Economics 3333 - Theories of Economic

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Economics 3333 - Theories of Economic Development
Fall 2008
Time:
Location:
Instructor:
Office Hours:
Tuesdays and Thursdays 17h35 – 18h55.
Mc Cain – Arts and Social Sciences, room 1116.
Mathieu Dufour
You can always drop by or make an appointment, but you can be reasonably sure
to catch me on Tue – Thu, 15h00 – 17h00, and Wed, 12h00 – 14h00.
Office Location: Economics Department, C-11.
Phone Number: (902) 494-8011.
E-mail Address: [email protected]
1. Description and Objectives
This is a course on theory.
Not that a large part of the field of development economics is not rooted in practice, which is indeed
the case, but the theory underlying that practice is itself vast and far-reaching. More importantly, a
good understanding of theory is very important if practice, be it policy design or direct intervention,
is to be reflected upon and ameliorated through critical analysis.
So we’ll focus on theory, then, but it won’t lighten our load much. In fact, each of the topics we shall
take on could easily be taught for a whole course rather than during the few weeks we will devote to
it... and we’ll not even touch on a great number of others which would be more than worthy of being
studied as well.
Consequently, the intent of the course is not to review all that should be known about the theory of
economic development. Rather we shall pursue three more modest objectives:
(1) Get a broad picture of the state of thought on various issues by studying different theories put
forward to analyse them. When possible, we’ll try to grapple with the classics, so you can both
understand the references made to them in the development literature and see where most of the
current research on those topics is coming from.
(2) Confront various theories, understand their appeal and limitation, and debate their validity and
pertinence.
(3) Most importantly of all, acquire a capacity to assess critically any point of view on issues
pertaining to economic development.
In short, if you can think critically and informatively about economic development at the end of this
course, I’ll be happy.
2. Prerequisites
The two prerequisites for this course are ECON 2200 and 2201. If you have not taken these courses,
but still want to take ECON 3333, you need to make an appointment with me to discuss the issue.
3. Format of the Course and Workload
The course will consist mostly of lectures. As one of the main objectives of the course is to hone
your ability to think critically about issues pertaining to economic development, however, I will try to
foster debates and discussions in a seminar-like atmosphere. For each of the themes we will study, I
will bring forward various perspectives and submit them to your judgement.
For this to work well, you will need to have generally done the required readings before the course. I
will assign the equivalent of about 100-125 pages to read per week, sometimes a bit less if the
readings are more difficult. Along with the readings, you will have to write short weekly critical essays
on questions relating to those readings. Each essay should span around 3-5 pages and you will not be
expected to go beyond what is contained in your [set of readings and the class notes. As the point of
these essays is to foster discussion, they will be due in class on the Tuesday of the relevant week
(questions will be posted at least a week in advance). The best 6 essays will count towards your
grades, which means that out of the 11 weeks of the semester (not counting the first one), you may
miss 5.
In addition to this, I will give you two assignments during the semester, one near midpoint, one near
the end. You will have a couple of weeks (normally 2) to do them. They are due in my mailbox at
16h00, on the due date we will have decided. Each of these assignments may be replaced by a critical
review (see below for a descrption).
Furthermore, the course will not be heavy on math. We will review various mathematical models as
we go along, when issues at hand warrant their use or have been analysed with the help of such
models, but I will not ask you to be able to derive them anew. The tools you will have learned in
ECON 2200 and 2201 should be more than sufficient to allow you to follow the discussion.
Finally, I plan to organise 4 or 5 movie nights throughout the semesters. Movies shown would be
documentaries pertaining to issues of development. Attendance to these events would be entirely
optional and would not affect your grade in any way. Their sole purpose would be to vary the media
we use to study development issues... and, well, to entertain ourselves too, of course. I have not
determined either the time or the movies yet. We will discuss possible times when the roster is
settled. As for choosing movies, we’ll propose different titles in class and vote over them.
4. Evaluation
a) Best 6 weekly critical essays (30%) (due on the relevant Tuesday);
b) Two assignments or critical reviews (30 %);
c) A choice of a final paper, written debate, or a take-home final examination (40 %) (paper due on the
last day of classes).
If you don’t think you can meet a deadline, you have to discuss it with me at least two days in
advance, barring any major late minute problems. Otherwise, a penalty may be applied.
