Marine Biology Stahl History of Marine Science and Scientific Method 1. What are the steps of the scientific method in order? 2. How much of the Earth’s surface is covered with seawater? 3. Know the following scientists and their contributions to marine biology: a. Edward Forbes b. Alexander Agassiz c. Charles Darwin d. Charles Wyville Thomas 4. Define oceanography. 5. Define the scientific method. 6. What is the difference between induction and deduction? 7. What is the very first step in the scientific method? 8. Know the contributions of the HMS Beagle and the HMS Challenger. 9. What was the first US Marine Laboratory? 10. What is a scientific theory and in order for it to be accepted what must it show? 11. Define Marine Biology. 12. What is the difference between an independent, dependent, and controlled variable? 13. The earliest recorded direct studies of marine biology came from which people? Marine Biology Stahl Marine Ecology 1. What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration? 2. Define habitat and understand what makes up an organisms habitat. 3. What do nutrients do when they are limited? How do they affect the bay? 4. Where do the products of metabolism accumulate and what are metabolic wastes? 5. Define biosphere. 6. Know the zones of stress and optimal range of an organism. 7. What must organisms that live in the intertidal deal with on a daily basis? 8. What were the first living organisms considered to be? 9. When is an environment considered harsh? 10. Define symbiosis and know the three types of symbiosis. Be able to provide examples. 11. What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm? 12. What is the difference between a community and a population? 13. What are keystone species? 14. What is the difference between Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 survival curves? 15. How do nutrients reach the upper levels of the ocean? 16. How much energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level? 17. What are the important nutrients for photosynthesis? 18. Define ecosystem. 19. What is the difference between abiotic and biotic factors? 20. What fundamental role do animals play in the carbon cycle? 21. What is eutrophication and what can it lead to? Marine Biology Stahl 22. What is the most important marine photosynthetic organism? 23. Where do chemosynthetic organisms get their energy? 24. What is an important inorganic nutrient found in photosynthesis? 25. What is the difference between intraspecific competition and interspecific competition? 26. Why are estuaries important? 27. Define osmosis. 28. Define salinity. 29. What is a niche? Geology of the Ocean Floor 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Know the layers of the Earth: a. Which is the thickest? b. What is the region of the mantle below the crust that serves as a lubricant called? c. What each crust is made up of? d. What is the solid region of crust and upper mantle called? What are island arcs? What are the four major ocean basins? Know the different types of sediment: biogenous, cosmogenous, terrigenous, lithogenous, and hydrogenous. If a core sample is taken 100 km west of and parallel to a ridge system. Magnetic readings of the rock show a reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field. How many km. east of the ridge system must scientists travel to collect a core sample with the same magnetic properties? What is the deepest underwater trench in the world? What are the nine pieces of evidence that support continental drift? What is seafloor spreading the result of? Marine Biology Stahl What was oxygen like during the early development of the atmosphere? 10. How are seamounts formed? 11. How are mid ocean ridges formed? 12. What is a subduction zone? 13. What is the difference between a gulf and a sea? 14. What is the difference between pelagic and benthic? 15. Why was H H Hess so important? 16. What do drowned rivers help create? 17. The continental rise is made up of sediment that is deposited by what? 18. Lithospheric plates move past each other at what regions? 19. What is the area beyond the neritic zone called? 20. What is the oceanic crust made up of and what is the continental crust made up of? 21. What do the forces of the mantle on the crust give way to? 22. What are turbidity currents? 23. What is the abyssal plain? 24. The transition between the continental shelf and the deep floor is what? 25. What do we find where oceanic crust is cracked and magma is emerging? 26. How did gaseous oxygen form in the Earth’s atmospshere? 27. Who coined the term Pangea? 28. What is the difference between convergent, divergent, and transform plate movement? 29. How did the first heterotrophs obtain their energy? 30. What is the gentle slope called that at the base of the continental slope? 31. When Pangea first broke up what two large bodies of land did they form? 9. 32.