Course Overview: In AP Language and Composition, students will examine the techniques and approaches
writers use to create meaningful text. The course requires intensive reading of prose written in a variety of periods,
on a variety of subjects and extensive writing for a variety of purposes. The course includes works of fiction and
non-fiction. Writing assignments range from informal, reflective journals to formal, critical papers that emphasize
analysis and argumentation. While the work may be very challenging, the students will develop an improved ability
to think, read, and write critically.
Summer Assignment: Because of the intensity of the course, it is essential that students begin honing their critical
reading, thinking, and writing skills prior to the first day of class. Please read and evaluate the instructions for all
parts of this assignment. All parts of the assignment are due the first day the class meets. Be prepared to share
your work in class discussions and in various testing situations.
Integrity: Academic integrity is essentiaL All coursework is to be completed by the individual student, without
outside assistance from study aids or peers. All work is to be handwritten unless otherwise instructed.
Contact Information: I will be available to answer questions via e-mail throughout the summer at
[email protected] Of course, I will not be checking this e-mail every day, but I will check often enough to
answer your questions and address your concerns. In addition, if a student waits until the last week of summer,
there will not be enough rime for me to help a himJher complete the assignments.
Resources Needed: First, students need to study the literary terms which are included with this assignment. A
complete understanding of terms and definitions will be needed to complete the assignments.
Students will need to purchase a 2~, 3 ring binder and a set of dividers. Notebook should be filled with regular ruled
notebook paper, not college ruled paper. All work will be kept in this binder.
Students will need a copy of John Steinbeck's The Grapes ofWrath. A copy of this novel can be checked out from me
before Friday, May
2011, or the students may purchase their own copies. I suggest the purchase of this novel, so
that students can actively annotate as they read.
Students must also purchase a copy of 50 Essays A Portable Anthology by Samuel Cohen. The latest edition is the third
and ISBN is 13: 978-0-312-60965-8. This may be purchased from any site or ordered from any bookstore.
A Portable Anthology, Samuel Cohen
Read: "Introduction for Students: Active Reading and the Writing Process"
Read and Complete the Following Questions: "Graduation" by Maya Angelou
Questions on Rhetoric and Style:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Angelou separates the essay into two sections. The first is a relatively brief five paragraphs. How
serve as an introduction?
As you read the piece, take careful note ofAngelou's figurative language. Cite as many examples as you can
find. How do they serve the speaker's purpose?
Explain the relationship between paragraphs 4 and 5.
Note three examples of hyperbole in "Graduation." How does their presence affect the piece?
Note Angelou's many appeals to pathos. Explain their rhetorical effect.
Angelou use rhetorical techniques to present her views in paragraphs 42-461
Is Angelou's conclusion, as presented in the last three paragraphs, a satisfactory one? Explain.
Read and Complete the Following Questions: "On Dumpster Diving" by Lars Eighner
Questions on Rhetoric and Style:
1. What is
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. S. 9. effect of Eighner's attention to language in the first five paragraphs? Does this opening appeal
more to ethos, logos, or pathos? Explain.
In paragraph 7, Eighner identifies the rhetorical direction he plans to follow. What is the effect of such
Note the technical and clinical nature of much of part one of the essay. In paragraph 19, for example, he
writes of de-emulsification and the behavior of pathogens. What is the effect of such scientific language
and information?
Identify and explain two examples of irony in the section about the students (paragraphs 25,30).
Paragraph 37 concludes, "I do not want to paint too romantic a picture. Dumpster diving has serious
drawbacks as a way of life." What is the effect of these sentences? What is their rhetorical purpose?
Note the careful distinction Eighner makes between the "true scavenger" and the "can scrounger." Vlhat
purpose does it serve?
Do Eighner's thoughts of Lizbeth in paragraph 63 appeal chiefly to ethos, logos, or pathos? Explain.
Provide an example of an appeal to ethos. Explain its signigicance.
Explain the irony of the closing passage (paragraphs 7S,SO).
Read and Complete the Following Questions: "Shooting an Elephant" by George Orwell
Questions for Discuss and Writing:
1. \Vhy does Orwell shoot the elephant?
