Nixon tries to end the Cold War

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The Modern Era from Nixon to Obama
1. Understand the evolution of the American political system, its ideals, and institutions post-reconstruction.
a. Cite and analyze evidence that the United States Constitution is a ―living
document as reflected in Supreme Court cases, Amendments, and presidential
actions. (DOK 3)
b. Analyze the impact of presidential policies and Congressional actions on
domestic reform. (DOK 3)
c. Explain and analyze the expansion of federal powers (DOK3).
d. Analyze and evaluate the ongoing tensions between individual liberty and
national security. (DOK 3)
2. Understand major social problems and domestic issue policies in post-reconstruction American
society.
c. Compare and contrast various social policies such as welfare, health
insurance reform, penal codes; and explain how such social policies are
influenced by the persistence of poverty. (DOK 2)
3. Understand how the global position of the United States has evolved as a result of imperialism,
economics, technological advances and involvement in international affairs.
d. Analyze the origins of the Cold War between the United States and the
Soviet Union and their respective allies, including ideology, technology,
economics and geography. (DOK 3)
4. Understand how the Civil Rights Movement achieved social and political change in the United States
and the impact of the Civil Rights struggle for African-Americans and other groups (including but not
limited to feminists, Native Americans, Hispanics, immigrants and individuals with disabilities).
d. Evaluate the Civil Rights Movement in expanding democracy in United
States. (DOK 3)
f. Cite and analyze evidence in the political , economic, and social changes in
the United States that expanded democracy for other minority and
immigrant groups. (DOK 3)
5. Understand the continuing economic transformation of the United States involving the maturing of the
industrial economy, the expansion of big business, the changing demographics of the labor force unions
and industrial conflicts.
c. Identify and explain migration and immigration patterns that developed from
the push- pull effects of economic circumstances. (DOK 2)
7. Understand the cultural trends, religious ideologies, artistic expressions that contributed to the
historical development in the United States.
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a. Examine cultural artifacts to contextualize historical developments. (DOK 2)
b. Analyze and evaluate the impact of religion on various social movements,
domestic and foreign policies, and political debates. (DOK 3)
c. Evaluate the role that the mass media has played in shaping the perceptions
toward certain policies, social groups, and other nations, and political ideas.
(DOK 3)
d. Contrast modernism and traditionalism relating to social change. (DOK 2)
e. Cite and explain evidence of the diversity of the United States. (DOK 2)
2011 Mississippi Social Studies Framework
_________________________________________________________________________
The Presidents of the Modern Era
Richard Nixon
(Republican)
1969-1974
Gerald Ford
(Republican)
1974-1977
James (Jimmy) Carter
(Democrat)
1977-1981
Ronald Reagan
(Republican)
1981-1989
George H. W. Bush
(Republican)
1989-1993
William Jefferson Clinton (Democrat)
1993-2000
George W. Bush
(Republican)
2000-2008
Barrack Obama
(Democrat)
2008-present
________________________________________________________________________
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Key Terms for the Modern Era
Nixon tries to end the Cold War
Henry Kissinger was Nixon's top national security and international affairs advisor that shaped Nixon's foreign
policy. He was named Secretary of State in 1973. He helped bring an end to the Vietnam War. He helped to
open relations with China and shaped detente' (cooling off period) with the Soviet Union. Nixon and Henry
Kissinger embraced the realpolitik idea for foreign policy. Realpolitik is a German word meaning "real
politics." Realpolitik stated political goals should be defined by concrete matters of national interest
instead of abstract ideologies. Americans must put away their eyes of Cold War biases and look at the
World through a fresh glance. China and USSR, both Communist, could be great trading partners for the
USA. (Pragmatic policy)
Nixon reaches out to China and recognizes the Chinese republic as a nation regardless of their communist
ideologies. He believed it would benefit the USA. The economic standpoint improved relations with China and
brought about trade agreements that benefitted California and the Pacific Coast. Nixon visits China in Feb.
