Mid-Century Modern Furniture Evolution: A “Man’s Profession” No More. The Woman Pioneers of Architecture and Design. A Complimentary eBook Provided By: !"#$%&'()*+*,-.,*/0%01&'2*30445%$6*750%8*2"%5*0)*9996/3:"16;"2 A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design Table of Contents 1: Julia Morgan! 3 2: Lilly Reich! 5 3: Charlotte Perriand! 6 4: Florence Schust Knoll! 7 5: Louise Blanchard Bethune! 8 6: Chloethiel Woodard Smith! 9 7: Marion Mahoney Griffin! 10 8: Greta Magnussen Grossman! 11 9: Ray Kaiser Eames! 12 10: Eileen Gray! 13 11: Marianne Brandt ! 14 12: Eva Zeisel! 15 This eBook is about notable architects and designers who happen to be women. Although we’d like to think that a good architect or designer is not defined by gender, or that being an amazing architect and a woman isn’t a singularly special occurrence, this has unfortunately not always been the accepted sentiment. The simple truth is, in the era that these women began their careers, being a woman and a talented architect was an accomplishment worthy of great recognition. These architects and designers simply because they were women, were forced to overcome many hurdles and challenges imposed upon them by the stigma of their era. In addition to being visionaries in their field and producing amazing works, these women were also pioneers of their time, and deserve the respect as such. Below are just a few of the noteworthy women who overcame these challenges, and rose to be well respected architects and designers. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 1: Julia Morgan “My buildings will be my legacy! they will speak for me long after I’m gone.” —Julia Morgan As the architect of over 700 buildings in California, and the first woman to receive a Civil Engineering degree from the University of California at Berkley, Julia Morgan was a force to be reckoned with. She surmounted gender barriers in the United States and abroad, and inspired generations of young women to follow their dreams. Julia was born in January of 1872 in San Francisco. After graduating from the the University of California at Berkley, one of her instructors encouraged her to apply to the famous “École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-arts”, the distinguished National School of Fine Arts in Paris, France. However, she was met with a few hurdles. The administration had previously never conceived of admitting women, so Morgan was rejected. For the next two years, Julia Morgan participated in prestigious competitions in Paris, winning most of them. In 1898, École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts (National School of Fine Arts) in Paris finally admitted her, and Julia became the first woman to be admitted, and graduate with a degree in architecture from this prestigious institution. Upon returning to the States, Julia Morgan became the first female architect in California. She worked for John Galen Howard in Berkeley, drawing elevations and designing details for the Hearst Memorial Mining Building and helping with the design of the Hearst Greek Theater. Over the span of her career, Julia was the architect of over 700 buildings in California. These included such projects as several private residential projects and the Oakland’s Mills College Bell Tower (1904), as you can see below. Old Mills College photo courtesy of SnapShotsofThePast (flickr), Mills College banner photo courtesy of Portmanteaus (flickr), Mills Hall photo courtesy of Wikimeida user Sanfranman59. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design After the San Francisco earthquake and fire in 1906, Julia took on institutional works in addition to her already busy schedule. These included over 15 projects for the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association), an organization that provided low-income women with housing, job, training, and other assistance. Some of her notable works for YWCA are: Mills College (1904) Asilomar Conference Center (1915) in Pacific Grove, CA Berkeley Women’s City Club (1930) Other famous works include: William Randolph Hearst’s Castle in San Simeon Bow Bay House at Lake Tahoe, CA Livermore House in San Francisco Julia understood the value in every project. Even if it seemed like something insignificant, she knew that it could blossom into something great. “Never turn down a job because you think it’s too small; you don’t know where it can lead.” —Julia Morgan And, as she predicted, even after she passed away in 1957, her legacy lives on through her amazing works. Hurst Castle photo courtesy of Julia Morgan Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 2: Lilly Reich Lilly Reich was a German modernist designer, and closely collaborated with Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe for over 10 years. In fact, the famous “Mies Barcelona Chair”, was not designed by Mies alone. Conclusive records state that this honor should be shared by his co-designer, Lilly Reich. The Mies Barcelona Chair has become an “icon of modern classic design, an international symbol of good taste, perhaps the classiest chair you can own.”