2. Orwell uses the anecdote of his shooting an elephant to illustrate his feelings about imperialism. What are
those feelings, and how does the
illustrate them?
3. What would you have done in Orwell's place? Why?
Questions on Rhetoric and Style:
1. 2. 3. 4. Explain the implied assumption underlying the statement in the first sentence.
Describe the nature of the voice in the opening paragraph. Note instances of humor and irony.
What is Orwell's attitude toward imperialism?
What is Orwell's
toward the native peoples!
5. What is Orwell's attitude toward his own position in Burma?
6. In the second paragraph, what is suggested by the qualifiers uand secretly, of course" and you can catch
him off duty"?
7. Note Orwell's language in paragraph 5. What are the rhetorical effects of umerely ravaging their homes"
and as it would be to an English crowd"?
8. In paragraph 6 Orwell states, "As soon as I saw the elephant I knew with perfect certainty that I ought not
factors that influence his
to shoot him." Why then, does he decide to shoot the elephant? Refer to
9. In paragraph II Orwell states, "At last, after what seemed a long time-it might have been five seconds, I
dare say-he sagged to his knees." Explain what such a characterization of the time period suggests about
10. Compare and contrast the description of the killing of the elephant as related in paragraphs 1O~ 13 with that
of the killing of the Indian as related in paragraph 4. Consider the rhetorical purpose of the descriptions.
11. The final paragraph presents Europeans' views of the elephant killing. Explain the differences.
12. Discuss Orwell's tone and attitude in the final paragraph.
Read and answer the follOwing questions:
Death of the Moth" by Virginia Woolf
1. What is the setting of the essay-season, time of day, speaker's literal position, town or country? Why is
this important to the essay?
2. What figure of speech if the description of the rooks at the end of the first paragraph?
3. How would you describe the speaker's attitude in paragraph 2?
4. What is the meaning of the sentence that ends paragraph 2: "He was little or nothing but life"?
5. In what ways is the third paragraph the center of the essay (apart from its being the third in a series of
6. Why does the speaker lay the pencil down at the end of paragraph 4?
7. How do you interpret the meaning of her statement in paragraph 5: "Again, somehow, one saw life, a pure
8. What examples of sensory detail do you note throughout the essay?
9. What elements of fiction-plot, character, setting, exposition, climax-do you find in this essay?
10. Woolf's style in this essay might be described as discursive, with longer, complex sentences predominating. Yet she uses a few brief, simple sentences. Identify two and discuss their impact. 11. When does the speaker begin to identify with the moth? What evidence do you find of her deepening
involvement with it?
12. Trace the emergence of combat imagery in the essay.
13. Woolf does not expliCitly state a thesis, but she could be said to have an implicit one. How would you
state it?
14. How would you describe the speaker's attitude toward death in
15. What is her overall tone?
The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
Read the book carefully. Students should be actively reading. This means pausing to reflect on ideas, 'Vvriting
notes, looking up unfamiliar
and marking important pages. Because annotating (marking, underlining,
highlighting) promotes critical reading, an essential skill in both high school and college courses, it is
that each
student purchase his/her own copy of the text in order to mark, underline, highlight, note, question, etc.
Read and complete the following:
In addition to annotating
text, students will keep a reading log in their notebook. There are 30 chapters in the
novel; therefore, the requirement for entries is 30. Each entry consists of a quote taken from the chapter which
inspired the student to think or question some relevance in that chapter. A perfect place to begin looking for these
entries is to document literary elements as the reader notices them. Later, the reader will notice connections to
earlier ideas or
Reader can also document any inference which he/she might draw while reading.
A.P. English Language and Composition
Rhetorical Terms, Devices, and Strategies
Study the following list. Although the definitions are accurate, you will need to research
some of the terms further, especially to find illustrative examples. You will not have
your teacher with you, so it is imperative that you operate as a temporary autodidact.
You will need to know the terms and definitions to complete the written assignment, and
you will be expected to be familiar with them as of the first week of class. The first
section of the list is comprised of terms with which you are probably already familiar.