1972. He later visited the USSR. Nixon made historic visits to both communist countries. The following year
Americans started traveling to China.
Nixon travels to the USSR to meet with Leonid Brezhnev, USSR leader. At the summit, Nixon and Brezhnev
signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty otherwise known as SALT I. SALT i froze the deployment of
intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and placed limits on the antiballistic missiles (ABMs). The
importance of the SALT I agreement is that it reduced tension between the USA and USSR. A policy aimed at
ending Cold War tensions was called
Détente. Detente' had replaced previous diplomatic efforts based on suspicion and distrust. Nixon made his
mark on foreign/international relations and brought the Cold War closer to ending. Nixon was the global
president.
Women's Rights
A 2nd wave of feminism starts in 1970s. Feminism is a theory of political, social and economic equality for
women and men. The struggle for civil rights caused women to look at sways in which society judged and
discrimination against a group. There were many parallels between the treatment of African Americans and
women. Women started rejecting the "housewife" stereotype. Many women entered the workforce. Betty
Friedan wrote a book called The Feminine Mystique which powerfully articulated how many women were not
housewives in isolation but held jobs and careers. Freidan helped establish The National Organization for
Women (NOW) which defined itself in winning "true equality" for all women and "full and equal partnerships
between the sexes." NOW set out to break down barriers in the workplace and in educational settings. NOW
used the media to attack stereotypes of women and called for a balance in the roles of marriage. NOW
pushed for the Equal Rights Amendment or ERA to the USA Constitution to guarantee gender equality under
the law. The ERA would address reproductive rights, such as the right to an abortion. Gloria Steinem was a
feminist who tried to change the role of women solely through the use of media. Steinem worked as a
freelance write after college and did undercover work at a Playboy Club. She revealed that the glamorous
"Playboy Bunnies" job was not glamorous, but indeed humiliating for women. In 1972, she started MS
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Magazine for feminist work. The title meant to challenge that women did not have to be associated with
marriage but rather as individuals. Phyllis Schlafly denounced women's liberation. Schlafly stated that the
feminist were assaulting the institution of marriage, the family and on children. Because of her arguments, the
ERA fell short of passage as a constitutional amendment by only three states.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the feminist movement a needed tool. The CRA of 1964 included Title VII
which outlawed the use of discrimination based on an individual's sex. Because of Title VII of CRA of 1964 the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was started to enforce the federal prohibition of job
discrimination. Title IX of the Higher Education Act of 1972 banned discrimination in educational settings.
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974 made it illegal to deny credit to a women just because of their
gender. In 1950, 30% of the workforce was women. In 2000 60% of the workforce is women.
The Rights Revolution Expands
Mexican Americans, known as Chicanos, immigrated as job opportunities sprang up in the United States. In
1965, the US government passed the Immigration and Nationality Act which eliminated national quotas
causing immigration to surge. More than 400,000 Mexican Americans arrived in the USA during the 1960's,
another 630,000 in the 1970's and 1.5 million in the 1980's. Other Latino communities sprang up in Florida
when Cuba immigrants and Dominican Republic refugees came to the USA. These immigrants settled in
Miami, Florida and New York City. In the 1960's and 1970's, Latinos fought for their rights using the Civil
Rights Movement as their springboard. They demanded: (1) better working conditions, (2) improved
salaries and (3) educational opportunities. The most influential Latino activist was
Ceasar Chavez. Chavez fought for the rights of farm laborers who were exploited by the nation. The migrant
farm workers worked long hours, had no benefits and lived in deplorable situations. In 1962, Chavez started
the farm worker's union in California. In the late 1960's, he merged his union with the Filipino farm laborers
and it became known as the United Farm Workers union or (UFW). Chavez became the founder and father of
the Chicano Movement. This movement became associated with "brown power" because it wanted to
strengthen their cultural awareness in the USA and in schools, as well as in occupations.
Native Americans had a long history of discrimination in the USA. In 1961, the National Indian Youth Council
(NIYC) formed with the goal of preserving native fishing rights in the Northwest.