Critical reviews:
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The assignment is to review critically an article from a referred academic journal, a chapter from a
book that stands on its own (e.g. a chapter from an edited collection of articles), or a documentary.
The main objective is to analyse the argument(s) of the piece of research reviewed and assess its
[their] validity and pertinence. Accordingly, for an article, the review should both contain a summary
of the paper – the intent, the methodology, the arguments, the findings, the conclusions – as well as
your evaluation of the validity and the importance of the conclusions. For a documentary, the
objective is the same, so it should both be summarised and critically assessed, but the form can be a
little less formal. All in all, the reviews should be 5 to 10 pages long, though no penalty will be given
if it lies outside those bounds.
You can pick articles and book chapters from the reading list, if you want, as long as they are not
required readings. Similarly, you may also review one of the documentaries that will be shown during
“movie nights” (see above). If you want to review another documentary, you should first clear it with
me.
The first critical review will be due at the end of the fifth week of classes, the second one at the end
of the tenth week of classes (specific dates to be discussed in class). If you review an article or a book
chapter, you should submit a copy of it along with the review. If you review a documentary which
was shown on “movie night”, you do not need to submit a copy of the documentary. Otherwise, the
documentary will need to be readily available for me to watch it.
Take-Home Final Exam:
As a general rule, the exam will cover anything we have discussed up to the moment when it is
handed out. Most questions will revolve around what we discuss in class, though some might be
related to the mandatory readings. There will always a choice of questions, though I may require you
to answer questions from different themes amongst those we will have explored in class. Needless to
say, the answers you provide should be your own. Finally, you will have five days to write the exam
(exam handed out on Thursday, collected on Tuesday).
The final take-home exam can be replaced by a...
Final Paper:
The paper can be about anything you want to explore in relation to development. This should be an
original piece of research, though you can also do a critical literature review. The latter could be
interesting as a way to set up the research you would like to do either for an honours thesis or at a
graduate level. If you choose this option, you need to submit me a short statement of purpose,
stating your topic and at least five references, by the end of October. The final paper will be due on
the last day of classes.
or a...
Written Debate
A written debate with one of your colleagues on a development issue. The format is fungible, but I
am thinking of three rounds: A first statement of each position, followed by a refutation of your
opponent’s position, and finally a restatement of your position in response to the criticisms brought
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forward. If you choose to go this route, I would like to know by Thanksgiving, so we can talk about
the issue you want to address and set a timetable for the different stages. We will decide on the
schedule together, but you’ll have to stick to it afterwards so that each of you has enough time for
elaborating your responses. I will grade the final product, though I’ll be monitoring the process as it
goes along.
5. Grading
The grading scale will be the following (grades rounded to the nearest whole number):
A+
B
C-
100-90 %
74-70 %
54-50 %
A
BD
89-85 %
69-65 %
49-45 %
AC+
F
84-80 %
B+
64-60 %
C
Less than 45%.
79-75 %
59-55 %
6. Disability Policy
Students with permanent or temporary disabilities who would like to discuss classroom or exam
accommodations should come and see me as soon as possible. You can meet me after class or
privately during office hours. For your information, the phone number for Student Accessibility
Services is 494-2836, if you want to call and register.
7. Textbook
The following textbook, hereafter referred to as CD, has been ordered through the University:
The Process of Economic Development 2nd edition by James M. Cypher and James L. Dietz (2004), New
York: Routledge.
While I will rely in large part on articles throughout the course, this textbook does talk about many
of the themes we will be discussing. It is also a good general reference for the field. I therefore
recommend its acquisition.
*** Please note that this book is different from the one I used last year, which was:
Development Economics by Debraj Ray, Princeton University Press. (DR in the syllabus)
The latter is also a good reference for some of the topics we will cover, and I’ll put a copy on reserve
at the library, but I would not particularly recommend its purchase.
In addition to the textbook, various readings will be assigned. A copy (or two) of all the readings
assigned will be available on reserve at the library.
8. Tentative Plan
Of the readings listed below, only the starred items are required readings. The other ones are there to
help you out with the papers you have to write, or simply to give you some ideas of directions in
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which you might want to explore, should you be interested in pursuing further some of the topics we
discuss in class.
a. PROLOGUE - What are we doing and why are we doing it? (1 ½ weeks)
i. What Most Economists Would Say
CD chap 1. – This reading is not mandatory, but it is a good introduction.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. (1998). “More Instruments and Broader Goals: Moving toward the PostWashington Consensus”, WIDER Annual Lecture.
