NOKIA : Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Nokia, Finland (1865) Fredrik Idestam Espoo, Finland History: Pre-telecommunications era What is known today as Nokia was established in 1865 as a wood-pulp mill by Fredrik Idestam on the banks of the Tammerkoski rapids in the town of Tampere, in south-western Finland. The company was later relocated to the town of Nokia by the Nokianvirta river, which had better resources for hydropower production. That is where the company got the name that it still uses today. The name Nokia originated from the river which flowed through the town. The river itself, Nokianvirta, was named after the old Finnish word originally meaning a dark, furry animal that was locally known as the nokia, or sable, or later pine marten. Finnish Rubber Works established its factories in the beginning of 20th century nearby and began using Nokia as its brand. Shwere merged to form Nokia Corporation in 1967. The new company was involved in many sectors, producing at one time or another paper products, bicycle and car tires, footwear (including Wellington boots), personal computers, communications cables, televisions, electricity generation machinery, capacitors,aluminium, etc. Telecommunications era The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the electronics section of the cable division in the 1960s. In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division, and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment. First mobile phones Nokia had been producing commercial and military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s. Since 1964 Nokia had developedVHF-radio simultaneously with Salora Oy, which later in 1971 also developed the ARP-phone. In 1979 the merger of these two companies resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) network standard that went online in the 1980s and in 1982 it introduced its first car phone, the Mobira Senator for NMT 450 networks. The Mobira Cityman 200, Nokia's NMT-900mobile phone from the early 1990s. Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company, changed the company's telecommunication branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced one of the world's first handheld phones, the Mobira Cityman 900. While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed 9.8 kg (22 lb) and the Talkman just under 5 kg (11 lb), the Mobira Cityman weighed only 800 g (28 oz) with the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 Finnish marks (approximately €4,560).Despite the high price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants’ hands. Initially, the mobile phone was a "yuppie" product and a status symbol. And of course the NMT 900MHz offered a better signal, yet a shorter roam. In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit, along with two other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy. One year later, Nokia Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones and in 1991 the first GSM phone was launched. Involvement in GSM Nordic Mobile Telephony was the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international roaming, and provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). It is a digital standard which came to dominate the world of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2006 accounting for about two billion mobile telephone subscribers in the world, or about 80 percent of the total, in more than 200 countries. The world's first commercial GSM call was made in 1991 in Helsinki over a Nokia-supplied network, by then Prime Minister of Finland Harri Holkeri, using a Nokia phone. SONY ERICSSION: Sony Ericsson is a joint venture established on October 3, 2001 by the Japanese consumer electronics company Sony Corporation and the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson to make mobile phones. The stated reason for this venture is to combine Sony's consumer electronics expertise with Ericsson's technological leadership in the communications sector. Both companies have stopped making their own mobile phones. The company's global management is based in Hammersmith, London, and it has research & development teams in Sweden, Japan, China, Germany, the United States, India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom. By 2007, it was the fourth-largest mobile phone manufacturer in the world after Nokia, Motorola and Samsung. The sales of products largely increased due to the launch of the Walkman and Cyber-shot series. Founded Headquarters 3 October 2001 Head Office: London, United Kingdom Incorporated: Sweden History Troubles in Ericsson's mobile phone business In the United States, Ericsson partnered with General Electric in the early nineties, primarily to establish a US presence and brand recognition. Ericsson had decided to source on chips for its phones from a single source, a Philips facility in New Mexico. In March 2000, a fire at the Philips factory contaminated the sterile facility. Philips assured Ericsson and Nokia (the other major customer of the facility) that production would be delayed by less than a week. When it became clear that production would actually be compromised for months, Ericsson was faced with a serious shortage. Nokia had already begun to obtain parts from alternative