit higher levels of helping behavior, or
citizenship behavior. However, this argument would ostensibly rest on the assumption that those in central
positions possessed adequate levels of knowledge and information to supply the appropriate help to others.
Thus far, this issue of employee expertise (job self-efficacy) and willingness to help has not been
examined in OCB literature, but evidence from similar investigations in other fields may lend important
considerations relevant to this inquiry.
Previous research in social psychology has examined the relationship between competence and helping
behavior and discovered that people who feel more competent are oftentimes more willing to help
(Dovidio, Piliavin, Gaertner, Schroeder, & Clark, 1991; Midlarsky, 1984). Furthermore, Midlarsky (1984)
reported that competence may be one motivational factor that influences people to help; therefore
individuals who help are more likely to expect the act to be successful and to anticipate positive outcomes
for the other individual. In exchange for the help, the helper will receive an enhancement of positive
attributions to the self, or the pleasure of doing a good deed (Karylowski, 1971). Similarly, it is
conceivable that an employee's perceived competence on the job could translate into his/her willingness to
be helpful in the workplace as a result of increased mastery over the job. Thus, job self-efficacy is
expected to show positive relationships with OCB.
H1: Task autonomy, task significance, and Job self-efficacy will have a positive effect upon OCB
dimensions, while task routinization will have a negative effect.
Mediated Model
In an effort to improve worker motivation and productivity as a result of the quality of the work
experience, Hackman and Oldham (1976) proposed the Job Characteristics Model that outlined the
relationship between job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, task autonomy, task
feedback) and three critical psychological states of employees: experienced meaningfulness of the work,
experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work.
These psychological states were then suggested to lead to lower absenteeism and turnover and higher
levels of internal motivation, satisfaction, and quality of performance. Thus, the model specifies that job
characteristics lead to critical psychological states, which then lead to positive outcomes in the work place
such as internal motivation, satisfaction, and lower absenteeism. Indeed, this Job Characteristics Model
has been one of the more extensively studied topics in organizational behavior over the last twenty years.
In particular, past empirical research has qualified the expectation that task characteristics meaningfully
influence one's overall job satisfaction as positive correlations between the two have been repeatedly
obtained (Fried, 1991; Fried & Ferris, 1987; Judge et al., 2000; Wong et al., 1998).
Some of the research in this area favors the aggregation of job characteristics into one overall measure
(e.g., Farh et al., 1990; Judge et al., 1998; Judge et al., 2000; Mathieu et al., 1993; Wong et al., 1998),
similar in concept to the motivating potential score fast set forth in the original work of Hackman and
Oldham. As such the differential impact of individual task variables upon job satisfaction in these studies
is often hard to gauge. However, there is enough evidence for three meta-analyses to suggest meaningful
individual relationships between particular types of job characteristics and job satisfaction (e.g., Fried &
Ferris, 1987; Spector, 1985; Stone, 1986). Recently, Bhuian and Menguc (2002) argued that high levels of
autonomy in a job can enhance the level of intrinsic motivation by increasing an employee's feeling of
responsibility in performing their work in an expatriate sales setting. This increased "psychological state"
has been measured to mediate the relationship between task variables and job satisfaction in some studies
(e.g., Arnold & House, 1980; Fried & Ferris, 1987), while others have suggested direct relationships
between the two in the absence of the psychological state (e.g., Fried, 1991; Taber & Alliger, 1995).
Indeed, the findings from Bhuian and Menguc (2002) confirm this expectation that autonomy impacts the
outcome of job satisfaction.
Likewise, the positive effect of task significance upon job satisfaction is a fundamental component of the
Job Characteristics Model Hackman and Oldham (1976) explain, "when an individual understands that the
results of his work may have a significant effect on the well-being of other people, the meaningfulness of
that work usually is enhanced" (p. 257). Thus, employees who maintain commercial aircraft may perceive
their work as more meaningful than employees who repair small engines. Fried and Ferris (1987)
confirmed the significant correlations between task significance and overall job satisfaction in a
meta-analysis of the Job Characteristics Model.