(www.modernfurnitureclassics.com) As with other women of her time, Lilly was confined to traditionally acceptable female careers. Therefore, she got her start working as a designer of textiles and women’s apparel. However, her passion for design and architecture surpassed the confinement of gender roles in society at that time. In 1912, Lilly joined the Deutsch Werkbund, and became the first female to be made director. The Deutsch Werkbund is an organization credited with the first seeds of modern design, and was a precursor to the Bauhaus School. During her time there, Lilly worked in the studio of the famous Bauhaus designer Josef Hoffman. It was also during this time at the Werkbund that Reich met Mies Van der Rohe. Many would argue that Lilly Reich was at least as skilled a designer as Mies, and was most likely more articulate than he was. Mies was typically more reserved. Although he was said to have rarely solicited other’s comments, he was always eager to discuss design with Lilly. Those who knew both Lilly and Meis regarded her as “the detail and execution person”, and Mies as the “broad conceptualist.” Together with Mies van der Rohe, Lilly Reich designed many notable works, including: Organization and design of several interiors for the Werkbund exhibition “Die Wohnung” in Stuttgart (1927) Design of “Wohnraum in Spiegelglas” (“Living Room in Mirror Glass”) Organization of the German contribution to the World Exposition in Barcelona (1929) Organization and design of the “Deutsche Bau-Ausstellung”, a famous architectural trade fair, in Berlin (1931) “The wall that has hidden her talent has begun to crack. Hopefully it will come tumbling down and she will gain the place in design history that she deserves.” - Albert Pfeiffer, VP of Design Management at Knoll Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. Barcelona Chair in situ courtesy of Gribiche (flickr). A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 3: Charlotte Perriand “Life was good!and I filled my lungs with it.” -Charlotte Periand At 24 years old, Charlotte Perriand made a lasting impression on Le Corbusier, when she walked into his studio and asked for a job as a furniture designer. His response? He showed her the door and replied, "We don’t embroider cushions here”. However, Perriand quickly earned his apology. A few months later, Le Corbusier saw the impressive “glacial Bar sous le Toît” (rooftop bar) that Perriand had created in glass, chrome, and aluminium, for the Salon D’Automne exhibition in Paris. After seeing this amazing display of Charlotte’s talent, he invited her to come join him in his studio. Together with Le Corbusier, and his partner Pierre Jeanneret, Charlotte Perriand designed a series of tubular steel chairs, based on Corbusier’s principles. These chairs were then – and continue today – to be hailed as icons of the “machine age”. Many would say that the most famous Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret models may never have existed as we know them, had it not been for Charlotte Perriand. She was recognized by Le Corbusier as having extraordinary talent for interior design. Although Charlotte was loyal to the concept of Corbusier, she was free to steer the project to its end result. This type of relationship between designer and company created a beautiful harmony that resulted in some amazing works. Each piece renders a quality design and an expression of minimum values, yet with profound depth. Charlotte Perriand photo courtesy of Knowtex. In addition to her work as a respected designer, Charlotte was also very socially conscious. She strongly advocated for improved social conditions and quality of life, and was involved with many organizations such as: The “Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires” Maison de la Culture The Union des Artistes Modernes Her designs from that period also reflected her views. Rather than using chrome, which could be expensive, she began to use traditional materials such as wood and cane, which were more affordable. Charlotte also traveled to Japan as an official adviser to the Ministry for Trade and Industry. Here, she advised the Japanese government on raising the standards of design in Japanese industry to develop products for the West. Charlotte Perriand bookcase photo courtesy of Tomislavmedak. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 4: Florence Schust Knoll “Good design is good business.” -Florence Knoll Known in familiar circles simply as “Shu”, Florence Schust Knoll was a memorable figure in midcentury modern design. She has had a profound influence on more than 50 years of buildings’ interiors. Knoll graduated from the Kingswood School before studying at the famous Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. She also received a bachelor’s degree in architecture from Armour Institute, which is now the Illinois Institute of Technology. Following this, Florence Knoll briefly worked with many leaders of the Bauhaus movement, including Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and Wallace K. Harrison. In the 1940’s, while working for Wallace K. Harrison in New York , Shu met a well known furniture company owner named Hans Knoll. She convinced Hans that, even in America’s wartime economy, she could help bring in business to his company by expanding into interior design and working with architects. He asked her to design an office for Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, along with many other jobs to follow. In 1946, Shu and Hans married and formed Knoll Associates, Inc. Shu is famous for her “total design” philosophy. As the director of the Knoll Planning Unit, she revolutionized interior space planning. Her approach was to embrace everything about a space. This included: Architecture Interior design Graphics Textiles Manufacturing This type of space planning was not the standard practice in the mid-century era. But, it quickly caught on, and is still considered the standard today. Shu was also a furniture designer, and had a great eye for talent. She discovered many of the modern masters, when they created collections for Knoll. Some of these legacies include: Above Asymmetric Chaise photo courtesy of Design Trust for Public Space. Background photo courtesy of 1stsite. Eero Saarinen’s Tulip™ chairs and pedestal tables Isamu Noguchi’s coffee table Harry Bertoia’s wire furniture Experience the brilliant works from mid-century modern designers at Paradigm Gallery. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 5: Louise Blanchard Bethune “! there is no need whatever of a woman architect. No one wants her, no one yearns for her and there is no special line in architecture to which she is better adapted than a man . [The woman architect] has exactly the same work to do as a man. When a woman enters the profession she will be met kindly and will be welcome but not as a woman, only as an architect.” —Louise Blanchard Bethune In a predominantly masculine profession, Louise Blanchard Bethune proved that she could hold her own. It was also clear that Louise felt that there was no need to distinguish women and men architects from each other. She felt that they did the same job, and therefore required no special treatment. Louise began her career working as a draftsman in the office of well known architects, Richard A. Waite and F.W. Caulkings. At the time it was more common to learn architecture while working for a firm, rather than in a classroom. So, with this company, she received a “man’s” education and made her way as a respected architect. Before long, Louise Blanchard opened her own independent office, and partnered with Robert Bethune in Buffalo. It was here that she earned herself the title as the nation’s first professional woman architect. Bethune was elected a member of the Western Association of Architects, and even served a term as Vice President. She was the first female associate of the American Institute of Architects (A.I.A.) in 1888 and she became a fellow to the institute in 1889. A woman of strong professional principles, Louise consistently supported the Architects’ Licensing Bill. This bill, after twenty five years of debate, became the law to enforce rigid preliminary examinations for the practice of architecture. In 1891 she refused to compete for the design of the Woman’s Building for the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, because of the difference in how men and women were being treated. Male architects were “appointed” to design major buildings and were paid $10,000 for artistic services only, with all construction drawings made at the expense of the Fair. However, women architects were asked to “compete” for the artistic design and to provide all construction documents for a “prize” of only $1,000. Bethune’s specialty architecture consisted mostly of industrial and public buildings, such as schools. She assisted in designing 18 schools in Western New York, including Hamburg High School, Lockport High, and many public grammar schools in Buffalo. A few of these grammar schools are still around today. One of Bethune’s most well known masterpieces was the neoclassical Hotel Lafayette. She was commissioned $1 million to design this, and completed in 1904. It had 256 rooms and was one of the top 15 finest hotels in the U.S. in its time. Background Hotel Lafayette photo courtesy of Doug Kerr (wikimedia). Photograph of Louise Blanchard Bethune courtesy of wikimedia.com Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 6: Chloethiel Woodard Smith “Smith was offended all of her life by the term “woman architect.” She felt it demeaned her work and ability as an architect." Chloethiel Woodard Smith was one of the leading mid-century modern architects in Washington. In fact, at the time, she was considered the most successful female architect in the country. Smith was the driving force behind many esteemed projects, including: The redevelopment of Southwest Washington D.C. (Capitol Park, Harbour Square, etc.) The Waterview Townhouses in Reston, Virginia (some of which have spiral steps that descend into a lake!) Metro station at National Airport Washington Square photo courtesy of AgnosticPeachersKid (wikimedia). She also designed various downtown office buildings and custom homes for clients, such as the home for Nathan and Alice Bindeman, a well-known local sculptor and painter. Smith also designed three of the four office buildings at a key intersection in downtown Washington. If you go to the corner of Connecticut Avenue and L Street NW – S you will see the area that architects and critics have referred to as “Chloethiel’s Corner.” It is said that Chloethiel took offense to the term “woman architect”, as she felt it was demeaning to her work and ability as an architect. Fortunately, she lived long enough to see an era where this term was seldom used. Throughout her career, however, she stubbornly refused to be a part of any women’s group. Her rise to the upper echelon of the architect profession preceded the Women’s Rights Movement. Chloethiel Smith’s name is not as well known by the general public as those of her contemporaries. However, Smith is considered to be a master. Her successful career spanned five decades, and her work has earned the respect and admiration of many. Paradigm Gallery is the destination for Mid-Century Modern inspired furniture. The inception of the Bauhaus Movement signaled the beginning of a new direction of aesthetic relevance for furniture design. Contact us or browse our online showroom today, and immerse yourself in the world of Mid-Century Modern Furniture. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 7: Marion Mahoney Griffin We know immediately that we are in the presence of a force of nature, a woman of no uncertain opinions, a person possessed of deep convictions and profound spiritual experiences." – Excerpt from ‘Marion Mahony Reconsidered’ Born in Chicago, Illinois, Marion Mahony graduated from MIT in 1894, and was one of the first women to receive a degree in architecture. Her work in architecture began with the encouragement of her first cousin, Dwight Perkins, who had completed a program in MIT’s Department of Architecture three years earlier. Though Marion was extremely talented, she struggled at times with her place in both society and the field of architecture. At MIT, she was unsure of her ability to complete the thesis required for her bachelors degree. However, her professor, Constant-Désiré Despradelle, pushed her forward. After graduating from MIT, Mahony worked in her cousin’s architecture firm, which shared space with many architects, including Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1895 Mahony was the first employee hired by Frank Lloyd Wright. During her time working with Wright, Marion designed a variety of works, including: Photos courtesy of wikimedia. Buildings Furniture Stained glass windows Decorative panels Marion was an intimate member of, not only of Frank Lloyd Wright’s office, but of his household as well. She was very close with his wife, and was a partner in creating and publicizing an entirely original approach to the American home. Mahony developed her distinctive rendering style, which was influenced by Japanese prints, in both composition and technique. Her drawings were instrumental in enhancing Wright’s early reputation. In fact, a member of Wright’s studio was quoted as saying the following about Marion Mahony: “She was the most talented member of Frank Lloyd Wright’s staff ! Mr. Wright would occasionally sit at Marion’s board and work on her drawings, and I recall one hilarious occasion when his work ruined the drawing. On that occasion Andrew Willatzen, an outspoken member of the staff, loudly proclaimed that Marion Mahony was Wright’s superior as a draftsman. As a matter of fact, she was. Wright took the statement of her superiority equably.” —H. Allen Brooks, The Prairie School: Frank Lloyd Wright and His Midwest Contemporaries, 1972 Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 8: Greta Magnussen Grossman “(California design) is not a superimposed style, but an answer to present conditions. It has developed out of our own preference for living in a modern way.” —Gretta Grossman Greta Magnusson Grossman often appeared alongside midcentury greats such as Charles and Ray Eames. She designed houses, interiors, and furniture, and gained a loyal and following that remains to this day. Though she never gained the same level of fame as that of many of her contemporaries, she maintained a prolific forty-year career on two continents, Europe and North America, with achievements in industrial design, interior design, and architecture. Her work is remains admired and sought after by people around the world. Greta Magnusson Grossman was a Swedish born architect and designer. When she landed in California in 1940, she declared that she needed ” a car and some shorts.” As a new immigrant, it was the most American idea she could think of. At this point, Grossman was already an accomplished interior designer in her native land of Sweden. She’d taken on numerous commissions in Stockholm, designing unique furniture and interiors. She’d garnered abundant press attention and accolades, and her work was exhibited frequently at “Galerie Moderne”, a cultural mecca in Stockholm at the time. In 1937, for a large group exhibition at the National museum in Stockholm, Grossman designed a crib for Sweden’s Princess Birgitta. This work became famous, and drew much attention in the press for Greta Grossman. After moving to the United States with her husband, Grossman then went onto achieve acclaim for her shop in Beverly Hills. She even began attracting celebrity clients, such as Greta Garbo, Joan Fontaine, and Gracie Allen. Greta began making connections that led to a number of projects, both from her own shop and from Barker Brothers’ Modern Shop, launched in 1947. Over the next twenty years she produced work for companies like: Glenn of California Sherman Bertram Martin/Brattrud Modern Line The work for Glenn of California, some of her best known, is characterized by the materials she used. These included rich, colorful textiles and woods like California walnut paired in surprising and elegant combination with black plastic laminate and wrought iron. The uniquely petite proportions and asymmetrical lines of her furniture also set her work apart. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 9: Ray Kaiser Eames “I never gave up painting, I just changed my palette.” – Ray Eames Ray Kaiser Eames was born in Sacramento, California in the mid 1920’s. She studied painting with Hans Hofmann in New York before moving on to Cranbrook Academy. Ray had a great appreciation for the education she received from Hans, and felt that this was a key element in her understanding of relationships between color and structure. She would one day go on to use this knowledge in her furniture design collaboration with Charles Eames. Ray was quoted as saying the following regarding her studies with Hans: “He didn’t close anything, he opened everything and made it possible to see wholly, I think, as we do see. We don’t see a line, we see a line and both sides of the line. . . I don’t know anyone else who was as able to relate the experience of life to a canvas, to a format.” —Ray Eames After her lessons with Hans, Ray went on to study at Cranbrook academy, where she met Charles Eames. She assisted Charles, along with Eero Saarinen, in preparing designs for the Museum of Modern Art’s “Organic Furniture Competition.” These designs, created by molding plywood into complex curves, won them the two first prizes. Ray went on to marry Charles Eames in 1941, and they moved to California. Here, they continued their furniture design work with molding plywood, and were commissioned by the Navy during the war to produce molded plywood splints, stretchers, and experimental glider shells. In 1946, their molded plywood furniture began to be produced by Evans, which was soon taken over by Herman Miller, Inc. This company continues to produce Eames style furniture in the United States to this day. In 1949, Charles and Ray designed and built their own California home as part of the Case Study House Program sponsored by Arts and Architecture Magazine. Their unique design and innovative use of materials made this house an example for architects and designers worldwide. It is considered one of the most important post-war residences built anywhere in the world. Eames’ furniture creations, playful films, and beautiful steel-and-glass house were rhythmically colorful and gained worldwide fame. Ray Eames’ personal style and wardrobe was also something worthy of mention, however, it was a much more subtle attraction. On most days, you would find Ray wearing starchy white blouses, trim square-necked jumpers, waist-cropped jackets and dirndl skirts. This style was often emulated by her contemporaries. She donned this look throughout her lifetime, regardless of the changing trends. What works is better than what looks good. The looks good can change, but what works, works.” -Ray Eames Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 10: Eileen Gray “(Our furniture is) suited to our existence, in proportion to our rooms and in accordance with our aspirations and feelings.” —Eileen Gray Unlike most of the other women who made an impact on early 20th century design, Irish-born Eileen Gray did not have the advantage of working with a powerful male mentor. As a woman, Eileen Gray was also denied access to the supportive networks from which her male contemporaries benefited. Even facing such challenges, Eileen Gray distinguished herself and is now regarded as one of the most important furniture designers and architects of the early 20th century. In addition, she has been one of the most influential women in these fields. Her distinctive design style has inspired both modernism and “Art Deco”. Eileen Gray initially sought after a career in drawing and painting. When she was 20 years old, she attended classes at the Slade School of Fine Art in London. After several years, and moves to Paris, Ireland, then back to London, Gray found that her drawing and painting courses were becoming less satisfying. She took an interest in lacquer work after coming across a lacquer repair shop in Soho. In 1906, Gray moved back to Paris, into an apartment where she remained for much of her working life. Here, she met Japanese artisan Seizo Sugawara (or Sugawara-san), who worked in the laquer industry and originated from an area of Japan that was known for its decorative lacquer work. Eileen worked with Sugawara for four years. Even after developing “lacquer disease” (a rash that is hard to heal) on her hands, she persisted in her work. By 1912, she was producing pieces to commission for some of Paris’s richest clients. It was not until 1913, at thirty-five years old, that she exhibited any of her work. When she did, however, it was a great success. These and other works by Eileen Gray are now considered icons of the International Style: “Bibendum Chair” – a voluptuous leather and tubular steel, perfect for lounging and socializing “The E-1027 House” – Gray designed the furniture, and collaborated with Jean Badovici on the house’s structure. “E-1027” stands for their names: E for Eileen, 10 for Jean (J is the tenth letter of the alphabet), 2 for Badovici and 7 for Gray “E-1027 glass and tubular steel table” – This chic table was one of the pieces designed with the house Photos Courtesy of PGMod.com and Wikimedia. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 11: Marianne Brandt Brandt’s designs for household objects such as lamps, ashtrays and teapots are considered the harbinger of modern industrial design. Brandt will forever be associated with the ‘Bauhaus’. During the mid to late 1920’s Marianne Brandt was at the peak of her creative flow. She produced numerous designs, in quick succession, that are now considered icons of ‘Bauhaus’ design. Marianne Brandt was born in Germany in 1893. In 1911, she went to study painting and sculpture at the Grand-ducal College of Fine Arts in Weimar, and remained there for seven years. Following her schooling, Marianne married a Norwegian painter named Erik Brandt. The couple lived in Norway and the South of France, before joining the Weimar Bauhaus in 1923. At Bauhaus, Marianne became a student of László Moholy-Nagy, a Hungarian modernist theorist and designer, in the metal workshop. Erik Brandt returned alone to Norway, and the couple would eventually divorce 12 years later. In 1926, Marianne Brandt became deputy head of the metalworking workshop, responsible for most important Bauhaus contracts, as well as collaborations with industry. These contracts for the production of lights and other metal workshop designs were actually one of the few workshops helping to fund the school. Marianne Brandt was the only woman who took part in the “Metallwerkstatt” of the Bauhaus. Her objects are an excellent example of her research, which centered around ways to simplify the industrial processes of spinning and printing. During her time at the Bauhaus, Marianne Brandt produced works have become icons of Bauhaus movement. These include her innovative designs of items such as: Metal ashtrays Tea and coffee services Lamps Other household objects Brandt rose to the top of her profession in a time that is hardly renowned for sexual equality in the workplace. She achieved great success, despite the odds being stacked against her. Marianne Brandt’s work indicates a feeling of enthusiasm for modern culture. Background Photos courtesy of Christian Stock (flickr), Bauhaus ashtray photo courtesy of Geheimnisträgerin (wikimedia). Tea Infuser photo courtesy of Christos Vittoratos. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design 12: Eva Zeisel “The joy of creating beautiful things for people ‘to please the eye, and invite the hand to touch’ is evident in all of Eva Zeisel’s designs, whether produced in ceramic, plastic, metal, wood or glass.” – The Schein-Joseph International Museum of Ceramic Art Eva Zeisel overcame many odds in her journey to prevail as a respected figure in the world of midcentury modern design. Not only did she have to overcome the odds of being a woman in a malecentric field, but she also was forced to endure a year and a half prison sentence at the beginning of her career, for something of which she was completely innocent. However, this amazing woman not only overcame these odds and went on to have a successful career. She also lived to be 105 years old! At 17 years old, Eva Zeisel aspired to be an artist. Born in Budapest, Hungary in 1906, Eva had always possessed a deep appreciation for art, and wanted to pursue a career in painting. This was slightly unusual, considering all of her family had pursued successful careers in the fields of science. Her mother, Laura Polanyi Stricker, was the first woman to get a PhD from the University of Budapest. Laura’s brothers were also well known, one as a sociologist and economist, and the other a physical chemist and philosopher of science. Although she was still destined to be an artist, Eva soon decided (with the strong encouragement of her mother) that her career pursuit should not lie in a canvas, brush, and palette. She set out to pursue something that would be a bit more “practical”, yet would still allow her to express her creativity and artistic passion. So, in the early 1920’s Eva abandoned the pursuit of painting and began working with ceramic arts. She apprenticed herself to a traditional potter and began learning her trade. Although the apprentice life can be very difficult, Eva quickly rose to the challenge and soon graduated to journeyman status. In only a year, her work was chosen for display and won honorable mention at the Philadelphia Sesquicentennial. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved. A "Man's Profession" No More. The Women Pioneers of Architecture and Design Prison Sentence In the 1930’s, Eva moved to Berlin, and then on to Russia. Here, Eva was working as artistic director, overseeing the Russian China and glass industry. During this time, Eva was falsely accused of participation in a plot to assassinate Joseph Stalin, and spent close to a year and a half in prison. She was released in 1937 and extricated to Vienna. According to “The Eva Zeisel Forumhe”, she soon fled Vienna as the Nazis began their occupation. Eva then married Hans Zeisel, and they moved to the United States in 1938. Here, Eva quickly began to establish herself as a respected artist. Big Break Eva’s “big break” came in the early 1940s when she was asked to create modernist tableware for the Museum of Modern Art (MoMa) in New York. She was featured in a one woman show at MoMA, and was given the opportunity to introduce her designs to the American public. Eva’s Museum dinnerware set remains as a part of MoMa’s permanent collection. Eva Zeisel also has permanent collections in the most renowned museums across the US and abroad. Learn more by visiting www.PGMod.com or by calling 1-877-PGMOD-07 (746-6307) Copyright © 2012. Paradigm Gallery. All rights reserved.