sources, but Ericsson's position was much worse as both production of current models and the launch of new ones was held up. Ericsson, which had been in the cellular phone market for decades and was the world no. 3 cellular telephone handset maker was struggling with huge losses in spite of booming sales since 2000 due to this fire and its inability to produce cheaper phones like its competitor Nokia. To curtail the losses, it was thinking of outsourcing production to Asian companies that can produce the handset for lower costs. Speculation had begun about a possible sale by Ericsson of its mobile phone division but the company's president said that it had no plans to do that. "Mobile phones is really a core business for Ericsson. We wouldn't be as successful (in networks) if we didn't have phones," he said. Background of the joint venture Sony was a marginal player in the worldwide cell phone market with a share of less than 1 percent in 2000. It was also struggling in this area with losses but wanted to focus more in this area. In April 2001, Sony confirmed that it was in talks with Ericsson for a possible collaboration in the handset business. This was soon after Toshiba and Siemens had announced plans in November 2000 to work together on handsets for 3Gmobile networks. By August 2001, the two companies had finalized the terms of the merger announced in April. The company was to have an initial workforce of 3,500 employees. Phone series description Series A C D F G J K M P R S Branding Description Older Ericsson style phones. Cyber-shot Camera focused phones. T-Mobile network exclusive T-Mobile phones. Vodafone network exclusive Vodafone (partial) phones; Gaming focused phones Compact Touchscreen series. (G705 not included Touchscreen) Low-end series Cyber-shot All-around phones (partial),3G (partial) Business focused smartphones. Powerhouse smartphones. Phones with built-in AM/FM radio Fashion and camera focused phones. T - TM T-Mobile V Vodafone W Walkman X Xperia Z - All-around phones T-Mobile USA network exclusive phones Vodafone network exclusive phones. Music-focused phones. Convergence and powerhouse devices. Design-oriented phones Origin Cyber-shot Deutsche Telekom Vodafone / Fun Generation Web Junior Kamera (Swedish for "camera") Messaging PDA Radio Swivel, 'S'lider, 'S'napshot Tala (Swedish for "talk") T-Mobile Vodafone Walkman Xperia Ze Bobber MOTOROLA: History Local branch in Glostrup, Denmark. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 with its first product being a battery eliminator. The name Motorola was adopted in 1930, and the word has been used as a trademark since the 1930s. Founders Paul Galvin and Joseph Galvin came up with the name Motorola when the company started manufacturing car radios in 1930; the name is a combination of "motor" and "Victrola." Many of Motorola's products have been radio-related, starting with a battery eliminator for radios, through the first walkie-talkie in the world in 1940, defense electronics, cellular infrastructure equipment, and mobile phone manufacturing. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Daniel Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies joined the company as director of research. In 1943, Motorola went public and in 1947, the name changed to its present name. The present logo was introduced in 1955. At this time, Motorola's main business was producing and selling television and radios. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, Motorola established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor. Beginning in 1958 with Explorer I, Motorola provided radio equipment for most NASA space-flights for decades including during the 1969 moon landing. A year later, it established a subsidiary to conduct licensing and manufacturing for international markets. In 1960, Motorola introduced the world's first "large-screen" (19-inch), transistorized, cordless portable television. In 1963, Motorola, which had very successfully begun making televisions in 1947 introduced the world's first truly rectangular color TV picture tube which quickly became the industry standard. In 1974, Motorola sold its television business. In 1976, Motorola moved to its present headquarters in Schaumburg. In September 1983, the firm made history when the FCC approved the DynaTAC 8000X telephone, the world's first-only commercial cellular device. The company was also strong in semiconductor technology, including integrated circuits used in computers. Motorola has been the main supplier for the microprocessors used in Atari ST, Commodore Amiga, Color Computer, and Apple Macintosh personal computers. The PowerPC family was developed with IBM and in a partnership with Apple (known as the AIM alliance). Motorola also has a diverse line of communication products, including satellite systems, digital cable boxes and modems. In 1986, Motorola invented the Six Sigma quality improvement process. This became a global standard. In 1990, General Instrument Corporation, which was later acquired by Motorola, proposed the first all-digital HDTV standard. In the same year, the company introduced the Bravo numeric pager which became the world's best-selling pager. In 1991, Motorola demonstrated the world's first working-prototype digital cellular