Other task related constructs have been examined in the literature as well. Indeed, as part of the impressive
body of literature centered on the substitutes for leadership theories of Kerr and Jermier (1978), task
related variables of routine or methodologically invariant tasks and intrinsically satisfying tasks have
consistently demonstrated substantial influences upon OCB in the form of altruism (Podsakoff et al.,
1993). Although, this meta-analysis was not designed to explore the task-citizenship relationship, the
findings suggest that the correlations between the two variables are meaningful. Task routinization in
particular, has demonstrated strong negative relationships with overall job satisfaction, as routine tasks
generally reflect a high degree of repetitiveness in the job and therefore fail to generate enthusiasm in
employees (Iverson & Maguire, 2000; Thompson & Terpening, 1983). These observed relationships
between task characteristics and the OCB are also consistent with the findings of Farh et al. (1990), who
suggested task characteristics may influence helpful behaviors by creating a sense of responsibility and
rendering work more psychologically meaningful, or, more satisfying. Thus, enhanced satisfaction and
enjoyment in the task could foster a sense of helpful behavior in employees by enabling them to appreciate
the overall importance of the job in relationship to the global functioning of the organization, thus
supporting the earlier work of Hackman and Oldham (1976,1980). Therefore, it is expected that
intrinsically satisfying tasks and task routinization will be meaningfully related to job satisfaction.
H2: Task autonomy, task significance, and intrinsically satisfying tasks will have a positive effect upon
job satisfaction, while task routinization will have a negative effect.
Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has been accepted as a significant predictor of citizenship behavior for many years.
Indeed, Bateman and Organ (1983) conceived the construct of organizational citizenship behavior out of a
belief that job satisfaction influences one's work behaviors that were extra role in nature. As part of his
formidable book officially introducing the construct of OCB, Organ (1988) suggested that job satisfaction
and citizenship behavior were inextricably linked in a robust bond. However, researchers quickly realized
that this link may be more complex than originally expected as various measures of job satisfaction shared
differential relationships with OCB (Moorman, 1993). It is now generally accepted that the differential
relationships of job satisfaction and OCB are primarily a function of the type of job satisfaction measure
that is used in the analysis.
Much work has been done on the extent to which job satisfaction taps more of an affective satisfaction or a
cognitive satisfaction (Brief & Roberson, 1987; Connolly & Viswesvaran, 2000; Weiss, 2002). Brief and
Roberson (1987) tested for the relative presence of both cognitions and affect in job satisfaction measures
and discovered that both influences were generally present, but to varying degrees. Of the three
satisfaction measures that were evaluated (Job Descriptive Index-JDI, Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire-MSQ, and the Faces scales), the MSQ was the most cognitive in its orientation, while the
Faces scale was the most affectively oriented. The JDI was reported to be mostly cognitive in nature,
although some affective influence was present.
Given this discrepancy in the properties of satisfaction measures, scholars have been interested in
investigating which types would predict the occurrence of citizenship behavior more consistently. Organ
and Konovsky (1989) suggested that cognitions are more important as indicators of OCB by examining the
effects of job cognitions and affect as predictors of OCB. Similarly, Moorman 0993) and Lowery et al.
(2002) have confirmed that job satisfaction measures of a more cognitive orientation tend to demonstrate
more robust relationships with organizational citizenship behavior.
H3: Job satisfaction will mediate the link between task variables and OCB dimensions.
The sample population in this study consisted of 337 employees of a manufacturer and supplier of
recreational equipment and outdoor accessories. This particular firm produced a range of products from
composite kayaks to car racks for bicycles. The sample included 227 males and 110 females. The mean
organizational tenure of the employees was 3.33 years (SD = 1.29). No other demographic information
was collected to protect the identities of the employees.
The data were collected through personal visits by the lead author to each of three US locations of the firm
over the course of three weeks. Two of the locations in the sample are located on the Western coast of the
US, while the other is on the Eastern coast. In each location, questionnaires were completed by employees
during several prescheduled group meetings. In the east coast location, surveys were distributed to
employees in a large auditorium after a mandatory quarterly meeting held by company officials. One
meeting was held after each of three shifts at this one location. In the other locations, employees
voluntarily attended meetings held by only the lead researcher for the purpose of completing the survey.
All employees in the company received the same survey. Specific hypotheses in the study were not known
to the participants.