Over time this group expanded and pushed for civil rights for Native Americans. 1968, Chippewa activist
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell founded the American Indian Movement or AIM. AIM initially focused on
Native Americans who lived in urban ghettos. Later AIM started addressing all civil rights issues, particularly
securing land, legal rights and self-government for Native Americans. In late 1969, a group of American Indians
occupied the island of Alcatraz. Alcatraz was a federal prison near San Francisco Bay that had been closed in
1963. Members of the Sioux tribe stated that the island was granted to them under a treaty years before and
they wanted their unused land. 100 American Indians, representing 50 tribes joined the group. The Coast
Guard and federal authorities tried to evict these Indians but were unable. The Indians maintained control of
this island until mid-1971. Dennis Banks and Russell Means, (AIM) orchestrated the long march from San
Francisco to Washington, DC to the Indian Affairs building. They stated that Native Americans were treated as
foreigners. In 1970, Dee Brown published Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee which was a best-selling book
attracting public awareness to the historic mistreatment of Native Americans. In 1973, AIM took over the
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village at Wounded Knee and would not leave until the government agreed to investigate the conditions of
reservation Indians. The government passed the Indian Self Determination Act of 1975which granted the
tribes greater control over their resources and education on reservations.
Consumer Rights
Ralph Nader caused a consumer rights movement to emerge in the 1960's and 1970's. He was a lawyer who
started investigating flawed designs in cars based on the number of traffic accidents. He wrote Unsafe at Any
Speed in 1965 attacking automakers for their thirst for profits which led to production of unsafe vehicles. His
book outraged the public sector. Congress passed the National Safety and Motor Vehicle Safety Act in 1966
which made safety belts standard equipment in all cars. The Nixon administration started Occupational
Health and Safety Standards or OSHA which mandated workplace safety regulations.
The Environmental Focus
Toxic waste, such as coal, smog, acid rain, etc. became a focus in literature and eventually in our government.
The 1960's and 1970's were a period of scientific awareness of the damage of chemicals and pollutants within
our society. Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring from 1960's spurred this environmental movement. Carson
attacked the use of pesticides and chemicals that altered the environment. Her work eventually compelled
congress to prohibit the use of DDT. The growing environmental protested led to the start of Earth Day. On
April 22, 1970 20 million Americans took part in Earth Day, led by Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson. This
became a yearly event and attracted many civil rights leaders support leading to legislation. President Nixon
supported cleaning up the environment and urged Congress to pass aggressive legislation. Congress created
the Environmental Protection Agency or EPA to protect the entire "ecological chain." The EPA sought to limit
pollutants and to limit risk to Americans health...such as cancer. The Clean Air Act 1970 combated air
pollution created by factories or automobiles. The Clean Water Act 1973 sought to limit factory and industrial
pollution in water. The Endangered Species Act 1973 promoted the protection of endangered plants and
animals. President Gerald Ford followed Richard Nixon's environmental plans and created the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission to ensure nuclear materials were handled safely.
Environmental Setbacks occurred reinforcing public concerns. In 1978, a resident of the Love Canal in upstate
New York, hung a sign "Give me liberty. I've already got death." This sign referred to the community having
abnormally high birth defects and cancer. The news reporters and the EPA investigated and noted that
thousands of tons of toxic chemicals had been dumping into the ground for decades. The Love Canal
contamination prompted Congress to establish a SUPREFUND in 1980. Shortly after the Love Canal incident,
there was a meltdown at Three Mile Island in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. A reactor malfunctioned and the
system started melting. The governor declared a state of emergency and threatened to shut the plant down.
The plant managers contained the incident. President Jimmy Carter and his wife, personally went to inspect
that the factory was indeed managed the nuclear meltdown and that the community and environment was
safe. The 1970's caused a huge division in how American's felt the government should manage or not manage
the environment.
