Chapter 9 Class Notes / Intelligence

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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 9
Intelligence
Intelligence: The cognitive ability to reason well, to learn from experience, and to successfully cope with
the challenges of daily life. Intelligence more specifically involves the ability to:
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process information quickly
learn quickly and with ease
use sequential logic
solve a variety of types of problems with ease
communicate well with other
understand and use abstract thinking
perform convergent and divergent thinking
Theories of Intelligence:
The Traditional View:
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Verbal Skills
Mathematical Skills
Visual Spatial Skills
General Problem Solving Skills
Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory:
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Componential (Analytical) Intelligence
Experiential (Creative) Intelligence
Contextual (Practical) Intelligence
Howard Gardner's Multifactor Theory:
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Linguistic (Verbal) Intelligence
Mathematical Intelligence
Spatial Intelligence
Kinesthetic Intelligence
Musical Intelligence
Naturalist Intelligence
Intrapersonal Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
History of Intelligence Testing
Sir Francis Galton
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First psychologist to study intelligence
Believed intelligence was mostly genetic
Attempted to measure it with a test but was unsuccessful
Alfred Binet
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Constructed the first fairly reliable and valid IQ test
Utilized the formula MA / CA X 100 = IQ
Lewis Terman
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Brought Binet's test to America, translated and improved it
Created the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale
David Wechsler
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Constructed the first intelligence test just for adults
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)
Also constructed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the WPPSI
Factors Affecting Intelligence Test Scores
Heredity:
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Genetic influences
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Twin and adoption studies
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Heredity seem to set the range of possibilities for IQ
Developmental Environment:
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Parents, siblings, educational opportunities
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Overall cognitive stimulation received early on
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Developmental environment seems to shape what is given by heredity
Reliability and Validity of the Test:
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Reliability: The consistency of the test. the ability of a test to produce similar results over time and when
used by different test administrators
Validity: the ability of a test to actually and accurately measure what it claims to be measuring
Cultural, Ethnic and Racial Factors:
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Score differences based on race or ethnicity
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Cultural bias of tests
Summary Points
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There is no one set definition for intelligence
All tests measure a different ability
Tests are human constructions and not perfect
IQ test scores may or may not be an indicator of success in life
Test scores tend to vary over the first 10 or so years of life
Variance in scores may be from test validity or reliability, or cultural bias
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