Employees self-reported on the items in the questionnaire, as all variables in the study are considered to be
perceptual and/or attitudinally related. Also, a one-time response format was the most unobtrusive design
in the eyes Of the company's officers. Additionally, self-report measures of OCB were collected similar to
the methodologies of other recent studies of organizational citizenship studies (Bettencourt, Gwinner, &
Meuter, 2001; Chattopadhyay, 1999; Williams & Shiaw, 1999) because the dimensions of OCB would not
be accurately assessed or observed from another source such as a supervisor (e.g., "helping" behavior may
be hard to accurately assess given the prevalence of electronic communication, and thus, electronic
helping, in firms). As the presence of common method variance in organizational studies that contain self
reported data may introduce bias in the findings (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986), the data were appropriately
inspected to alleviate any concerns of inaccuracies due to the design.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). Organizational citizenship behavior was measured by three
scales: helping behavior (7 items), sportsmanship (4 items), and conscientiousness (5 items). The scales
were developed by Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1994) and rooted in the conceptual work of Organ
(1988,1990). Previous empirical work has confirmed the adequacy of the scale's psychometric properties
as well as established its discriminant validity (MacKenzie et al., 1998; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994).
Job Self-Efficacy. Job self-efficacy was measured using the Personal Efficacy Beliefs Scale (Riggs,
Warka, Babasa, Betancourt, & Hooker, 1994). This scale consists of 10 items that ask the respondents how
each describes them with responses on a 6-point Likert-type scale ranging from ( 1) very inaccurate to ( 6)
very accurate. Previous empirical work has confirmed the conceptual discreteness of the scale in addition
to the adequacy of the scale's psychometric properties with coefficient alphas ranging from .80 to .93
(Riggs et al., 1994; Schaubroeck, Jones, & Xie, 2001).
Job Satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured with the Job in General subscale of the Abridged Job
Descriptive Index (AJDI) (Stanton et al., 2002). This subscale contains 8 items. There has been much
discussion recently as to the nature of job satisfaction measures in terms of affective or cognitive primacy
(Connolly & Viswesvaran, 2000; Fisher, 2000; Weiss, 2002). Findings from Moorman (1993) lend support
to the belief that citizenship behavior is driven more by cognitive-based measures of job satisfaction than
affective based measures; therefore, the JDI was selected because it is known to be predominantly
cognitive in nature (Brief & Roberson, 1987; Fisher, 2000).
Task Autonomy and Task Significance. Task autonomy and task significance were measured with the
corresponding subscales of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS: Hackman & Oldham, 1975, 1980). Each
subscale consists of three items that are evaluated by the respondents based upon a 7-point Liken-type
scale ranging from I (very inaccurate) to 7 (very accurate). Recently, Law and Wong (1999) reported
coefficient alpha reliabilities for both task autonomy and task significance of .73 and .78, respectively.
These reported reliabilities are similar to the published reliabilities of the JDI norms and other empirical
research (Hackman & Oldham, 1975; Saavedra & Kwun, 2000).
Intrinsically Satisfying Tasks and Task Routinization. Intrinsically satisfying tasks and task routinization
were measured with two subscales of the Revised Substitutes for Leadership Scale (Podsakoff et al.,
1993). Each subscale consists of five items that are evaluated by the respondents based upon a 7-point
Liken-type scale ranging from I (very inaccurate) to 7 (very accurate). Podsakoff et al. (1993) presented
evidence for the psychometric adequacy of both the scales including factorial distinctness and acceptable
reliabilities (intrinsically satisfying tasks=.92; task routinization = .87).
To test hypotheses set forward, we utilized the procedure described in Baron and Kenny (1986) by testing
three linear, multiple regression models (models in Table 2 are numbered according to the following
order): ( 1) we regressed job satisfaction on each of the independent variables, ( 2) we regressed each of
the outcome variables on each of the independent variables, and ( 3) we regressed each of the outcome
variables on each of the independent variables including job satisfaction. According to Baron and Kenny
(1986), mediation can be inferred if the independent variables affect the mediator, the mediator affects the
dependent variable, and the effects of the independent variables upon the dependent variables are reduced
when the mediator and independent variables are included in the same model. We included a control
variable of company location, as the dam were collected from employees at three different company
locations, one of which was relatively new to the parent company through a recent acquisition. Since a
large portion of organizational citizenship behavior can be attributed to one's willingness to help other
colleagues and the company at large, it was necessary to account for any differences in groups of
employees who may have not been completely familiar with officers, procedures, culture, and policies of
their new parent company at the time of data collection.
