Organization of the Body Name:______________ Lab Exercise #1 Anatomy and Physiology Maps are used in many walks of life. Backpackers use them to orient themselves to the terrain to be exposed, and find their way to camp. Anatomists use maps, figures, and photos to explore the body and its parts. The use of maps in the backcountry is called orienteering and is useful to draw an analogy to human anatomical study. First we will learn the terms of our anatomist’s “key” and then we will apply them to finding and labeling parts of a model. A.
Planes and Sections: all terms describing the anatomy of organisms assume that the body is in the classic
For the human that means standing, facing the viewer. The hands are held down along the side of the trunk, with the palms facing forward. A section refers to a part cut along a
used to describe sections of the body. . A plane is a geometrical concept referring to an imagined flat surface. The term cross section, for example refers to a part cut crosswise. A longitudinal section is a cut made lengthwise. There are three anatomical planes Drawing #1 Draw a stick figure in a dissecting tray in anatomical position. Label the top, bottom, right and left.
Grab an Anatomy book from the metal cabinet. Somewhere in the first 20 pages you will find directional terms, similar to your coloring sheet. Read these pages thru body planes and sections. Be sure to look at the pictures to help you understand.
Draw three figures, either stick figures, Mr. Potato heads, or the side view of a dog. In the first figure show a cut that is Sagittal. Show the cut and label it. In the second figure show a Frontal cut. In the third, a horizontal cut. B. Anatomical Directions: to locate structures within a body, you must use directional terms. These terms are similar to the directions we use all the time such as left, right, north, south, etc. Review the table below, you may want to reference this table from time to time. These terms should be familiar to you from your coloring activity.
Compass Rosettes are used in our textbook and throughout the course to help orient yourself to the figures. Instead of being labeled N, S, E, and W the anatomical rosette is labeled with abbreviated anatomical directions. Review this list of abbreviations:
A= Anterior M= Medial D= Distal P= Posterior I= Inferior P(opposite D)=Proximal L(opposite R)= Left R=Right L(opposite M)= Lateral S=Superior
Review the examples of how the anatomical compass is used in illustrations by looking at the next sheet. Label the rosettes that are not already labeled. C. Body Cavities and Regions: The inside of the human body contains the viscera, or internal organs. The viscera are found in any number of cavities (spaces) within the body. The two principal body cavities are the dorsal (Back) body cavity and the ventral(front) body cavity. Because these spaces are so large, they are subdivided into smaller units.
Read the section on Body Cavities in an Anatomy book (use the index if you can’t find it). Fill in the names for each body cavity above.
D. Surface Regions: there are hundreds of terms used to describe specific locations on the surface of the human body. These names are useful not only for identifying surface features but also the underlying muscles, bones, nerves, and blood vessels. It is appropriate to learn several of these terms.
Use any resource to label the diagram on the next page with these terms. You will use all of these terms. Anterior Posterior
Abdominal Cervical Antebrachial Gluteal Axillary Lumbar Brachial Occipital Buccal Popliteal Carpal Scapular Cervical Sural Coxal Thoracic Crural Cubital Femoral Mental Orbital Patellar Pubic Tarsal Thoracic
Challenge Questions 1. An anatomist cuts a cadaver (preserved body) with a large saw in a way that divides the cadaver into equal left and right halves. The cut is a _______ plane. a. sagittal b. midsagittal c. frontal d. horizontal e. a and b are correct 2. In many study skulls, the top of the skull can be removed so that the inner features can be seen. Along which plane should one cut open the top of a human study skull? a. sagittal b. coronal c. horizontal d. frontal e. b and d are correct 3. A surgeon makes an incision medially from the left axillary region, turning inferiorly at the midline and proceeding to the pubic region. The path of the cut can be mapped on the patient’s chest as: a. b. c. d. e. f. Fill in: Use words found on table 1-1. 1. The head is _______________ to the feet. 2. A leg amputation is likely to involve a ___________ cut, or section, through the bone. 3. My lower back or ____________ is sore. 4. The first finger is ___________ to the hand, no matter which position it is in. 5. The popliteal vein is found in the _____________. 6. The heart is ____________ to the right lung. 7. The shoulder is __________ to the elbow no matter which position it is in.