Descriptive Methods Chapter 4 Descriptive methods Observational: naturalistic and laboratory Case studies Archival Qualitative Surveys For each: Examples Method description and data collection Advantages and disadvantages Observational method Data collection Self-report Tests Physical measures Behavioral measures Narrative reports Checklists or coding: Static items: Action items: Example: Examine aggressive behavior in children (classroom context) Naturalistic observation or Field study Method: Example: Jane Goodall and chimpanzees of Gombe http://animal.discovery.com/videos/jane-goodall/ Decisions: Undisguised vs. disguised observation Non-participant vs. participant observation Naturalistic observation Advantages: Ecological validity Disadvantages: Expectancy effects Reactivity Laboratory observation or systematic observation Method: Example: Mary Ainsworth’s Strange situation test to examine attachment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU Decisions: Undisguised vs. disguised Non-participant vs. participant observation Laboratory observation Advantages: Ecological validity Disadvantages: Reactivity Expectancy effects Case study Method: Examples: Savants: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8YXZTlwTAU Advantages: Disadvantages: Archival Method: Examples: Advantages: Disadvantages: Qualitative methods Method: Examples: Advantages: Disadvantages: Create your own study using an observational method. What topic are you studying? Where is study conducted? What is your method? (Use vocab) What would your coding manual look like? What behaviors would you want to measure? What are pros/cons of the method? What do you expect to find?