Sen, Amartya K. (1988). “The Concept of Development” in H. Chenery and T. N. Srinivasan (eds.),
Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 1, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 9-26.
ii. Three Preliminary Caveats
1. The Idea of Progress
(*) Shanin, Theodor (1997). “The Idea of Progress”, in Rahnema, Majid and Victoria Bawtree
(eds.), The Post-Development Reader, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, Chapter 6.
(*) Wallerstein, Immanuel (1996) et al. Open the Social Sciences: Report of the Gulbenkian
Commission on the Restructuring of the Social Sciences, Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 160.
Trouillot, Michel-Rolph (2002). “The Otherwise Modern: Caribbean Lessons from the Savage
Slot”, in Knauft, Bruce (ed.), Critically Modern: Alternatives, Alterities, Anthropologies,
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 220-237.
Polanyi Karl (1944 [1957]). The Great Transformation, Boston: Beacon Press.
Weber, Max (1930). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, London: George Allen and
Unwin ltd. (Esp. the author’s introduction)
Rist, Gilbert (2002). The History of Development : From Western Origins to Global Faith, New
York: Zed Books. (esp. the last chapter)
2. A Variety of Outlooks on Life
*** Read one of the following two articles; the first is a shorter version of the second. ***
(*) Henrich, Joseph, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert
Gintis, and Richard Mc Elreath (2001). “In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral
Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies”, American Economic Review, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 73-78.
(*) Henrich, Joseph, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert
Gintis, Richard Mc Elreath, Michael Alvard, Abigail Barr, Jean Ensminger, Kim Hill,
5
Fransisco Gill-White, Michael Gurven, Frank Marlowe, John Q. Patton, Natalie Smith, and
David Tracer (2001). “Economic Man in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in
Fifteen Small-Scale Societies”, Santa Fe Institute Working Paper No. 01-11-063.
(*) Sahlins, Marshall (1972 [1986]). “The Original Affluent Society”, Development: Seeds of Change,
Vol. 3, reprinted in Majid Rahnema and Victoria Bawtree (eds.) (1997), The Post-Development
Reader, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, Chapter 1.
Zaoual, Hassan (1994). “The Economy and Symbolic Sites of Africa”, Interculture, winter, reprinted
in Majid Rahnema and Victoria Bawtree (eds.) (1997), The Post-Development Reader, Halifax:
Fernwood Publishing, Chapter 3.
3. Averting Euro-Centrism
(*) Abu-Lughod, Janet Lippman (1993). “The World-System in the Twentieth Century: Dead-End
or Precursor?”, in Adas, Michael (ed.) Islamic and European Expansion – The Forging of a Global
Order, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 75-102.
Said, Edward (1978). Orientalism, New York: Pantheon Books.
b. THE HISTORICAL SET UP (1 week)
i. Colonialism and development
(*) CD Chapter 3.
(*) Marx, Karl “Genesis of the Industrial Capitalist,” Chapter 31 in Capital Vol. I.
ii. Industrial Capitalism in Europe
(*) John Hobson “The Chinese Origins of British Industrialization” Chapter 9 in Eastern Origins of
Western Civilization.
(*) Romer, Paul M. (1996). “Why, Indeed, in America? Theory, History, and the Origins of Modern
Economic Growth” American Economic Review, 86(2): 202-206.
Andre Gunder Frank “Why did the West Win (Temporarily)” Chapter 6 in Reorient: The Global
Economy in the Asian Age.
c. GROWTH THEORY (2 weeks)
CD chap. 2.
This is an introduction to the concepts of GDP, GNP, and other measures of “development” (HDI,
etc.). I would recommend reading this if you are unfamiliar with these concepts, otherwise, you can
just pass on it.
i. Mainstream growth theory
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1. Old theories
a. Harrod-Domar
b. Solow
(*) CD chap 4, pp. 120-124, and chap. 8, pp. 224- 228.
(NB: The latter is a segue into endogenous models, i.e. the sub-next section).
Barro, Robert J. and Xavier Salai-Martin (1992). “Convergence”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol.
100, pp. 223-251.
Baumol, William J. (1986). “Productivity Growth, Convergence and Welfare”, American Economic
Review, Vol. 76, pp. 1072-1085.
Harrod, Roy (1939). “An essay in dynamic theory”. Economic Journal, 14-33.
