Introduction to the Cell Cycle: DNA and Cell Division Quiz Date

Introduction to the Cell Cycle: DNA and Cell Division
Study Guide:
Quiz Date: 12/4
Know the definitions of the following terms.
1. cell division: the process during which an entire cell divides to form two exact copies
2. mitosis: the part of cell division during which the nucleus divides into two identical
3. Phases in cell division (Mitosis includes phases b-e.):
a. interphase: the cell is carrying on life’s activities (growth, repair, etc.) Stands of
chromatin and centrioles replicate
b. prophase: chromatin strands condense, centrioles move to the poles, spindles
begin to form, the nuclear membrane disintegrates
c. metaphase: chromosome pairs called sister chromatids, attached by centromeres,
line up in the middle of the cell
d. anaphase: sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
e. telophase: nuclear membranes reform around sets of chromosomes at ends of the
cell, chromosomes loosen to become chromatin again, the cell begins to pinch in
f. cytokinesis: two new daughter cells are formed
4. cell cycle: the regular cycle of growth and division of a cell during its lifetime. The
cell cycle consists of the following stages: Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis.
5. DNA and its structure: DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid is a large molecule formed in
the shape of a double helix – a twisted ladder. The sides of the ladder are made up of
sugar and phosphate molecules. The rungs are made up of pairs of nitrogen bases:
Adenine and Thymine and Cytosine and Guanine (AT,CG).
6. replication: the process by which a molecule of DNA makes an exact copy of itself
7. centrioles: barrel-shaped organelles that are found in pairs near the nucleus of a cell
8. chromatin: loose, thread-like strands of DNA
9. centromeres: button-like structures that hold chromatids together
10. chromosomes: rod-like structures of DNA
11. chromatids: short, tightly coiled pairs of attached chromosomes
12. spindle fibers: mesh-like structures that create pathways for transporting
13. cancer: a group of diseases characterized by abnormally dividing cells
14. cancer treatments: surgery (cutting out cancerous tumors), chemotherapy (using
strong chemicals to kill or shrink cancerous tumors), radiation (using high energy
waves to shrink or kill cancerous tumors)
In addition to the vocabulary, you should know or be able to . . .
A. recognize the phases of cell division (Diagrams can be found on the flash cards.)
B. match up complementary nitrogen bases (A – T; C – G)
C. distinguish between mitosis and cell division and the cell cycle
Use the following as study guides:
 Homework questions from p. 68 and 73
 Worksheets on DNA replication, cell division diagrams, and crossword puzzle
 Class activity “labs”
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