Section 3 - Coppell ISD

US History
Fort Burrows
13.3 -- California and the Southwest
READ pgs 391 – 393
Main Idea:
As Americans learned more about California and the Southwest in the 1840s,
many came to think that the US should expand its borders to the Pacific Ocean.
New Mexico Territory – huge region in the Southwest owned by Mexico in the 1800s
Santa Fe Trail – route to Santa Fe, New Mexico, that was used by traders in the
self-sufficient – able to produce enough for one’s own needs
vaquero – Indian or Mexican cowhand
Manifest Destiny – belief held in the 1800s that Americans had the right and the
duty to spread across the continent all the way to the Pacific
Setting the Scene:
Richard Henry Dana reached California after 150 days at sea. His ship had
sailed from Boston around the tip of South America. One “fine Saturday afternoon,”
Dana and his crew sailed into Monterey Bay.
“Everything was as green as nature could make it – the grass, the leaves
and all; the birds were all singing in the woods and great numbers of wild
fowl were flying over our heads…… The Mexican flag was flying from the
little square Presidio, and the drums and trumpets of the
soldiers…sounded over the water and gave great life to the scene.”
Dana wrote about his experiences in the book Two Years Before the Mast, which
appeared in 1840. Dana’s book contains a detailed description of life on the California
coast. In it, Dana gives close attention to the daily lives of the peoples of California:
Latino, Native American and European.
At the time, California belonged to Mexico. With the help of books like Two
Years Before the Mast, however, many Americans began to think that the US should
take control of all the lands between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
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US History
Fort Burrows
New Mexico Territory
™ Early 1840s, Mexico ruled the Southwest; California, Arizona, New Mexico,
Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado
™ This was called the New Mexico Territory
™ Inhabited by Zuñi (ZOON yee) and other Indian tribes; farmers that used irrigation
™ Apaches also lived-on and hunted-off of this land
™ Spanish explorer, Juan de Oñate (ohn YAH tay), claimed the land for Spain
™ He was the Colonial Governor of the New Spain province of New Mexico
™ He made Santa Fe the capital of the territory and a great center of trade
™ After Mexico’s independence in 1821, American settlers became welcome
™ William Becknell, a trader from Missouri, founded the route that was later
referred to as the Santa Fe Trail
Becknell’s Third Trip on the Santa Fe Trail
William Becknell ‘The Father of the Santa Fe Trail’ (1787 or 1788–1856),
established the Santa Fe Trail. Becknell was born in Amherst County, Virginia. He
made three trips on his Santa Fe Trail. He left Franklin, Missouri in September
1821 on his first trip to the Western US with a load of freight to deliver to Santa Fe,
New Mexico. He and four other men travelled to Santa Fe with a large number of
pack animals carrying cotton. The trip was a great financial success as he was able
to sell the cotton at $3 a yard. The following year he headed a large wagon train
carrying $5,000 in merchandise. The party, including 30 drivers, left Missouri on 4th
August, 1822.The next year Becknell left Franklin with party of traders on a trip
that was to open up the Santa Fe Trail to regular traffic and military movement. It
became the first and only international trade route between the US and Mexico.
California’s Missions and Ranches
™ Spain reached California in 1542, 65 years before Jamestown, 1607
™ California was formed from Spanish and Native American cultures
© A String of Missions
™ 1769, Captain Gasper de Portolà and Father Junípero Serra
(hoo NEE peh roh SEHR rah) BUILT the 1st Mission at San Diego
™ Eventually, 21 missions dotted the
California coastline
™ Missions were self-sufficient
™ Spanish soldiers built forts, presidios,
used to protect the friars,
missionaries, and local Indians
™ Why so many bells ?
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The Ship! The Ship! California is saved!
Father Serra rejoices at the sight of the
packet ship San Antonio entering San
Diego Bay on March 19, 1770 with
desperately-needed food and supplies. The
San Carlos rests at anchor just offshore.
US History
Fort Burrows
© California Missions and Ranches
™ Spanish soldiers forced the Native Americans to work sheep and cattle on the
™ Thousands of Indians died from overwork and AHCHOO, European disease
™ Missionaries were sent to convert the Indians to become Roman Catholic
™ Spanish ranching traditions created the vaqueros; excellent horse riders and
animal ropers
™ This influence later developed into today’s cowhands
Many of our traditions of cattle herding began with the vaqueros, Latino ranch hands
in the Southwest and California. In this selection, a rancher describes some of the
skills of the vaqueros:
“It was my good fortune to be taken on a roundup… Even on the
ground covered with grass, a huge cloud of dust envelopes everything,
and nothing is heard but the thundering bank ahead. This is kept up
for two or three hours, when the horsemen managed to get into the
center of the flying herd. When the dust finally cleared, here and there
over the plains could be seen colts and young mares, their forelegs tied
to prevent them from escaping, which the vaqueros had lassoed…”
Ygnacio Pedro Villegas, Roundup, 1895
Support for Expansion
More Americans moved into California and the New Mexico Territory
American officials want the PORTS of San Francisco and San Diego
America tried to buy the land from Mexico
Mexico wanted to keep what they had and to gain more control over Southwest
They believed it was their land; (even though America had different plans)
© The Idea of Manifest Destiny
™ American believed their form of democratic gov’t was the best in the world
™ Also believed they had “the right and duty” to spread their culture across the
™ Manifest Destiny; from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
™ Manifest – clear or obvious; Destiny – something that is sure to happen
™ New trade opportunities for the United State’s economy
™ Take land from inferior races; at any and all cost
¿¿ What was Manifest Destiny ?
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US History
Fort Burrows
© Election of 1844
™ Whigs nominate Henry Clay
™ Democrats nominate James K Polk
™ Clay opposed annexing Texas
™ Polk supported annexing Texas and taking the entire Oregon Territory
™ Texas was an independent Republic that wanted to be annexed
™ Oregon Territory was equally claimed by Great Britain and the US
™ Democratic slogan, “Fifty Four Forty or Fight”
™ American voters wanted expansion
™ James K Polk was elected as the 11th US President (1845-1849)
1. Why did Americans take an interest in the New Mexico territory ?
2. What was life like for Native Americans on California’s missions and ranches ?
3. Why did many Americans support the idea of westward expansion ?
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