Biology Final Exam Review Sheet YOU CAN NOT WAIT UNTIL THE NIGHT BEFORE TO START STUDYING! Items that will be helpful to know: Mitosis Stages of mitosis – and what the cell does in each stage Cell cycle – what’s occurring at each stage Binary fission Crossing over and independent assortment Chromosomes – what are they and how many humans have Meiosis Stages of meiosis – and what the cell does in each stage DNA and RNA Synthesis structure of DNA- nucleotides, 4 nitrogenous bases DNA replication Translation and Transcription Fundamentals of Genetics genetics – Gregor Mendel Heterozygous and homozygous Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses – how to make them and get information from them Phenotype and genotype Dominant and recessive Evolution Ideas on the origin of life Types of fossils, Process for fossilization Adaptations and natural selection Hardy-Weinberg principle Sympatric and allopatric speciation Charles Darwin – what he is known for and the name of the book he published Classification (bacteria, viruses, protists, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates) taxonomy biological hierarchy (kingdom to species) characteristics of viruses and bacteria bilateral vs. radial symmetry characteristics of insects and arthropods parts of a flower characteristics of protists traits of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals HINT HINT: it may be a good idea to study your old tests! Miss Ellenberger’s Study Suggestions *To better help you for this exam!* Correct your old test to use as study guides Time management - give yourself plenty of time each night (4-5 nights for 30-60 minutes each night) to study - Do not work in front of the TV, or while talking/texting on the phone or playing on the computer – eliminate ALL distractions! - 100% of your attention should be devoted to studying in order to do your best Study groups/review sessions - peer help – if you know someone in your class is doing well, ask them to explain the material, quiz each other, 2 brains are better than 1!