When you have completed this unit, you will be able to: Identify each type of simple machine. Calculate the mechanical advantage of simple Machines. Understand the following terms: force, effort, and work, motion, kinetic and potential energy, inertia, velocity, and resistance. Demonstrate your knowledge of simple machines by drawing and creating a catapult. Students will create a PowerPoint presentation on the history and mechanics of their style of catapult. Student will be able to apply the scientific method to the completion of the project. Procedures: 1. Using various sources, research catapults and decide on a type of catapult. 2. On page 2 of this packet, draw thumbnail sketches of 5 different styles of catapults and label. 3. There will be a PowerPoint at least 10 slides long. Remember – all information from a source needs to be cited. It is someone else’s, and they deserve the credit. 4. Research catapult designs along with simple machines as you are going to build and design a catapult, which will launch a practice golf ball 15 feet onto a target. 5. Complete a storyboard or an outline for your presentation. See page 4 for report criteria. Have Mr. Wright check here when finished __________ 6. You may now begin work on your presentation and your catapult. 7. Complete page 3 8. A final catapult competition will take place the week after Open House. Catapults will be required to launch a practice golf ball for both distance and accuracy. 9. A tri-fold, science fair display will be constructed to display photos, drawings, data and plans of your project, as well as a final version of the conclusions from your packet. As this is a group project , all companies have managers, technicians and information systems operators. With the others in your group fill in the following information: Group Name: Manager: Technician: Information Specialist(s) Design Restrictions: Maximum Dimensions of Catapult base: 12” X 18” Height cannot exceed 30” Width cannot exceed 24” Materials: Base and all structural components MUST be made of Wood, but may be of any wood. Force may be applied by any means, but advanced designs will detract from historical accuracy grade. Trigger mechanism, ball holder and axel materials are unrestricted. A part of the grade will be based on historical accuracy. As this is a group project, you need to organize your group into specific jobs. THE MANAGER is responsible for making sure all portions of the assignments are completed on time. He/She is responsible for coordination of all aspects of the unit. Also, they are responsible for keeping all group members on task. If the information specialist needs help then the technician works for them until the technician has some work to do of their own. Keep all members busy! THE TECHNICIAN is responsible for the actual construction of the project. She/He is responsible for all engineering, testing and design changes. Also, needs to make sure any information is delivered to the manager. INFORMATION SPECIALIST is responsible for the gathering of information, compiling of data, and creation of the final presentation. This includes all inputting of data, surfing of the web, and gathering of materials. Using the space provided: Complete 5 thumbnail sketches of a possible catapult design. Remember, these are quick small sketches with just enough detail for you to get the main idea of the project idea. In the following space, provide a detailed sketch of your group’s final idea. This should show enough detail so that you will be able to construct a detailed drawing from your sketch. This should have at least 2 views of the project a top and front, or top and side When creating the presentation, consider the categories below: Presentation Complete the storyboard on the next page. Good Presentation with mainly text and limited sound, movie clips and still art. Student read info and ads to information in presentation. Better Presentation with some sound, movie clips and still art. Students read and explain the information as it is presented. The presentation should include the following information: 1. An introduction to catapults. 2. A brief description of the catapults. 3. A short section on the history of catapults. Who first used them, what materials they used, how has this been utilized over time. 4. A description of how the catapult works. 5. A section on how to calculate the amount of work the catapult can generate. 6. Example of the uses of the catapult. 7. Include a short section on your project design. 8. Use the scanner to scan your drawings into the presentation, provide a brief description of your building process, problems encountered, and performance data*. Also, include a description of the simple machines incorporated into your catapult. 9. A closing, this should be a summary of all the materials in your report. The Display should include: 1. Pictures of the process of building and testing 2. Purpose of the project 3. Information about your catapult 4. Testing data 5. Plans 6. Calculations Story board: In each of the following boxes complete the presentation your group is doing frame by frame. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Catapult Testing: There are two components to the competition. One is for accuracy, the other for distance. During the competition, you will be allowed to make one type of adjustment. This can be changes to the amount of force, the angle of the launch, or any other variable you can implement in your design. It is your responsibility, as you’re testing you catapult, to fill in the data below; Get to know how your catapult works, responds to adjustments, what are the optimum release points and angel of launch. Once you are ready to start testing your catapult, see me to check out a practice golf ball. The tables below should be filled in and the data included in your presentation and display. Performance Data: This will be results from your first day of testing. This will be completed the day before competition day. (See last page for data to complete the following) Mass of the Projectile: _________________________ (to be provided by Mr. Wright) Use the table below to complete your accuracy test data: Trial # Distance from target Distance from target Using English system Using metric system 1 2 3 4 5 Avg. Adjustments made to machine Use the table below to complete your test data on Distance trials: Time Ball is aloft Trial Distance from Launch Angle (to the nearest tenth) (t) # Launch Site (d) (Meters) Adjustments made to machine 1 2 3 4 5 Avg. Mass of Golf Ball: ___________ Avg. Dist. Golf Ball Flew in Distance Trials: ______________ Work done by catapult: _______________ (W= Force (Mass) x Dist.) Initial Vertical velocity of Golf ball: V(y Initial) = 9.8(½ t) V(y Initial) = 9.8(1/2 ___) = ______ m/s Avg. Height achieved in trajectory: h = -16t2 + vt + s (Where s is the height of the release point of your catapult) h = -16__2 + ___ ___ + ___ h = ______ m Initial Horizontal Velocity of Golf Ball: V(x Initial) = Dist. (d) ÷ Time (t) V(x Initial) = ________ ÷ _________ = _____________ m/s Accuracy Check: Calculated distance = 2VxVy(initial) ÷ g = 2 ________ X _______ ÷ g = ___________ Compare your calculations to Actual Numbers: [(Calculated Distance – Actual) ÷ Actual] X 100% Is there a difference? How can you account for the difference?