For your logs, find examples of the terms 'from the second section; you may use words
from the first section to help develop your log explanations.
diction· the word choices made by a writer
figurative language· language employing one or more figures of speech such as
metaphor, imagery, synecdoche, metonymy
rhetoric· The art of presenting ideas in a clear, effective, and persuasive manner
rhetorical devices· literary techniques used to heighten the effectiveness of
rhetorical strategies· format or structure followed by a writer such as cataloguing,
comparison/contrast, process analysis
structure· the arrangement or 'framework of a sentence, paragraph, or entire work
style· the combination of distinctive features of a literary work such as diction, syntax,
tone, or figurative language
syntax· the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words
theme· a central idea of a work
thesis· a sentence that succiQctly states a writer's main point or messag,e'
tone· the attitude of a writer, u'sually implied, toward the subject or audience (also
called stance)
academic argument - writing that is addressed to an audience well informed about a
topic, that aims to convey a clear and compelling point in a somewhat formal
style, and that follows agreed-upon conventions of usage, punctuation, and
accidental condition in a definition, an element that helps to explain what's being
defined but isn't essential to it
ad hominem argument - a fallacy of argument in which a writer's claim is answered by
irrelevant attacks on her character
analogy. a trope that involves an extended comparison between something unfamiliar
and something more familiar for the purpose of illuminating or dramatizing the
anaphora - a figure of speech involving repetition, particularly of the same word at the
beginning of several clauses
antithesis - the use of parallel structures to call attention to contrasts of opposites
anthimeria - the use of a word as if it were a member of a different part of speech
antonomasia - use of title, epithet, or description in place of a name
apposition - consecutive expressions in which the second identifies or supplements the
argument - (1) a spoken, written, or visual text that expresses a point of view; (2) the
use of evidence and reason to discover some version of the truth
argumentation - rhetorical strategy leading an audience toward conviction, an
agreement that a claim is true or reasonable, of that a course of action is
artistic appeal - support for an argument that a writer creates based on principles of
reason and shared knowledge rather than on facts and evidence
assumption - a belief regarded as true, upon which other claims are based
assumption, cultural - a belief regarded as true or commonsensical within a particular
audience - the person or persons to whom an argument is directed
authority - the quality conveyed by a writer who is knowledgeable about his subject and
con'fident in that knowledge
background - the information a writer provides to create a context for an argument
backing - in Toulmin argument, the evidence provided to support a warrant
balanced sentence - a sentence that employs parallel structure of approximately the
same length and importance
bandwagon appeal - a fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended
on the grounds that everyone else is following it
begging the question - a fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the very
grounds that are in doubt or dispute
causal argument - an argument that seeks to explain theeffect(s)of a cause, the
cause(s) of an effect, or\.a causal chain
cause and effect - a strategy which examines the causes and consequences of events
or ideas; the concept that that an action will produce a certain response to the
action in the form of another event
ceremonial argument - an argument that deals with current values and addresses
questions of praise and blame
character, appeal based on - a strategy in which a writer presents an authoritative or
credible self-image to dispose an audience to accept a claim
claim - a statement that asserts a belief or truth
classical oration - a highly structured form of an argument developed in ancient
Greece and Rome to defend or refute a thesis (includes exordium, narratio,
partitio, confirmatio, refutatio, and peroratio
confirmatio - the fourth part of a classical oration, in which a speaker or writer offers
evidence for the claim
classification/division - a strategy which involves sorting individual items into
categories (classification) and/or breaking a whole into parts (division)
colloquialism - informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
comparison/contrast - strategy which analyzes how two or more things are similar
(comparison) and/or how two or more things are different (contrast)
complex sentence - a sentence with one independent clause and at least one
dependent clause
compound sentence - a sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses,
often joined by one or more conjunctions
compound-complex sentence - a sentence with two or more principal clauses and
one or more subordinate clauses
connotation - the suggestions or associations that surround most words and extend
beyond their literal meaning. creating associational effects
context - the entire situation in which a piece of writing takes place, including the
purpose, audience, time and place of writing, influences, material conditions, and
conviction - the belief that a claim or course of action is true or reasonable
credibility - an impression of integrity, honesty. and trustworthiness conveyed by a
writer in an argument