President Nixon Policies and the Watergate Scandal
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President Nixon focused on middle America or the Silent Majority. When Nixon started his presidency he
started expanding the governments role. He created new agencies such as OSHA and DEA (Drug Enforcement
Agency). He signed the Clean Air Act. Nixon struggled with a troublesome economy. His economist termed a
new word to address the weak economy....stagflation which describes a stagnant economy and inflationary
prices act.ing together. Stagflation was caused by the expansion of the federal budget due to the Vietnam
War, rising foreign competition for businesses, and the rapid increase in the price of oil.
During 1973, the Arab nations and Israel were at war. OPEC or Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries formed to regulate the price and the supply of oil. They also placed an embargo on the United
States creating a major issue since we imported 1/3rd of our energy.
This caused oil prices to skyrocket 400% and caused gas lines to be the norm due to the fear of a shortage.
Nixon responded by placing a 90 day freeze on all wages and prices.
Nixon sought to attract the southern vote. His southern strategy promoted him to oppose mandated student
busing to schools outside their neighborhoods to achieve a greater racial balance. He proposed a Philadelphia
plan promoting civil rights through affirmative action that required labor unions and federal contractors to
submit coals and timetables for hiring minorities.
The Watergate Scandal breaks down the Nixon administration. The Democratic Party National Headquarters
had an office building in Washington DC. This office building was burglarized by the “plumbers” who were
paid with funds to re-elect Nixon Campaign. The trial was televised and charged that the Nixon Administration
had been involved with the break-in and had taken part in a cover-up operation. Two Washington Post
journalist, Woodward and Bernstein investigated the break-in and were basically responsible for Nixon’s
resignation. Nixon proclaimed his innocence but due to evidence surfacing he resigned. He stated "I am not a
crook." The Senate Watergate Committee investigated and Nixon is indicted as a co-conspirator in March of
1974. July 1974 the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon must turn over all White House recordings (tapes) and
Nixon claims executive privilege. This simply meant that the President had the right to keep some information
confidential. The United States vs. Nixon tried the case and the Supreme Court disagreed with Nixon and
ordered him to turn over the tapes. The House Judiciary Committee recommends impeachment (to bring
about formal charges) proceedings. August 8, 1974, Nixon becomes the first US President to resign from the
office. The Watergate Scandal and alleged charges of a corruption scandal caused Vice President Spiro Agnew
to resign from office in 1973. According to the 25th Amendment which addresses presidential succession,
Nixon appointed Gerald Ford as his new Vice President of the USA. Watergate left a lasting impact on the USA.
Richard Nixon damaged the presidential reputation and caused the American people to doubt the
government. Watergate also demonstrated "no person is above the law." "Our great republic is a government
of laws and not of men." Numerous reforms were passed Post-Watergate to improve the role of the
government. They are (1) Federal Elections Campaign Acts Amendments 1974-- this set limits on campaign
contributions and created the Federal Election Commission to enforce laws;
(2) Freedom of Information Act Amendments 1974--which penalized government officials that withheld
documents illegally, (3) Government in the Sunshine Act 1976-which opened meetings of many government
agencies to the public. By 1977, all states had passed the Sunshine Laws. (4) Ethics in Government Act of
1978--required federal disclosure of financial information for public officials.
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THE FORD AND CARTER YEARS
Historian Peter Carroll published a history of the 1970's entitled It Seemed Like Nothing Happened. Even
though the decade seemed uneventful when compared to the 1960s...it was very eventful. The 1970s
witnessed significant social, economic and cultural changes. President Gerald Ford was the "unelected"
president. He stepped up in a delicate situation and became president after Richard Nixon resigned. One of
the first things Gerald Ford did was pardon Richard Nixon. To pardon is to drop criminal charges against
someone. Ford pardoned Nixon in an effort to heal the nation but instead his critics accused him of "having a
secret deal" with Nixon. When Ford pardoned Nixon he ruined his chance in the next election. In the next
election in 1976 a Washington outsider and southerner becomes President of the United States.....Jimmy
Carter from Georgia. Jimmy Carter was a Christian fundamentalist--meant he believed in a strict
interpretation of the Bible. Christian groups started increasing their influence in politics during the late 1970's.