system and phones using GSM standard in Hanover, Germany. In 1994, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial digital radio system that combined paging, data and cellular communications and voice dispatch in a single radio network and handset. In 1995, Motorola introduced the world's first two-way pager which allowed users to receive text messages and e-mail and reply with a standard response. On September 15, 1999, Motorola announced it would buy General Instrument in an $11 billion stock swap. General Instrument had long been the No. 1 cable TV equipment provider, supplying cable operators with end-to-end hybrid fiber coax cable solutions. This meant that GI offers all cable TV transmission network components from the head-end to the fiber optic transmission nodes to the cable settop boxes, now at the availability of Motorola. In June 2000, Motorola and Cisco supplied the world's first commercial GPRS cellular network to BT Cellnet in the United Kingdom. The world's first GPRS cell phone was also developed by Motorola. In 2002, Motorola introduced the world's first wireless cable modem gateway which combined a high-speed cable modem router with an ethernet switch and wireless home gateway. In 2003, Motorola introduced the world's first handset to combine a Linux operating system and Java technology with "full PDA functionality". Founded 1928 Headquarters Schaumburg, Illinois, United States LG MOBILES: LG electronics Korean Consumer Electronics & Home Appliance Manufacturer, LG Electronics have started mobile appliance business since 1996. Formerly known as LG Information & Communication Co.(LGIC), which former Goldstar Telecommunication Company successor, build the first Korean made CDMA phones for Korean consumer market, and later it merged to mother company as department and start GSM division for export based mobile phone business. In 2002, LG UMTS Mobile division demonstrate the World first WCDMA Video Telephony at KoreanJapan World Cup Game Openning Ceremony, the nominal growth of Mobile Communication have been started. Currently LG MC Company produce CDMA, GSM, WCDMA products and recent success of design based phone concept series Black Label Series boosted its revenue since 2005. Founded Seoul, South Korea (1958) previously, Goldstar Telecommunication Co. Headquarters Seoul, Pyung Taek, South Korea SAMSUNG MOBILES: Samsung Telecommunications is one of five business units within Samsung Electronics, belonging to the Samsung Group, and consists of the Mobile Communications Division, Telecommunication Systems Division, Computer Division, MP3 Business Team, Mobile Solution Centre and Telecommunication R&D Centre. Telecommunication Business produces a full spectrum of products from mobiles and other mobile devices such as MP3 players and laptop computers to telecommunication network infrastructure. Headquarters is located in Suwon, South Korea. In 2007 Samsung Telecommunication Business reported over 40% growth and became the second largest mobile device manufacturer in the world. Its market share was 14% in Q4 2007, growing up form 11.3% in Q4 2006. In Q1 2008 Samsung strengthened its second position on the market and achieved 15.6% world handset market share. History of Telecommunication Business Initial stage (1977-1993) In 1977 Samsung Electronics launched the Telecommunication Network business, and in 1983 it initiated its mobile telecommunications business with the hope that this would become the company's future growth engine. In 1986, Samsung was able to release its first built-in car phone, the SC-100, but it was a failure due to the poor quality. In spite of unsuccessful result Ki Tae Lee, the then-head of the Wireless Development Team, decided to stay in the mobile business. He asked the company to buy ten Motorola mobile phones for benchmarking. After 2 years of R&D Samsung developed its first mobile phone (or "hand phone" in Korea), the SH-100 in 1988. It was the first mobile phone to be designed and manufactured in Korea. But the perception of mobile devices was very low and although Samsung introduced new models every year, each model sold only one or two thousand units. Time of changes (1993-1996) In 1993 it was decided that the development team should focus on improving connectivity due to specific mountain topography of Korea. They found the optimal length of a mobile phone antenna and developed a method of using gold to connect the point between the antenna and the communication circuits, thus significantly reducing resistance and enabling steadier wave conductivity. They also developed the wave-searching software that was specially designed for Korea's topography. Another event triggered Samsung's mobile phone business. On June 4, 1993, Kun Hee Lee, the thenchairman of the Samsung Group during the meeting with top executives of Samsung in Tokyo got the report about ‘Management and Design’ This report came as a shock to chairman Lee, and forced him to reexamine his efforts to improve the company's system of quality management, which he had worked hard at strengthening since he had become the chairman in 1987. On June 7, 1993, in Frankfurt, Lee gathered 200 Samsung executives and pointed out every problem that Samsung had and emphasized that Samsung needed a turnaround