Kuznets, Simon (1968). Toward a Theory of Economic Growth, New York: W. W. Norton and co.
Solow, R.M. (1956). “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth”. Quarterly Journal of
Economics, 70, 64-94.
DR chap 3.
2. “New” Theory
a. Romer and endogenous growth
(*) CD chap 8, pp. 228 – 241 and chap. 13.
(*) Barro, Robert J. (1991). “Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of Countries”, Quarterly Journal of
Economics, Vol. 106, No. 2, pp. 407-443.
Alesina, Alberto and Dani Rodrik (1994). “Distributive Politics and Economic Growth”, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, Vol. 109, pp. 465-490.
DR chap 4.
ii. Property Rights
De Soto, Hernando (2000). The Mystery of Capital – Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and
Fails Everywhere Else, New York: Basic Books, esp. Chap. 1.
iii. Role of Industrialisation
(*) CD Chap. 5 pp. 128 – 140.
(*) Rosenstein-Rodan, P. N. (1943). “Problems of Industrialisation of Eastern and South-Eastern
Europe”, Economic Journal, Vol. 53, No. 210/211, June-September, pp. 202-211.
7
Murphy, K.M., A. Shleifer, and R. W. Vishny (1989). “Industrialisation and the Big Push”, Journal
of Political Economy, Vol. 97, No. 4, pp. 1003-1026.
Rostow, W. W. (1960). The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
iv. Structuralist Models of Growth
Taylor, Lance (1983). Structuralist Macroeconomics: Applicable Models for the Third World, New
York: Basic Books.
v. Post-Keynesian Theories of Economic Growth
(*) Foley, D. and Michl, T. (2001). Growth and distribution, Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
chapter 10.
Lavoie, Marc (1992). Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economic Analysis, Aldershot: Edward
Elgar, pp. 282-371. – Best place to look at if this topic interests you, but it is a little longish...
Bhaduri, A. and Marglin, S.A. (1990) "Unemployment and the real wage: the economic basis for
contesting political ideologies". Cambridge Journal of Economics, 375-393.
Dos Santos, Claudio and Gennaro Zezza (2005). “A simplified Stock-Flow Consistent PostKeynesian Growth Model”, Levy Economics Institute Working Paper No. 421, available at SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=696242.
Kaldor (1956). “Alternative theories of distribution”. Review of Economic Studies, 83-100.
Kaldor (1957). “A model of economic growth”. Economic Journal, 591-624.
Kalecki, M. (1968). “Trends and business cycles reconsidered”. Economic Journal, 263-276.
Lavoie, M. (1995). "The Kaleckian model of growth and distribution and its neo-Ricardian and neoMarxian critiques". Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19, pp. 789-818.
Robinson, J. (1962). Essays in the Theory of Economic Growth, London and Basingstoke:
Macmillan, (mainly chapter 2).
vi. Marxian Theories of Economic Growth
(*) CD Chap. 3, pp. 119 – 120.
(*) Harvey, David (1982). Limits to Capital, Oxford: Blackwell, chapters 1 and 6.
Bowles, S. (1985). “The Production Process in a Competitive Economy”, American Economic
Review, 16-36.
8
Bowles, S. and Boyer, R. (1990). “A Wage-led Employment Regime: Income Distribution,
Labour Discipline, and Aggregate Demand in Welfare Capitalism”, in S.A. Marglin and J. Schor
(eds) The golden age of capitalism, Oxford University Press, (Chapter 5). (mix of Keynesian
and Marxian aspects).
Marglin, Stephen A. (1984). Growth, Distribution, and Prices, Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, esp. Chap. 3.
Foley, D. and Michl, T. (2001). Growth and distribution, Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
chapter 6. (more classical, à la Smith and Ricardo, than Marxian)
Skott, P. (1989a). Conflict and effective demand in economic growth, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, chapter 4.
d. RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS AND UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT (1 week)
(*) CD chap. 6, pp. 159 – 171, 177 – 187.
(*) Baran, Paul (1952). “On the Political Economy of Backwardness”, Manchester School of Economic
and Social Studies, Vol. 20, pp. 66-84.
(*) Singer, H. (1950). “The Distribution of Gains between Investing and Borrowing Countries”,
American Economic Review, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 473-485.
(*) Brewer, Anthony (1990). Marxist Theories of Imperialism, 2nd ed., New York: Routledge, chaps
8 and 9. Chapter 6 is also a good read, but it is optional.