criterion - in evaluative arguments, the standard by which something is measured to
determine its quality or value
cumulative sentence - a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated
by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (also called loose
'deductive reasoning - reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general
principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
definition - a strategy which strives to inform the audience on what a term means and
how it is different from other terms in its class
definition, argument of - an argument in which the claim specifies that something does
or doesn't meet the conditions of features set forth in a definition
deliberative argument - an argument that deals with action to be taken in the future,
focusing on matters of policy
delivery - the presentation of C\ spoken argument
denotation - the literal meaning of a word; the dictionary definition
description - a strategy characterized by physical descriptions, mainly relying on the
dialect - a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or
pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographic region
dogmatism - a fallacy of argument in which a claim is supported on the grounds that it's
the only conclusion acceptable within a given community
either-or choice - a fallacy of argument in which a complicated issue is misrepresented
as offering only two possible alternatives, one of which is often made to seem
vastly preferable to the other
emotional appeal - a strategy in which a writer tries to generate specific emotions
(such as fear, envy, anger, or pity) in an audience to dispose it to accept a claim
enthymeme - (1) in Tou/min argument, a statement that links a claim to a a supporting
reason; (2) in classical rhetoric, a syllogism with one term understood but not
epidelctic argument - see ceremonial argument
equivocation - a fallacy of argument in which a lie is given the appearance of truth, or
in which the truth is misrepresented in deceptive language
essential condition - in a definition, an element that must be part of the definition but,
by itself, ,isn't enough to define the term (See also accidental condition and
sufficient condition)
ethical appeal - see character, appeal based on, and ethos
ethnographic observation - a form of field research involving close and extended
observation of a group, event, or phenomenon; note-taking; analysis; and
ethos - the self-image a writer creates to define a relationship with readers, concerning
especially authority and credibility
evaluation, argument of - an argument in which the claim specifies that something
does or doesn't meet established criteria
evidence - material offered to support an argument
example, definition by - a definition that operates by identifying individual
example of what's being defined
exemplification - a strategy in which one or more particular cases, or examples, are
used to illustrate or explain a general point or an abstract concept
exordium - the first part of a classical oration, in which a speaker or writer tries to win
the attention and goodwill of an audience while introducing a subject
experimental evidence - evidence gathered through experimentation; often evidence
that can be qualified
fact, argument of - an argument in which the claim can be proved or disproved with
specific evidence or testimony
fallacy of argument - a flaw in the structure of an argument that renders its conclusion
invalid or suspect
false authority - a fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the expertise of
someone who lacks appropriate credentials
false analogy - a fallacy of argument in which a comparison between two objects or
concepts is inaccurate elr inconsequential
faulty causality - a fallacy of argument making the unwarranted assumption that
because one event follows another, the first event causes the second (also called
post hoc, ergo propter hoc)
firsthand evidence - data (including surveys, observation, interviews) collected and
personally examined by the writer
fisking - blogosphere slang describing a point-by-point refutation that the writer finds
inaccurate or rhetorically suspect
flashpoint - a move in an argument that instantly raises questions about the logic of an
argument or whether a particular strategy is fair, accurate, or principled (See
fallacy of argument)
forensic argument - an argument that deals with actions that have occurred in the past
formal de'finition - a definition that identifies something first by the general class to
which it belongs (genus) and then by the characteristics that distinguish it from
other members of that class (species)
genus - in a definition, the general class to which an object of concept belongs
grounds - in Toulmin argument, the evidence provided to support a claim or reason, or
hard evidence - support for an argument using facts, statistics, testimony, or other
evidence the writer 'finds
hasty generalization - a fallacy of argument in which an inference is drawn from
insufficient data
hyperbole - use of overstatement for special effect
hypothesis - an expectation for the findings of one's research or the conclusion to
one's argument
idiom - a expression in a given language that cannot be understood from the literal
meaning of the words in the expression; a regional speech or dialect
imagery - use of details and descriptions to create sensory experience for the reader or
listener; the elements in a literary work that evoke mental images (pictures).
sensation, or emotion. Imagery can be visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory,
kinesthetic, or somatic.