Carter portrays himself as the "people's president." He went to local town meetings, carried his own suitcase
and dressed in casual clothes. Jimmy Carter one day after elected granted amnesty to people who had
avoided the draft and fled the county.
Bill Clinton-Barack Obama:
Development of the computer-this leads to a transformation in business, industry, science, and agriculture.
“Information age”- Computers, cell phones, e-mails, and instant messaging were tools that entrepreneurs
believed that control of these tools would make them wealthy and powerful.
Globalization-process by which national economies, politics, cultures and societies mix with those of other
nations around the world.
Service economy-an economic system focused on the buying and selling of services.
Family Medical Leave Act-law guaranteeing most full-time employees 12 workweeks of unpaid leave each
year for personal or family health reasons.
Health care reforms-Hillary Clinton is given the responsibility for crafting health care reform. Plan fails in
Congress.
Brady Bill-law passed in 1993 requiring a waiting period on sales of handguns, along with a criminal
background check on the buyer.
Oklahoma City bombing-April 1995, the worst act of domestic terrorism in American history. The victims
included a number of children in a day care center.
Contract with America-Republican plan headed by Newt Gingrich that focused on scaling back the
government, balancing the budget, and cutting taxes.
Impeachment-accusation against a public official of wrongdoing in office.
NAFTA-North American Free Trade Agreement-agreement signed in 1993 calling for the removal of trade
restrictions among Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
GATT-General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade-international agreement first signed in 1947 aimed at
lowering trade barriers.
WTO-World Trade Organization-international organization formed in 1995 to encourage the expansion of
world trade.
Ethnic cleansing-systematic effort to purge an area or society of an ethnic group through murder or
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deportation.
Al Qaeda-terrorist group established by Osama bin Laden to rid Muslin countries of Western influence.
CHIP- is designed to provide health care insurance for children in families without health insurance or with
inadequate health insurance. It does not replace Medicaid; in fact, children on Medicaid are
precluded from CHIP participation. CHIP is administered by the Mississippi Division of Medicaid.
This agency certifies applicants for participation in the program based on household income, the age
of each child and the insured status of each child.
GEORGE W. BUSH
Election of 2000-tight election-Supreme Court intervenes to stop recount-George W. Bush narrowly defeats
Al Gore.
No Child Left Behind-2002 law aimed at improving the performance of primary and secondary schools
particularly through mandated sanctions against schools not reaching federal performance
standards.
September 11, 2001-terrorist attacks on United States. Four airplanes crashed in an orchestrated attack
against the United States. Two airplanes crashed into the World Trade Center towers causing
them to collapse, killing more than 3,000 people. This attack was the first on American soil since
the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. The terrorist group Ad Qaeda claimed responsibility for the
attacks.
Taliban-Islamic fundamentalist faction that controlled most of Afghanistan from 1996-2001.
Department of Homeland Security-department created by President Bush to coordinate domestic security
efforts.
WMD-weapons of mass destruction-nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons intended to kill or harm on a
large scale.
Saddam Hussein-Leader of Iraq who President Bush mistakenly believed had weapons of mass destruction.
He was captured, tried and killed in his country.
Patriot Act-law passed following September 11, 2001, giving law enforcement broader powers in monitoring
possible terrorist activities.
Barack Obama
Election of 2008-Barack Obama is the first African-American to be elected to the Presidency of the U.S.
Changing demographics of America-reflection of changing society in the relaxing of immigration policies.
Immigration Act of 1990-law the increased the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S. per year.
Bilingual education-system in which students are taught in their native languages as well as in English.
Immigration and Control Act of 1986-legislation that granted resident status to illegal immigrants residing in
the United States since 1982 and penalized employers who hired illegal immigrants.
Affirmative action-policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past
discrimination.