Prebish, Raul (1962). “The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems”,
United Nations - Economic Bulletin for Latin America, Vol. 7, pp. 1-22. This article is a classic, is very
interesting (two things associated less often than one might think), and is a recommended
reading, though it is not required.
Frank, Andre Gunder (1969). Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical
Studies of Chile and Brazil, New York: Monthly Review Press.
Amin, Samir (1974). Accumulation on a World-Scale, New York, Monthly Review Press.
Amin, Samir (1976). Unequal Development, New York, Monthly Review Press.
Brenner, Robert (1977). “The Origins of Capitalist Development: A Critique of Neo-Smithian
Marxism”, New Left Review, July-August, pp. 25-92.
Bacha, Edmar (1978). “An Interpretation of Unequal Exchange from Prebish-Singer to
Emmanuel”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 5, pp. 319-330.
Emmanuel, Arghiri (1972). Unequal Exchange, New York: Monthly Review Press.
9
e. INTERNATIONAL TRADE (1 week)
i. Is trade good for growth? Theory and Evidence
There are too many good readings here. I am hesitating between the two chapters in the
textbook and the three starred readings that follow. We will discuss the issue in class.
(*) CD Chapters 9 and 10.
(*) Bruton, Henry (1988). “Import-Substitution”, in H. Chenery and T. N. Srinivasan (eds.),
Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 2, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 1601-1644.
(*) Diaz-Alejandro, Carlos (1984). “Latin America in the 1930’s”, in Thorpe, Rosemary (ed.), Latin
America in the 1930s: The Role of the Periphery in World Crisis, New York: St Martin’s Press, pp.
17-49.
(*) Rodriguez, Fransisco and Dani Rodrik (2000). “Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A
Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-National Evidence”, John F. Kennedy School of Management mimeo.
Bliss, Christopher (1988). “Trade and Development”, in Hollis Chenery and T. N. Srinivasan
(eds.), Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 2, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 1187-1240.
Harrison, Ann (1996). “Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for
Developing Countries”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 419-447.
DR chaps 16 and 17.1, 17.2, 17.3.
f. INTERNATIONAL FINANCE (1 week)
(*) CD chap. 14.
i. Is foreign investment good for growth?
(*) Rodrik, Dani (1998). “Who Needs Capital Account Convertibility?”, in Stanley Fisher et al,
Should the IMF Pursue Current Account Convertibility? Essays in International Finance No. 207,
International Finance Section, Department of Economics , Princeton University, May 1998.
(*) Epstein, Gerald A. (2005). Capital Flight and Capital Controls in Developing Countries,
Northampton: Edward Elgar, Chap 2.
(*) Hanson, Gordon H. (2001). “Should Countries Promote Foreign Direct Investment?”
UNCTAD: G-24 Discussion Paper Series.
ii. Debt and Financial Crises
10
*** There are two possibilities here: The debt crisis of the late 1970’s early 1980’s, which is
still around, and financial crises in general. Depending on time, we might have to choose
one or the other, though I would like to do both. ***
CD chap. 16.
(deals with the Debt crisis)
Eichengreen, Barry (2002). Financial Crises and What to Do About Them, Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Fourçans, André and Raphaël Franck (2003). Currency Crises: A Theoretical and Empirical
Perspective. Northampton: Edward Elgar. – This is a very good review of the literature on that
topic.
Stiglitz, Joseph (2002). Globalization and its Discontents, New York: W. W. Norton.
Wade, Robert (2000). “Wheels Within Wheels: Rethinking the Asian Crisis and the Asian Model”,
Annual Review of Political Science 3, 85-115.
Wade, Robert and Frank Veneroso (1998). “The Asian Crisis: The High Debt Model Versus the
Wall-Street-Treasury-IMF Complex”, New Left Review 228, 3-22.
And two papers I wrote with Özgür Orhangazi, both unpublished as of yet (a smaller version
of the first one appeared in the Review of Radical Political Economy):
-
International Financial Crises: Scourge or Blessings in Disguise?
-
The 2000-2001 Financial Crisis in Turkey: A Crisis for Whom?
*** One of these two will be assigned, if we go with financial crises. ***
iii. Capital Flight
*** We will only take up this topic if time permits or if there is popular clamour for it. ***
Boyce, James and Léonce Ndikumana (1997). “Congo’s Odious Debt: External Borrowing and
Capital Flight in Zaire”, Development and Change, Vol. 29, No. 2, 195-217.