immediate reason - the cause that leads directly to an effect, such as an automobile
accident that results in an injury to the driver (also known a proximate cause)
inartistic appeal - support for an argument using facts, statistics, eyewitness testimony,
or other evidence the writer finds
inductive reasoning - deriving general principles from particular facts or instances; the
method of science
intended readers - the actual, real-life people whom a writer consciously wants to
address in a piece of writing
invention - the process of finding and creating arguments to support a claim
inverted word order - moving grammatical elements of a sentence out of their usual
order for special effect
invitational argument - aimed not at vanquishing an opponent but at inviting: others to
collaborate in exploring mutually satisfying ways to solve problems invoked readers - the readers directly addressed or implied in a text, which may include some that the w(iter didn't consciously intend to reach
irony - use of language that suggests a meaning in contrast to the literal meaning of the
jargon - the specialized language or vocabulary of a particular group or profession
juxtaposition - placing words or phrases close together for comparison or contrast
line of argument - a strategy or approach used in an argument, such as emotional or
ethical appeals
logical appeal - a strategy in which a writer uses facts, evidence, and reason to make
audience members accept a claim
logos - see logical appeal
malapropism - the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds
metaphor - a trope that makes a comparison
metonymy - a trope in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name but by the
name of something intimately associated with the thing or concept
moral equivalence - a fallacy of argument in which no distinction is made between
serious issues, problems, or failings and much less important ones
narratio - the second part of a classical narration, in which a speaker or writer presents
the facts of the case
narration - a strategy which tells a story, usually chronologically
necessary reason - a cause that must be present for an effect to occur
non sequitur - a fallacy of argument in which claims, reasons, or warrant fail to connect
logically; one point doesn't follow from another
operational definition - a definition that identifies an object by what it does of by the
conditions that create it
oxymoron - a figure or speech that combines contradictory terms
paradox - a seemingly true statement (or group of statements) that leads to a
contradiction or a situation which seems to defy logic or intuition
parallelism - use of similar grammatical structures or forms for pleasing effect
parody - a form of humor in which a writer transforms something familiar into a different
form to make a comic point
partitio - the third part of a classical oration, in which a speaker or writer divides up the
subject and explains what the claim will be
pathos, appeal to - see emotional appeal
peroratio - the sixth and final part of a classical oration, in which a speaker or writer
summarizes the cause and moves the audience to action
persona - the facade or mask that one presents to the world; public image; social role;
tool or method of marketing
persuasion - the act of seeking to change someone else's point of view or to move
someone from conviction to action
precedents - actions or decisions in the past that have established a pattern or model
for subsequent actions
premise - a statement or position regarded as true and upon which other claims are
process analysis - a strategy which presents a series of steps in order to obtain a
particular result; explanation of how something is done
propaganda - an argument advancing a point of view without regard to reason,
fairness, or truth
proposal argument - an argument in which a claim is made in favor of or opposing a
specific course of action
pun - a form of word play which suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple
meanings of words, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or
rhetorical effect (also called paranomasia)
purpose - the goal of an argument
qualifiers - words or phrases that limit the scope of a claim
qualitative argument - an argument of evaluation that relies on nonnumerical criteria
supported by reason, tradition, precedent, or logic
reason - in writing, a statement that expands a claim by offering evidence to support it
rebuttal - an answer that challenges or refutes a specific claim or charge
rebuttal, conditions of - in Tou/min argument, potential objections loan argument
refutatio - the fifth part of a classical oration, in which the speaker or writer
acknowledges and refutes opposing claims or evidence
reversed structures - a figure of speech that involves the inversion of clauses
rhetorical analysis - an examination of how well the components of an argument work
together to persuade or move an audience
rhetorical questions - questions posed to raise an issue or create an effect rather than
to get a response
. Rogerian argument - an approach that audiences respond best when they don't feel
threatened, stressing trust and seeking common ground
satire - a form of humor in which a writer uses wit to expose - and possibly correct ­
human failings
scare tactic - a fallacy of argument presenting an issue in terms or exaggerated threats
or dangers
scheme - a figure of speech that involves a special arrangement of words, such as
secondhand evidence - any information taken from outside sources, including library
research and online sources (see also firsthand sources)
sentimental appeal - a fallacy of argument in which an appeal is based on excessive
sibilance - alliteration or consonance using the sound of s or sh, often connotative of
serpents or allegorical evil
signifying - a verbal strategy of indirection that exploits the gap between the denotative