Violence Against Women Act-law passed in 1994 that increased federal resources to apprehend and
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prosecute men guilty of violent acts against women.
The economy fell into a deep recession in 2008 and has continued to struggle since the beginning of
President Obama’s term.
Academic Vocabulary:
National Security
international affairs
biases
parallels
gender
amendment
pragmatic
stereotype
exploited
politics
articulate
contend
Activity 1. Analyzing Quotes and Documents
Quote 1
"Recognizing the responsibility of the advanced industrial nations
to set an example in combating mankind's common enemies, the
United States and the Soviet Union have agreed to cooperate in
efforts to reduce pollution and enhance environmental quality. We
have agreed to work together in the conquest on cancer and heart
disease.
Richard Nixon, Speech to Congress, June 1, 1972
1. What events/legislation is this speech referring to?
2. How can such legislation indeed prevent diseases?
Quote 2
"The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds
of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction......
Each suburban housewife struggled with it alone. As she made
beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate
peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub
Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at nights---she was
afraid to ask even herself the silent question---'is this all?'"
Betty Friedan--The Feminine Mystique 1963
Quote 3
"Feminism is doomed because it (attempts) to repeal and restructure
human nature. Women have babies and men provide the support.
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If you don't like the way we're made you've got to take it up
with God. "
Phyllis Schlafly
Quote 4
"Sex and race, because they are easily visible difference, have
been the primary ways of organizing human beings into
superior and inferior groups, and into cheap labor on which
the system still depends."
Gloria Steinem
You should read quotes 2-4 and compare/contrast their view.
1. What do you think each women would say about the role that biology plays in womens'
lives?
2. What is unusual/controversial about the women's individual views?
3. How might the views of the women be inspired and/or connected to the Civil Rights
Movement of the 1960's?
4. How have these views been infused into medical practices? the educational setting? the
roles of genders? culture?
A. medical practices:
B. educational practices:
C. gender roles:
d. Culture and family:
Quote 5
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"Generation after generation has fought to demoralize, to break our
human spirit. But God knows we are not beast of burden, agricultural
implements or rented slaves; we are men."
"Don't buy California grapes."
Cesar Chavez
1. What 1960's Civil Rights activist does this quote remind you of? Why?
2. How does Chevez connect to the foundations of the Civil Rights Movement?
3. What action is he advocating to get attention to the needs of migrant workers?
Quote 6
"There was one town in the heart of America where all life
seemed to live in harmony with its surroundings. .....then a strange
blight crept over the area and everything began to change. Mysterious
maladies swept across a crop of chickens; the cattle and sheep
sickened and dies....There was a strange stillness. The birds,
for example----where had they gone? On the mornings that had
once throbbed with the dawn chorus of robins, catbirds, doves, jays,
wrens and scores of other bird voices there was no sound; only
silence lay over the fields, woods and marsh......No witchcraft,
no enemy action had silenced the rebirth of new life in this
stricken world. The people had done it themselves."
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, 1962
1. What is Rachel Carson referring to in her quote?
2. Why is she blaming the American people for the loss?
3. What impact did this piece of literature have on our society?
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4. How do the effects of this book permeate our society today?
Quote 7
"I visited the canal area at the time. Corroding waste disposal
drums could be seen breaking up from the grounds of
backyards. Trees and gardens were turning black and dying...
Puddles of noxious substances were pointed out to me by the
residents. Some of the puddles were in their yards, some were
in their basements, others yet were on the school grounds.
Everywhere the air had a faint chocking smell. Children
returned from play with burns on their hands and faces."
Eckhardt Beck, EPA Journal 1979
5. Examine Quote 6 and explain how 5 and 6 are related.
6. What evidence and/or impact do you feel the Love Canal incident had upon the USA then and now?
Quote 7
“It is the economy, Stupid”
Used by Bill Clinton in 1992 presidential campaign against George Bush.