The data were first inspected for the possibility of common method variance, or same source bias. This
problem usually occurs when variables are obtained from the same source, or in this case, entirely from
employees. To assess the potential impact of this form of bias in the present study, a Harmon One-Factor
test was performed (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986). This test assumes that the presence of common method
variance would be demonstrated by one overall factor explaining the majority of the item or construct
variance in the model. The results of the analysis indicated the absence of common method variance in the
present data as only two factors were extracted that each explained 34% and 16% of the variance in the
model. Thus, common method variance or same source bias does not appear to be an issue worthy of
further attention.
Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, and correlations among study variables. In Table 2, the
results from the multiple regression analysis used to test the hypotheses are presented. Hypothesis 1
predicted the direct relationship between task variables and OCB dimensions and received partial support.
The findings for model 3 for each of the outcome variables suggested that task significance (β = .201, p
< .05), intrinsically satisfying tasks (β = .259, p < .001), and job self-efficacy (β = .146, p < .001)
positively impacted helping behavior; task significance (β = .162, p < .05) and job self-efficacy (β
=.109, p < .001) positively impacted conscientiousness; and job self-efficacy (β = .081, p < .001)
positively impacted sportsmanship.
Hypothesis 2, which predicted the influence of task variables upon job satisfaction, was partially
supported. Task autonomy (β = .419, p < .001) and intrinsically satisfying tasks (β = .815, p < .001)
were positively associated with job satisfaction as shown in model 1 of Table 2. Hypothesis 3, which
forwarded the expectation that job satisfaction would mediate the relationship between task variables and
OCB was partially supported. The findings suggested that job satisfaction was a partial mediator between
the effect of intrinsically satisfying tasks on helping behavior (β = .259, p < .01), and task significance on
helping behavior (β = .201, p < .05). Job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between task
autonomy and sportsmanship as the direct relationship is significant before the inclusion of job satisfaction
and zero afterwards. It appears as if the link between job self-efficacy and OCB is not affected by job
Our exploratory findings suggest mixed support for both a direct and indirect relationship between task
variables and OCB dimensions. Hypothesis I predicted a direct relationship between task variables and
OCB dimensions. In the current study, it appears as the OCB dimension of helping behavior received the
greatest direct impact from task variables, as three indicators were significant. However, not all direct
relationships hypothesized proved fruitful in the analysis. Hypothesis 2 predicted task variables would
influence job satisfaction. Our data suggest employees are more satisfied when performing tasks that are
autonomous and intrinsically satisfying. Again, not all task variables directly influenced job satisfaction in
our study. Finally, hypothesis 3 suggested job satisfaction as a mediator of the relationships between task
variables and OCB dimensions. Findings suggested job satisfaction did fully mediate the relationship
between task autonomy and the OCB dimension of sportsmanship, but was only a partial mediator in other
instances. As such, it seems appropriate to examine the relationship between task variables and OCB from
both a direct and indirect (or mediated) approach, given our current conclusions.
There are several general findings worthy of discussion that emerged from our study. Perhaps of
significant implication to the study of OCB are the effects related to job self-efficacy in the current study.
Our theoretical expectation of this effect was taken from Settoon and Mossholder (2002), who suggested
an individual with access to intra organizational networks has a greater potential to help and to be asked
for help. However, Settoon and Mossholder are quick to insert the caveat that one's initiative to help
should be, in part, dependent upon their individual level of expertise in their job. Therefore, we attempted
to examine this hypothesis that job self-efficacy would influence one's intention to help. Our findings in
the present study reflect robust support for this expectation.
