Chapter 9

advertisement

Chapter 9: Interpersonal Attraction • Situational Factors & Liking 1. Proximity • Festinger, Schachter, & Back (1950) – Massachusetts Institute of Technology Study – Physical proximity was the most important determinant of friendship Other Areas • Urban housing projects for the elderly • Office work environments • Classroom settings • Priest & Sawyer (1967) • Lions and Lambs • What if we move enemies next door to one another? • Ebbesen, Kjos, & Konecni (1976) • They also developed most of their enemies close by as well. Why? 2. Familiarity • We like stimuli we have had more exposure – Occurs in the absence of information about the person or object • Saegert, Swapp, & Zajonc (1973) 3. Anxiety:Does Misery Love Company? • Schachter (1959) – Dr. Gregor Zilstein study • Misery loves miserable company Are anxious people motivated to seek out similar others in order to talk about the impending misery? Same study, but women could not talk • Motivating Factor • Social Comparison – Compare emotional reactions • Two little wrinkles • Sarnoff & Zimbardo (1961) “Baby Study” • Chose to wait with dissimilar others • Outcome dependence vs. Emotional dependence operating – Outcome dependence refers to dependence on others for positive outcomes • Social Comparison Process • Kulik & Mahler (1989) “Heart Surgery Study” – Social comparison fueled by desire to affiliate with similar others AND a need to appraise the situation itself Characteristics of Others

• Physical Attractiveness • Feingold (1992) Sociable Dominant Less Modest Mentally Healthy Intelligent Socially Skilled • Frieze, Olson, & Russell (1991) • Facial attractiveness led to $2,200 more in starting salary – Influenced later salaries for women • Attractive women average $4,200 more • 20% overweight reduced a man’s starting salary by $2,000 Are Attractive People Better? • Feingold (1992) analyzed 90 studies • Found no differences • Attractive people: Not More Not Perceived to Be Intelligent Dominant Trustworthy Honest Self-Esteem Judgments of Attractiveness • Value Transfer or “rub off” effect – viewed simultaneously • Contrast Effect – viewed sequentially Sensitive Evaluations of our own appearance • Brown, Novick, Lord, & Richards (1992) • Universal Beauty Standard • Ford and Beach (1951) • Studied 190 tribal societies • No Universal Standards of Beauty • WHY? Similarity and Liking • Kandel (1978) found best friends in H.S. were similar in sex, race, age, and year in school • Why does similarity increase liking? Theories of Similarity & Liking • Byrne (1971) • Aronson (1974) • Davis (1981) Evaluation and Liking • Aronson & Linder (1965)

• 4 patterns were: – Positive from start to finish – Negative at first, then positive – Positive at first, then negative – Negative from start to finish Competence and Liking • Competent people are liked more – “Best idea guy” is not the best liked member • Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd (1966) “Spilled Coffee” study

Download