1. What fact is the Bill Clinton drawing attention to?
2. What effect did this have on the election?
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Quote 8
“We can't allow the world's worst leaders to blackmail, threaten, hold freedom-loving nations hostage
with the world's worst weapons.”
George W. Bush
1. What is President Bush referring to?
2. What is a direct effect of this quote?
3. What impact will this have on U.S. history both domestically and internationally?
Quote 9
“Americans... still believe in an America where anything's possible - they just don't think their leaders do.
“
Barack Obama
1. What is the future president referring to?
2. What is significant about this quote?
3. How will this impact American history?
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Activity 2. Define the words listed below and cite evidence of how each supports the Constitution as a “living”
document. How did these amendments change the Constitution?
KEY TERM PRACTICE
Cite the issue that caused
Provide evidence of changes/how this
this case to be taken to the
protected the rights of individuals.
Supreme Court.
Abington vs. Schempp
Engle vs. Vitale 1962
Miranda vs. Arizona 1966
Escobedo vs. Illinois 1964
Gideon vs. Wainwright
1963
Mapp vs. Ohio 1961
Reynolds vs. Sims 1964
Baker vs. Carr 1962
Activity 3. Compare and contrast John F. Kennedy's New Frontier and/or legislation to Lyndon B. Johnson's
Great Society and evaluate their impact on culture.
Kennedy's New
Johnson's Great
Frontier
Society/War on Poverty
Peace Corps
Economic Opportunity
Act
Alliance for Progress
Medicaid
Equal Pay Act
Medicare
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Impact on culture
Space Race
Immigration and
Nationality Act 1965
Civil Rights
Water Quality Act 1965
Evaluate Kennedy's New Deal and Johnson's Great Society to identify which President had the greatest
impact on the United States. Use a minimum of three examples to justify your selection.
ACTIVITY 4. Examine the figures below and answer the questions that follow.
FIGURE 1
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FIGURE2
1. What does Figure 1 and 2 represent?
2. What is the significance of each event?
3. How are these events interconnected?
4. What other events, legislation, etc. can be connected to the figures?
Figure 3
In 1963, Maurice Sendak published Where
the Wild Things Are, about a boy named
Max who must face some of his childhood
fears. This controversial book with its
illustrations, also by Sendak, won the
Caldecott Medal in 1964 and has become
a classic in children's literature.
FIGURE 4
Books that define the time:

The Silent Spring - Rachel Carson

The Games People Play -Eric Berne

Valley of the Dolls - Jacqueline Susann

In Cold Blood - Truman Capote

The Feminine Mystique - Betty Friedan

Unsafe at any Speed - Ralph Nader

Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test - Tom Wolfe
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1. What does Figure 3and 4 represent?
2. What is the significance of each event?
3. How are these events interconnected?
4. What other events, legislation, etc. can be connected to the figures?
FIGURE 5
Figure 6
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Figure 7
Presidential Vice Presidential Political
Candidate Candidate
Party
Popular Vote
Electoral Vote
John Kennedy
Lyndon
Johnson
Democratic 34,220,984
49.72%
303 56.4%
Richard Nixon
Henry Lodge
Republican 34,108,157
49.55%
219 40.8%
Unpledged
Electors
-
Democratic
286,359
0.42%
15 2.8%
Other (+)
-
-
216,982
0.32%
0
0.0
1. What does Figure 5, 6 and 7 represent?
2. What is the significance of each event?
3. How are these events interconnected?
4. What other events, legislation, etc. can be connected to the figures?
In early April 1968, shock waves reverberated around the world with the news that U.S. civil rights leader
Martin Luther King Jr. had been assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. A Baptist minister and founder of
the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), King had led the civil rights movement since the
mid-1950s, using a combination of powerful words and non-violent tactics such as sit-ins, boycotts and
protest marches (including the massive March on Washington in 1963) to fight segregation and achieve
significant civil and voting rights advances for African Americans. His assassination led to an outpouring
of anger among black Americans, as well as a period of national mourning that helped speed the way for
an equal housing bill that would be the last significant legislative achievement of the civil rights era.
