Scaffolding activities - Secondary Literacy Coaches Wiki

Scaffolding Strategies
Scaffolding: Supporting readers as they read, first by modeling, then by
prompting as they complete the task, then letting them complete the task on
their own.
Alternate Writing: Alternate writing is the composition of a story among a
group of students and a teacher. Writing for a specified amount of time,
each person alternately continues the development of a cohesive story line.
Each person’s contribution to the story line must build upon prior
information in the composition and must lead to the next event.
Chunking: Chunking is a technique to encourage the student to read phrases
of language that represent meaning rather than separate words. It focuses
on reading phrases of text that represent a thought. Chunking facilitates
comprehension and fluency by using thought units rather than word-by-word
Cloze Instruction: The instructional cloze is a technique that develops
comprehension by deleting target words from a text. It encourages the
student to think about what word would make sense in the sentence and in
the context of the entire story.
Collaborative Reading: In this technique, the challenge of unfamiliar
selections is supported by reading together and sharing interpretations as
with young children in shared reading. The teacher begins reading the story
aloud and then invites the student to follow. They discuss what the story
could be about as they read the story to develop an understanding of the
story while reading together. Using his understanding of the story, the
student reads the new selection on his own with only minimal support from
the teacher.
Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction: Concept-oriented reading
instruction (CORD) is designed to improve students’ learning in content
areas. It shows them how to connect new knowledge to what is already
known and how to demonstrate their learning in fascinating ways.
Contextual Processing: A technique used to develop new word meanings as
they are found in the context of a selected story. This technique shows the
student how to use context to figure out what new vocabulary words mean.
Directed Reading Activity: (DRA) an instructional format for teaching
reading in which the teacher assumes the major instructional role. The
teacher develops background knowledge, introduces new words, and gives the
students a purpose for reading. Then she directs the discussion with
questions to develop reading comprehension. Finally, she reinforces and
extends the skills and knowledge developed in the story.
Directed Reading-Think Activity: (DRTA) an instructional format for
teaching reading that includes predicting what the author will say, reading to
confirm or revise those predictions and elaborating responses. Teachers and
students discuss both strategies and responses.
Experience-Text-Relationship: (ETR) a specifically designed to use
children’s experiences to teach new concepts and new words in the story. In
this technique, the teacher spends time showing students the relationships
between what they know and what they are reading, both before and after
reading the story. It is specifically designed for use with multicultural
Explicit Teaching: this is a lesson framework that directly instructs a
student in the strategies and skills of reading. The lesson framework is
based on making the task relevant to the student and directly teaching the
task through examples and modeling. The teacher systematically plans
activities to increase independent application of the strategy or skill.
Feature Analysis Grid: a technique to develop word meanings by graphing
the major characteristics of target words. Key words are compared as to
how they are alike and how they are different.
Generative-Reciprocal Inference Procedure: (GRIP) an instructional
procedure for teaching children how to make inferences in both reading and
writing. It involves reading and writing short paragraphs that require
making an inference. After the teacher models the inferencing procedure,
students, in pairs, write and exchange paragraphs that require an inference.
Graphic Organizers: a technique is designed to provide a visual
representation of the main concepts in content-area readings. By
conceptually arranging the key words in a chapter, the teacher and students
develop an idea framework for relating unfamiliar vocabulary words and
Group Investigation Approach: this technique uses cooperative groups to
plan and execute extended projects. By focusing their questions,
investigations, and responses within the project group, the students use
their interests to focus their learning and assist one another in learning the
content information.
Guided Reading: a technique used to develop reading abilities by having
children read “just right” trade books that provide a slight challenge as the
teacher provides a model for how to read the particular book. With the
teacher model and guidance, the student assumes more independent reading
Herringbone Technique: this develops comprehension of the main idea by
plotting the who, what, when, where, how, and why questions on a visual
diagram of a fish skeleton. Using the answers to the wh questions, the
student writes the main idea across the backbone of the fish diagram.
Imagery Instruction: this uses sensory images related to the story line to
increase active comprehension and activate background knowledge about (a)
situations and characters in a story or (b) key concepts in expository text.
Implicit Teaching: this is a nondirective approach to instruction in which the
teacher creates an instructional environment that stimulates thinking about
specific reading tasks. The teacher participates only as a cognitive inquirer,
asking the student, “How did you know that?” The student makes
generalizations because he is immersed in a literate environment.
Impress Method: uses unison oral reading between the teacher and the
student. The teacher and student sit side by side, with the teacher reading
out loud slightly louder and ahead of the student, modeling fluent and
expressive oral reading.
Journal Writing: a written response from students of their understanding
and exploration of ideas related to reading or a particular unit of study. In
notebooks, students write about their reactions to new information, asks
questions, elaborate new understandings, and so on. The teacher responds
to these ideas with questions, comments, and personal reactions. Through
multiple journal entries, the students and the teacher carry on a written
K-W-L: a technique used to direct students ’reading and learning of
content-area text. Before the text is read, students write what they
already know about the topic, as well as questions that they would like to
explore. After the text is read, students write what they learned about the
Listening-Thinking Activity: (LTA) an instructional format for developing
predictive listening and comprehension. It involves predicting what will
happen, talking about what happened, and talking about how you know what is
happening. As the teacher reads aloud, she communicates the message by
adding intonation and gestures to facilitate understanding.