Boyce, James and Léonce Ndkikumana (2002). “Is Africa a Net Creditor? Estimates of Capital
Flight from Severely Indebted Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1970-1996”, Journal of Development
Studies, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 27-56.
(*) Epstein, Gerald A. (2005). Capital Flight and Capital Controls in Developing Countries,
Northampton: Edward Elgar, Chaps. 3 and 4.
And if you are interested in some readings on corruption and rent-seeking, which is loosely
linked with capital flight:
11
Krueger, Anne (1974). “The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society”, American Economic
Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 291-303.
Bhagwati, Jagdish (1982). “Directly Unproductive, Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities”, Journal of
Political Economy, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 988-1002.
Baumol, William (1990). “Entrepreneurship, Productive, Unproductive and Destructive”, Journal of
Political Economy, pp. 893-921.
g. POVERTY AND INEQUALITY (1 week)
(*) Kuznets, Simon (1955). “Economic Growth and Income Inequality”, American Economic Review,
Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 1-28.
(*) Sutcliffe, Bob (2003). “A More or Less Unequal World? World Income Distribution in the 20th
Century”, Political Economy Research Institute Working Paper, No. 54.
(*) Ravallion, Martin (1994). Poverty Comparisons, Philadelphia: Harwood, esp. pp. 28-66.
Baddley, M. (2006) “Convergence or Divergence? The Impacts of Globalisation on Growth and
Inequality in Less Developed Countries,” International Review of Applied Economics, 20 (3),
391-410.
Boyce, James K. (1994). “Inequality as a Cause of Environmental Degradation”, Ecological Economics,
Vol. 11.
Bruno, M., Martin Ravallion and Lyn Squire (1997). “Equity and Growth in Developing
Countries: Old and New Perspectives on Policy Issues”, in C. Gwin and J. Nelson (eds.),
Perspectives on Aid and Development, Washington: ODC, pp. 19-50.
Dollar, D. and Aart Kraay (2001). “Growth is Good for the Poor”, World Bank Policy Research
Working Paper, No. 2587.
Torras, Mariano and James K. Boyce (1998). “Income, Inequality, and Pollution: A reassessment
of the Environmental Kuznets Curve”, Ecological Economics, Vol. 25, pp. 147-160.
DR chaps 7 and 8
h. POPULATION (1 week)
(*) CD chap. 12.
(*) Sen, Amartya (1994). “Population: Delusion and Reality”, New York Review of Books, Sept. 22.
(*) Sen, Amartya (1990). “More Than 100 Million Women are Missing”, New York Review of Books,
Dec. 20.
12
Selwyn, Percy (1982). “Costs and Benefits of a Modest Proposal”, World Development, Vol. 13, No. 5,
pp. 653-658.
DR chap 9
i. Migration
Harris, J. and M. Todaro (1970). “Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector
Analysis”, American Economic Review, Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 126-142.
DR Chap 10, section 3.
ii. Famine
*** We will only take on this sub-topic if time permits. If we do, the following readings will
be assigned: ***
(*) Sen, Amartya (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, esp. chaps 4 and 5.
(*) Davis, Mike (2001). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third
World, London: Verso, esp. chap. 1.
i. AGRICULTURE AND THE RURAL SECTOR (1 - 2 weeks)
(*) CD Chap 5, pp. 140 – 149 and chap. 11.
Lewis, W. Arthur (1954). “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour”, Manchester
School, Vol. 22, No. 1, 139-191. http://www.unc.edu/~wwolford/Geography160/368lewistable.pdf
(*) Boyce, James K. (1996). “Ecological Distribution, Agricultural Trade Liberalisation, and in situ
Genetic Diversity”, Journal of Income Distribution, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 265-286.
Colin Kirkpatrick and Armando Barrientos. “The Lewis Model after Fifty Years”
http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/nispacee/unpan018979.pdf
Sah, R. and J. Stiglitz (1984). “The Economics of Price-Scissors”, American Economic Review.
DR chaps 10.2 and 12-14
*** This schedule leaves us potentially with one open week, if we go fast. If this is the case,
I will discuss with you the topics you would like to explore. Here are some possibilities. ***
j. ENVIRONMENT
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k. CIVIL WAR AND CONFLICT
l. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY
Readings for these last sections will be announced if we decide to cover them.
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