Figure 8 A Bullet Can't Kill a dream!
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Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
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1. What does Figure 8, 9, 10 and 11 represent?
2. What is the significance of each event?
3. How are these events interconnected?
4. What other events, legislation, etc. can be connected to the figures?
Image 12
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Image 13
D esire for non-violence;
O pposition to military action;
V oice in the wilderness;
E yes set on peace.
H orror of community control;
A nswered the call of duty;
W ar is the answer;
K nights of democracy.
Image 14
1. What does Figure 12, 13 and 14 represent?
2. What is the significance of each event?
3. How are these events interconnected?
4. What other events, legislation, etc. can be connected to the figures?
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Activity 5:
Term
Watergate
OPEC
Ayatollah Khomeini
AIDS
Iran Contra Hearings
Strategic Defense Initiative
glasnost
apartheid
Operation Desert Storm
Brady Bill
NAFTA
WTO
CHIP
Department of Homeland
Security
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Definition
Impact
Patriot Act
Figure 15
What we saw as a major cause of the 1970s oil crisis was the fact that oil prices
were quadrupled by OPEC. This, along with the increased government spending
which came with the Vietnam War, led to severe stagflation in the United States.
This “oil shock”, along with the accompanying stock market crash, was
considered by many to be the first events to have a persistent affect on the
United States. Gas shortages ensued. Lines for gas sometimes measured in
miles.
1. According to the paragraph and the photograph what happened to the U.S. economy in the 70’s?
2. Why was this significant?
3. What impact did this have on American Culture and our economy?
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Figure 16
On November 4, 1979, an angry mob of young Islamic revolutionaries overran the
U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 Americans hostage. "From the
moment the hostages were seized until they were released minutes after Ronald
Reagan took the oath of office as president 444 days later," wrote historian
Gaddis Smith, "the crisis absorbed more concentrated effort by American officials
and had more extensive coverage on television and in the press than any other
event since World War II."
1. What is the heading for the New York Times?
2. Using the paper and the paragraph, what forgien policy nightmare had been
adverted?
3. What was the impact of these events to Americans?
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Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
1. According to figure 17, what do each of the colors represent?
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2. How do the distribution gains differ from 1946-1976, 1976-2006?
3. What class is the largest? What impact will this have on the economy?
4. Using figure 18& 19, What was STAR Wars?
5. How would it and Reagonomics effest the economy?
Figure 20
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Figure 21
1. The war pictured above was fought in the middle East where and for what
reason?
2. The first image shows direction of….? The second image shows oil riggs being
set on fire. What was the purpose of this and who would have set them on fire?
3. Why was this significant to the U.S. economy? Why was it also imporatn to
the enonomy of this region?
4. What impact did this war have on U.S. Forgeign Policy? Were there mistakes
made that we will have to deal with at a later date?
Figure 22
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1. Analyzing the cartoon, what will happen to the American worker if NAFTA and
GATT become law?
2. What is the general thought among those in the boat?
3. What is the impact of NAFTA and GATT on today’s society?
Figure 23
1. What event do the images above picture?
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Figure 24
2. How was this event significant?
3. What imapct did this event have on the U.S. ? (economically and foreign policy)
Figure 25
1. Today more than ever we are living in the midst of a instant society. A society
that can and does instantaniously send messages, video and pictures. How is
this changing how we communicate?
2. Name two instances that histroy has been recorded that was significant?
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3. In places all around the globe this year social media was used to rally people
to a cause name three?
4. A common thread through out this year has been studing movement s in
history, and deciding who of which would have been tradionalists and who would
have been modernists. In the modern era, name three groups of people that are m
modernists and three groups of people that are traditionists.
Figure 26
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Figure 27
1. What is the issue in figure 26&27?
2. Why is this issue important to national security?
3. Why is this issue at the core of American society?
4. What impact (good and bad) does immigration have on the history of America?
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