Explanation of the finding might come from social psychologists who examined the relationship between
competencies and helping behavior and found them to be strongly correlated (e.g., Dovidio et al., 1991;
Midlarsky, 1984). When individuals feel competent in their jobs, they are more likely to lend a helping
hand overall. Interestingly enough, though, job self-efficacy was related to the overall interpretation of
citizenship behavior, which also included elements of conscientiousness and sportsmanship. Perhaps the
large estimate is merely indicative of the extremely strong relations between helping and job self-efficacy.
Practically speaking, this finding calls into question the need for added training and mentoring programs in
corporations as among other consequences, a rich mentoring relationship provides the protégé a sense of
satisfaction with in turn builds trust, self esteem, and an overall positive approach to the workplace (see
Noe, Greenberger, & Wang, 2002). If taken as true, corporations could realize an added bonus or
byproduct in increased levels of helping behavior at work simply by increasing the personal competency
of employees. This finding may also be reflective of the heightened sense of organizational change among
the employees of the newly acquired firms. At the time of the data collection, the parent company was just
releasing an aggressive strategy of growth and focus on particular key market segments. Perhaps
information dissemination had not properly been achieved, which also calls for future research into the
effect of organizational change on attitudinally relevant antecedents of OCB.
Also of notable reference is the significant effect of intrinsically satisfying tasks upon both helping
behavior and job satisfaction. Conceptually, this finding is not surprising, as it is intuitive that performing
enjoyable tasks would positively correlate with an overall sense of job satisfaction. However, given the
particular sample and unique product involved (outdoor recreation products), the construct of intrinsically
satisfying tasks may contain elements related to one's emotional attachment or fascination with either the
product, company, or context. Indeed, a cursory glance through the employee parking lot of the firm in
this study would verify this assessment, as many of the cars and trucks were adorned with stickers related
to the company's product. In other words, if an employee has a psychological connection to the product the
company makes, he/she will be more satisfied at work. Managers of companies that routinely produce
products employees use could profit from this finding by adopting policies that enable employees to test or
use products as a special benefit of the job. If employees have a heightened connection to the product,
managers could expect the overall job satisfaction to increase.
Our findings also contribute to the debate of the dimensionality of OCB (Law, Wong, & Mobley, 1998;
LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002). Although scholars affirm that OCB is composed of conceptually distinct
behavioral dimensions, LePine et al. suggested that the dimensions have yet to be distinguished from one
another in empirical literature beyond a factor analysis. Most dimensions of OCB appear to be highly
correlated with one another and share similar relationships with a popular set of predictors. However, our
findings seem to suggest that the dimensions of helping, conscientiousness, and sportsmanship
discriminate between one another with reference to task variables. Intrinsically satisfying tasks only
impacted helping behavior, while task significance impacted all factors except sportsmanship. Future
research should continue to explore this finding.
( n1) A full review of the OCB construct is beyond our scope in this paper as several excellent reviews
exist (Organ, 1997; Podsakoff et al., 2000). We intend to use space allocation to describe the formulation
of our models.
TABLE 1 Means, SD, Intercorrelations and Reliabilities
Legend for Chart:
1. L
2. HB
3. S
4. C
5. TA
6. TS
7. TR
8. IST
9. JSE
10. JS
Note: (*) p < .05 (**) p < .01 L = Location, HB = Helping
Behavior, S = Sportsmanship, C = Conscientiousness, TA = Task
Autonomy, TS = Task Significance, TR = Task Routinization,
IST = Intrinsic Sat. Tasks, JSE = Job Self Efficacy, JS = Job
TABLE 2 Multiple Regression Analysis
Legend for Chart:
JS 1
Helping 2
Helping 3
Outcome Variables Consc 2
Outcome Variables Consc 3
Sportsmanship 2
Sportsmanship 3
Step One
Step Two
Note: (*) p < .05 (**) p < .01 (***) p < .001 L = Location,
Helping = Helping Behavior Consc = Conscientiousness, TA = Task
Autonomy, TS = Task Significance, TR = Task Routinization,
IST = Intrinsic Sat. Tasks, JSE = Job Self Efficacy, JS = Job
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By Samuel Y. Todd and Aubrey Kent, Florida State University
Author info: Correspondence should be sent to: Dr. Sam Todd, Georgia Southern University, PO Box
8077 Statesboro, GA 30460-8077.
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Source: North American Journal of Psychology, 2006, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p253, 16p
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