Literature Circles: used to develop personal responses to literature by
having students share their interpretations in a discussion group. By talking
about the literature, students integrate the author’s ideas and concepts
with their own.
Making and Writing Words: helps readers think about and make words using
letters and letter patterns. In this procedure children think about the
sound in easy and hard words that are either pronounced by the teacher or
match hints provided by the teacher. N this way this procedure works on
spelling, decoding, and vocabulary knowledge.
Motor Imaging: This technique is specifically designed to develop word
meanings by using images of movements related to the key attributes of a
word. This technique ties together actions, images, and words.
Opinion-Proof Approach: The opinion proof approach is a technique designed
to engage students in higher level thinking skills by asking them to write
opinions and supporting evidence about a selection. This technique
emphasizes evaluative thinking, verification, and persuasive argument.
Paired Reading: a technique that uses joint reading aloud between two
individuals. They sit together and read a story aloud simultaneously. One
individual (another adult or child) serves as a model of fluent reading.
Prediction Logs: these are written accounts of students’ active reading. At
designated points, the students write a prediction and a reason for their
prediction. As they read and write, they evaluate new information in relation
to their previous predictions. The written record of their previous thoughts
allows the students to analyze how they construct meaning.
Prediction Maps: uses a conceptual flowchart to visually map the
comprehension process of prediction and revision. In using the map, teacher
questioning focuses on what the reader is understanding about the text and
the sources of information he is using. The teacher suggests that he can
revise or expand his prediction according to what he has read and what he
already knows.
Question-Answer Relationships: (QAR) a technique that is used to identify
the type of response necessary to answer a question. Questions are the
most prevalent means of evaluating reading comprehension; therefore,
knowledge about sources of information required to answer questions
facilitates comprehension and increases a student’s ability to participate in
teacher-directed discussion and answer questions in textbook exercises.
Question-Generation Strategy: writing postreading questions uses studentgenerated questions to develop an understanding of the important
information in the text. By deciding what to ask in their questions, students
think about what is important in the text.
Reciprocal Teaching: a technique to develop comprehension of expository
text by modeling and practicing how to understand the text. The teacher
and students take turns leading a discussion. The teacher provides the initial
model by thinking aloud about how she constructs a summary, makes up
questions, clarifies what is difficult, and predicts what else the text will
ReQuest: (reciprocal questioning) a technique which develops comprehension
by having the teacher and the student take turns asking and answering
questions. At turning points in the text, the teacher models effective
question-asking strategies. The student, in turn, asks appropriate questions
by following the model. The goal is to develop self-questioning strategies
for the student.
Say Something: a technique to develop personal response to literature by
having students take turns saying something at intervals during the reading
of the story.
Sentence Combining: a technique designed to help students write and
understand complex sentences. The student is shown how to combine short
sentences to make increasingly more complex sentences.
SQ3R: a procedure for studying content area text that includes the five
steps of survey, question, read, recite, and review. It is designed as a
procedure for students to use to monitor their comprehension and learning
as they read and study expository text.
Story Drama: a method for developing reading comprehension by using the
natural dramatic abilities of students. The students think about how a story
will end by role-playing scenes from a story that they have read up to a
certain point. By taking the roles of the various characters, the students
use their knowledge of similar experiences, their affective responses to the
characters, and key information to act out their interpretation of the story.
Story Mapping: a visual representation of the logical sequence of events in a
narrative text. The elements of setting, problem, goal, events, and
resolution are recorded visually on a sheet of paper.
Story Writing Approach: an instructional format for teaching narrative
writing that includes three stages: prewriting, writing, and evaluating. By
writing their own stories, students increase their awareness of story parts.
Strategy Instruction: an instructional format designed to teach procedures
related to print and meaning processing. In such lessons, teachers model
their own thinking related to an unfamiliar task, and then ask students to
think out loud about how they are completing the task. This instruction is
followed by coaching students to ensure self-regulated learning.
Summarization: technique that teaches the student how to write summaries
of what he reads. He is shown how to delete unimportant information, group
similar ideas, decide on or invent topic sentences, and list supporting details.
These procedures culminate in a short paragraph that reflects the most
important information.
Sustained Silent Reading: (SSR) this is the designation of an uninterrupted
time period where both the students and the teacher read self-selected
reading materials for their own purposes. The teacher models her own
engagement during reading. In turn, the students begin to define their
interests and read for their engagement in literacy.
Thematic Experience Approach: a technique to develop an in-depth
knowledge of a particular topic through integrating reading and writing
Think-Aloud Approach: uses the student’s thinking to develop active
reading. By following the sequence of self-directed questions, the student
learns to monitor his understanding as he read.
Triple Read Outline: this is the rereading of expository text to develop an
organizational framework of main ideas and supporting details. By reading
the information three times, the student focuses on different purposes for
organizing information during each reading.
Visualization: an approach for improving word meaning by suggesting to
children that they form mental images of words, relating descriptors with
the new word.
Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy: (VSS) a technique for developing
word meanings by having small groups of students select words they would
like to study and tell why they are important to a topic of study.
Webbing: this technique develops word meanings by visually mapping the
relationships among words. The target concept is placed in the center of
the web. Related concepts are arranged around this concept to show
relationships between what the student already knows and the new concept.
If you are interested in one of these strategies, let me know and I will give
you a complete explanation on what type of text is best and the procedure.
Elizabeth Allen
Reading Specialist/IRT
W. Cary Middle School
[email protected]