and figurative meaning of words simile - a trope that makes a comparison using like or as slippery slope - a fallacy of argument exaggerating the possibility that a relatively inconsequential action or choice today will have serious adverse consequences
in the future
solecism - nonstandard grammatical usage
species - in a definition, the particular features that distinguish one member of a genus
from another spin - a kind of political advocacy that makes any fact or event, however unfavorable, serve a political purpose"
. '. stasis theory - in classical rhetoric, a method for coming up with appropriate arguments
by determining the nature of a given situation, such as a question of fact or a
question of quality
straw man - a fallacy of argument in which an opponent's position in misrepresented as
being more extreme than it actually is, so that it's easier to refute
sufficient condition - in a definition, an element or set of elements adequate to define
at term sufficient reason - a cause that alone is enough to produce a particular effect syllogism - in formal logic, a structure of deductive logic in which correctly formed major and minor premises lead to a necessary conclusion
synecdoche - a trope in which a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing
synesthesia - figurative expression of the perception of one sense in terms of another
tautology - an unnecessary or redundant repetition of meaning, using different and
dissimilar words that effectively say the same thing twice testimony - a personal experience or observation used to support an argument Toulmin argument - a method of informal logic; its key components include claim, reason, warrant, backing, and grounds
trope - a figure of speech that involves a change in the usual meaning of signification of
words such as metaphor, simile, and analogy
understatement - a figure of speech that makes a weaker statement than a situation
seems to call for (also called litotes)
values, appeal to - a strategy in which a writer invokes shared principles and traditions
of a society as a reason for accepting a claim
vernacular - the everyday, common speech of a particular country or region, often
involving nonstandard usage .
warrant - in Toulmin argument, the statement (expressed or implied) that established
logical connection between a claim and its supporting reason
zeugma - a figure of speech in which two or more parts of a sentence are joined with a
single common verb or noun
Aphorism: a short statement on a serious subject "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." Apostrophe: a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. Asyntedon: the deliberate omission of conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. Chiasmus: a figure of speech in which two successive phrases or clauses are parallel in syntax but reverse the order of the analogous words. "All for one and one for all." Dumas Conceit: a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects. Diction: refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. Didactic: from the Greek, didactic literally mean teaching. Euphemism: from the Greek for "good speech, euphemisms are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts. Figurative Language: writing or speech that is not intended to carry a literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid. Figure of Speech: a figure of speech is a device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Include: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement Inference/infer: to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information pre:sen~ed.
Loose Sentence: a type of sentence in which the main clause is followed by subordinate clauses
or phrases that supply additional detail.
Pathetic Fallacy: a special type of personification in which inanimate aspects of nature, such as
the landscape or the weather, are represented as having human qualities or feelings.
Pedantic: an adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly,
academic, or bookish.
Periodic Sentence: a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end,
usually preceded by subordinate clauses or phrases.
Polysyndeton: the presence of more conjunctions than normal.
Rhetoric: from the Greek for orator, this term describes the principles governing the art of
writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
Rhetorical Modes: this term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the
major kinds of writing. Four most common: exposition, argument, description, narration.
Sarcasm: from the Greek meaning to tear flesh, sarcasm involves bitter, caustic language that is
meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something.
Shift (rhetorical): in writing, a movement from one thought or idea or tone to another; a
Syntax: the wayan author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences­
arrangement of words in the sentence.
Tone: similar to mood, tone describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the
audience, or both.
Transitions: a word or phrase that links different ideas.
Zeugma: the use of a single word to refer to or to describe two different words in a sentence
resulting in two different meanings.
ETHOS (Credibility), ethical appeal: means convincing by the character of the author. We
te:o.d to believe people that we respect. The character of the speaker or writer as reflected in
speech or writing; the quality or set of emotions that a speaker or writer enacts in order to affect
an audience.
PATHOS (Emotional): means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. Greek for
feeling-the quality in art and literature that stimulates pity, tenderness, or sorrow.
LOGOS (Logical): means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important
technique, looks at deductive and inductive reasoning.