Doing Empirical Research In Visual Impairment By Dr. Dixie Mercer 1 – Topic Selection Broad area or research interest “The impact of visual impairments on the social development of children with visual impairments.” Narrow or research topic “The impact of a visual impairment on the development of emotional bonding between mothers and infants.” 2 – Review of the Literature • Why do it? – Has my topic already been done sufficiently? – If not, what has already been done? – What needs to be added to the body of knowledge currently available? – Are there areas that need to be expanded? – Are there areas (studies) that need to be replicated to determine their validity? – Are there areas that need to be examined for their relevance? How could they practically be used as the basis for programming? Types of Resources • Scholarly books • Peer reviewed journals • Reputable information from the web • A LIMITED number of newsletters, personal stories, etc. MAINLY, YOU SHOULD COVER A NUMBER OF SOURCES AND KINDS OF SOURCES. How to do a Review? 1. Select key words or phrases from the topic. “The impact of a visual impairment on the development of emotional bonding between mothers and infants.” 2. Make a list of other key words that apply to your topic. • Blind • Babies • Bonding • Social • Families Do the Search • Log into MySFA, Click on MyCourses tab • Under Academic resources click Ralph W. Steen Library. • Use the selections on the left to follow subject guide to >Education>Human Services. • Click General Services and select a resource (Acacemic Search Complete, Expanded Academic ASAP or Wilson Select Plus are recommended) • Type in your key words, article names, etc. Boolean Search Parameters • Anything in “” is found verbatim. • AND • NOT Visually AND impaired AND social AND development The development of social understanding in children with visual impairments. By: McAlpine, Linda M.; Moore, Chris L.. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Jul/Aug95 Part 1 of 2, Vol. 89 Issue 4, p349, 10p, 1 chart; Abstract: Reports on the performance of 16 visually impaired children, aged 4-12, on tasks designed to assess their understanding of false belief. Effect of degree of vision loss on the development of social understanding; False belief as a central aspect of social understanding; Theory of mind; Other issues in the development of social understanding in visually impaired children.; (AN 9509294209) When you find an important resource… • Begin making a list. • Check out the bibliography/references and see what other resources are listed there. 2A – Reading and Note Taking • Read the articles thoroughly. • Make notes on what they say. • Highlight, copy or note any passages that you may want to quote directly. • You know that you’re finished when: – You’ve read everything that you can find, and/or – Even with extensive, thorough research everything begins to say the same thing. 3 –Write Review • First, outline the review with major points and citations that you intend to use. • Write your first draft, and let it “cool.” 4 –Research Design • State your hypothesis. – Infants who have a visual impairment have a more difficult time bonding with their primary caregivers than do sighted infants. Population – – – – How much vision? How old? MIVI or VI only? Etc. • Children who are: – 36 months or under – 20/200 or 20 degrees or worse – Single disability Variables • What variables do you need to measure? – Bonding • Smiling to voice • Reaching for caregiver • Distress when removed from caregiver – Easy vs. difficult How will you measure these? • Survey data • Observation and inter rater reliability • Counting specific behaviors 5 – Data Collection 6 – Data Analysis • • • • What results did you get back? What did they mean? What assumptions can you draw? What did you learn? 7 – Write the Paper • Write the Introduction or Statement of the Problem • Re-read and edit the Review. • Write the Methodology section which includes – Population – Definition of Variables – Procedure • Present the data – – Use tables or charts wherever appropriate • Discuss what it means in terms of your original hypothesis. • References or bibliography section – EACH reference that’s used in the paper MUST be included in this section. – Any other significant reference should also be included.