Name ___________________________________________ per.________ Date ____________________ Bacteria, Viruses and Immune System Unit Review This review is only a guide to help you prepare for the unit test. It is due at the time of the test. 1. How long are bacteria thought to have existed on earth? Why is this significant? 2. What are bacterial characteristics? a. b. c. d. e. f. 3. What process do bacteria use to reproduce? 4. In terms of genetic diversity, how useful is binary fission? Why is genetic diversity important? 5. Identify and explain each of the three processes that bacteria use to increase their genetic diversity 6. Label the bacterial cell below. Explain the function of each structure 7. How would Gram negative bacteria differ from the bacterial cell represented in the diagram above? 8. Why is it important to distinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria? 9. Explain how it is possible to distinguish between Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. 10. Identify and describe each of the three common shapes of bacteria below. a. b. c. 11. Bacteria are said to display metabolic diversity. What does this mean? 12. Some bacteria are autotrophs. What does this mean? 13. What are two sources of energy for autotrophic bacteria? 14. Explain the following: a. obligate aerobe b. obligate anaerobe c. facultative anaerobe 15. When people think of bacteria, they most often think of bacteria causing disease. Is this an accurate way to think about most bacteria? Explain. 16. How do bacteria cause disease? 17. What are antibiotics? What are five ways that they can function? a. b. c. d. e. 18. Explain why antibiotics don’t damage eukaryotic cells or viruses. 19. Bacteria are increasingly becoming resistant to antibiotics. Explain why this is a problem and how people are contributing to this problem. 20. Why are viruses referred to as obligate intracellular parasites? 21. What are two viral lifecycles? Explain each below. 22. Which of the lifecycles above would result in disease symptoms for the host? Explain why. 23. What is a retrovirus? 24. What is reverse transcriptase? What type of virus would it be found in and why is it needed? 25. Label the viruses below. Identify which virus below would be a bacteriophage. 26. What additional structure could be found outside of a virus? Where does it come from and what is its purpose? 27. What is the difference between your body’s nonspecific and specific defenses? 28. What is your body’s first line of defense? 29. How do sweat and oils on your skin protect you? 30. What is lysozyme? Where is it found? 31. Describe the inflammatory response. 32. Identify and explain the function of three types of white blood cells found in your nonspecific defenses. a. b. c. 33. Identify and explain the function of two types of protein that are part of your non-specific defenses. a. b. 34. What cells link the nonspecific and specific defenses? Explain how they do so. 35. Your specific defenses are also known as adaptive immunity. Why is this a good name for the process? 36. Identify and explain the role of four types of white blood cells which act only in your specific defenses. a. b. c. d. 37. Describe how the individual cells in the specific immune response “learn” the identity of the invading pathogen. 38. What is the role of helper T cells? 39. What are cytokines? What is their function? 40. Explain the role of cytotoxic T cells 41. Explain the role of B cells. 42. Explain the role of plasma cells. 43. Explain the role of antibodies. 44. Which cells become memory cells? 45. What is the purpose of memory cells? 46. Starting with a pathogen invading the body, explain how your specific immune system functions. 47. Explain the difference between the primary immune response and the secondary immune response. 48. What accounts for the difference between the primary and secondary immune responses? 49. What is a vaccine? 50. Explain how a vaccine works. 51. Explain the concept of herd immunity.