Economics Final Exam Review Chapters 9 – 16 Chapter 9 Authority to collect income tax. Intergovernmental revenues What are they? What are they used for? Types of taxes FICA Flat Regressive Progressive Characteristics of Taxes Who do they hurt? Who do they benefit? Incidence of tax How is it calculated? Who pays the tax? Chapter 10 Types of spending Discretionary Mandatory Federal deficits v. Federal debts Steps to approve the federal budget. Government spending v GDP Categories of Government spending. Tax Acts Gramm – Rudman – Hollings Bill Budget Enforcement Act Economy Recovery Tax Act Balanced Budget Amendment Chapter 11 Non – Bank Financial Institutions What are they? What services do they provide? What is their role in the Financial System? What are Put and Call Options? What are they? What role do they play in the market? Bonds What are they? What are the different types? What is the bond rating system? What is “par value”? What is their role in the marketplace? What is EMH? Reading a stock table. Different financial markets. Capital Primary Money Secondary Future Options Spot Bull v Bear Chapter 13 Demand pull – Cost push Inflation Stagflation Hyperinflation Creeping Inflation PPI CPI Base year calculations Reading the chart Leading Indicators Implicit GDP Price Deflator Business Cycles Expansion Peak Recession Trough Depression GDP Gap Chapter 14 Money Characteristics What is it? Uses Commodity money Fiat Money Wampum Specie FDIC What is it? Why was it established? Federal Reserve – FED When was it established? Why? What is it? What is its structure? Fed actions in the economy? Federal Open Market Committee – FOMC What is it? What are its functions/purpose? How do its actions effect the economy? Reserve Requirements What are they? What are their purposes? Calculating What does it comprise of? What is its significance? What does it comprise of? What is its significance? M1 M2 Chapter 16 Tariffs and Quotas Different Types Rationale Smoot – Hawley Tariff (1930) What is it? What did it do? Was it effective? What was the outcome of this act? GATT What is it? Was it effective? WTO What is it? Was it effective? NAFTA What is it? Was it effective? Trade Deficits/Surpluses Reciprocal Trade Agreements Value of Currency Exchange rates Effects on Trade Comparative v. Absolute advantage What is the difference? How do they each effect trade? Currency exchange rates Reading exchange charts What helps to determine the exchange rate?