Grade 12 Biology: Final Exam

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Grade 12 Biology Exam Review Questions
Molecular Genetics
1. Explain the differences between heterozygous/ homozygous/ phenotype/genotype. Provide examples for each term.
2.
Why and how should you study?*
3.
Use a Punnett square to determine genotype and phenotype of a given characteristic.
4.
Define dominant/recessive/homozygous/heterozygous/mitosis and meiosis.
5.
How can we extract DNA from cells?
6.
What did Franklin, Crick, Watson and Wilkins “do” to explain the structure of DNA?
7.
How does DNA replicate? steps? enzymes? leading and lagging strands?
8.
What is the structure of a nucleotide?
9.
What is the structure of DNA?
10. How is DNA used in crime scene investigations?
a. DNA fingerprinting RFLP
b. PCR polymerase chain reaction
11. How were PCR and RFLP discovered?
12. How does DNA determine how you look and behave?
a. What is transcription?
b. What is translation?
13. Given a strand of DNA or mRNA- make the correct protein.
14. How do mutations affect living organisms?
a. What can cause cancer?
b. How are mutations caused by substitution, deletion, addition, inversions and/or jumping genes?
15 a. What events took place that allowed the Human Genome Project to start and finish?
b. What was the purpose and outcomes of the Human Genome Project? What did we learn from this project?
16. How is DNA sequenced?
Molecular Genetics Critical Thinking Questions
1.
How did you think scientific discoveries were made BEFORE you started this course? How have your views changed
after learning about the discovery of DNA, PCR or DNA fingerprinting?
2.
Initial reluctance among the scientific community to accept that DNA was the molecule forming genes (carrying a great
deal of information stemmed to some extend from the knowledge that DNA was a relatively simple molecule made up
of only four nucleotides. Briefly explain how DNA is capable of encoding a great deal of information, in spite of its
apparently simple structure.
3.
How does DNA determine how you look and behave?
4.
Please comment on the following statement. You are your enzymes.
5.
Peter Parker was transformed into Spiderman after being bitten by a genetically modified spider. Is this possible?
Why? Why not?
6. How does your DNA determine how you behave? (based on what we discussed in class)
7. a. Can we genetically engineer humans at the present time? Explain.
b. Should we genetically engineer humans? Why?*
Grade 12 Biology Exam Review-06
Evolution
1. How is the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria an example of natural selection?
2.
What causes variation in populations?
3.
Is the bird flu virus evolving? Why?
4.
a. What are ribozymes? How do they relate to the origins of life?
b. Which prokaryote cell do humans have the most in common with? Why?
5.
What is the endosymbiotic theory? Who proposed it? How did most of the scientific community react to her
hypothesis?
6.
What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?
7.
What is important about the field of “evo-devo (evolutionary devlopment- sticklebacks- humans brains compared the
chimpanzee brains?
8.
What is a genetic marker?
9.
What selective pressure may have affected the one gene that codes for melanin (the protein) responsible for skin
colour?
10. What is a common ancestor? Why is this concept so important?
11. What is the significance of the different hominids?
12. What was responsible for the evolution of chips and bonobos from their common ancestor? (Include information about
the characteristics of each species in your answer)
13. How are new species formed according to evolutionary theory?
14. What is the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium? What conditions are required to maintain it?
15. Is genetic variation in a population good? Why?
16. How does migration affect evolution?
17. How can we use sickle cell anemia and malaria as examples of why Hardy Weinberg equilibrium is not maintained in
human populations?
Evolution Critical Thinking Questions
1.
Should we use antibacterial products? Why?
2.
Should we be concerned about the bird flu virus? Why?
3.
What analogy could you use to describe the geological time scale and the emergence of different life forms?
4.
Is there a biological basis for race? Why?
5.
Are cows racist? Why?
6.
Why is the movie “The Lion King not accurate? (Focus on genetics and evolution in your answer)
7.
If a Homo sapiens (you) were transported back in time to 1.8 MYA (to Africa) would you survive? Why?
Grade 12 Biology Exam Review-06
Genetic Engineering
1.
Compare domesticated species to genetically engineered or transgenic organisms.
2.
a. How is natural selection affected by humans with regards to our food supply?
b. Compare open pollination to hybrids and to genetic engineering.
3.
How many crops do most humans rely on for food? (map)
4.
How accurate is the risk/benefit model from the Nelson Grade 11 text? (on one of your hand-outs)
5.
List the risks and benefits from genetically engineered food. Include different stakeholders in your answer.
Genetic Engineering Critical Thinking Questions
1. What are some of the factors responsible for world hunger? (3 factors)
1.
a. What are the primary dangers of trnasgenic crops?
b. What are the benefits of transgenic crops?
2.
Are you concerned about our food supply? Why?
Homeostasis
1. What is homeostasis?
2.
How do negative feedback mechanisms work?
3.
How are insulin OR glucagon examples of homeostasis?
4.
Describe the structure and function of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
5.
Categorize food items as carbohydrates, fats and protein.
6.
What should you eat and drink to maintain maximum performance? Why?
7.
Pick one vitamin or mineral. What does it do in your body at the cellular level? (Please provide specific details from
your research)
Homeostasis Critical Thinking Questions
1. Describe one analogy (other than a furnace) to represent homeostasis.
2. Do you think that using drugs to control homeostasis is a good thing ? Why? (Use one example in your answer)
3.
Are all fats bad for you? Why?
4.
What is the best diet for you based on class information?
5.
Should you take a vitamin/mineral supplement? Why? (Provide specific details about your diet to support your
answer).
8.
How should we study? Why? Provide details at the cellular level and realte your answer to the figure from February!
Cellular Respiration
1. What are the steps and products of cellular respiration? Where does each stage occur?
2. Explain the chemical formula for cellular respiration.
3. Why is ATP added at the beginning of glycolysis?
4. Why is glycolysis present in all living organisms?
Grade 12 Biology Exam Review-06
Critical Thinking: Cellular Respiration
1. Compare yourself to a marshmallow. Why don’t you spontaneously combust?
2. You are your enzymes. Comment.
Population Dynamics
1.
Population Dynamics: Critical Thinking Questions
1. How can we shift our focus from treatment to prevention?
2.
What can you do to reduce your environmental impact?
3.
Who is responsible for cancer?
4.
What should you consider when deciding what products to buy in terms of their life cycle?
5.
Should corporations be responsible for the waste they produce? Why? Why not?
Grade 12 Biology Exam Review-06
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