and declared a new management initiative "Samsung New Management". The "New Management" reached to the mobile phone business as well, and chairman Lee gave the division an ultimatum: "Produce mobile phones comparable to Motorola's by 1994, or Samsung would disengage itself from the mobile phone business." In November 1993, the development team finally unveiled a new model, the SH-700. This model was quite remarkable. It weighed less than any other company's models, the design was compact, and its quality was substantially improved over previous models. Each product manufactured was tested pieceby-piece to assure perfect quality. Phones with any kind of defect were burned openly for all employees to see. (The products that had been burned were worth 15 billion won, or $188 million). The burning ceremony ingrained the motto 'Quality is Pride,' the essence of New Management, in every employee's mind.In October 1994, the SH-770 was introduced under the brand name "Anycall". It was a result of the marketing team's effort at brand-building. The model was an upgraded version of the SH-700, with a few changes in design and improvements in product quality. Samsung expected that branding would change customers' perception of Samsung's mobile phone and build up their trust. Aggressive marketing campaigns started as well. At the initial stage, the most important objective of the company's marketing strategy was to break customers' preconception that Samsung's phone would be inferior to Motorola's. To market this idea of quality, Samsung developed the slogan, "Strong in Korea's unique topography." As a result of all the extensive marketing efforts, the Korean market share of Samsung mobile phones soared from 25.8 percent in October 1994, to 51.5 percent in August 1995. In the same period, Motorola's market share dropped from 52.5 percent to 42.1 percent. CDMA Era (1996-1998) Samsung developed its first CDMA mobile phone in March 1996, to coincide with the launch of CDMA service. The first digital handset, the SCH-100, was extra light and slim, and enabled clear voice communication. Before long, Samsung became the leader in the PCS market. It partnered with KTFreetel and Hansol PCS to provide PCS phones. Its first PCS phone, the SCH-1100, entered the market with innovative features, including a lightweight body, enhanced battery life, and the ability to capture delicate sounds. The design was targeted at the young generation because the young generation had emerged as a large and growing customer base. It also shifted its marketing communications strategy. For the CDMA cellular market, it emphasized the phone's new functions, for example, its voice recognition feature. For the PCS market, the company coined a new slogan, "Strong in small sounds," to emphasize the mobile phone's capability to capture delicate sounds. By the end of 1997, one year after the CDMA service was first launched; Samsung had achieved a 57% market share in the CDMA cellular market and 58% in the PCS market. Also, in April 1997, it achieved sales of one million CDMA phone units. Global market and GSM Era (1998-now) Samsung made its first foray into the global market in 1996, when it exported its PCS phones to Sprint, an American CDMA carrier. Sprint signed $600 million contract with Samsung, under which Samsung would provide its PCS phones to Sprint for three years under the co-branded name "Sprint-Samsung." After this Samsung expanded into Hong Kong (Huchinson, CDMA) in 1997, and Brazil (TELESP and TELERJ, CDMA) in 1998. After successfully exporting to Brazil, Samsung built a mobile phone production facility in Brazil in 1998, in the hopes of expanding into Latin America. In 1999, Samsung secured the number one position in the worldwide CDMA market where it accounted for more than 50% of market share. However, the worldwide CDMA market was far smaller than the GSM market, which accounted for 70% of the total worldwide mobile communications market. Moreover, the domestic market was approaching saturation, and competition was becoming more intense. Thus, to achieve further growth, Samsung had to penetrate the GSM market. The first GSM model was the SGH-200, which was made for European customers. But it was not as good as the company's CDMA phone. It was difficult to hurdle the high entry barrier, which the then "Big 3" Nokia, Motorola, and Ericsson had built for years. The company's next few models didn't attract Europeans, either. The development team realized that a simple change in the circuit system wouldn't work in the European market. Thus, it decided to look more closely at the customer's point of view. They found that Europeans preferred geometric, balanced, and simple designs. Using this information, Samsung adopted 'simple' as the design concept, then developed a new design to suit the tastes of Europeans. The SGH-600 was born in September 1998. To market this model, Samsung changed its market entry strategy by adopting a high-end strategy. Samsung needed to escape from its low-end image. It figured that its new mobile phone, with its sophisticated design and distinguished functionality, would help it do just that. Samsung was granted the "Best Manufacturer" award twice by the Mobile News Award, an award that was previously given to Nokia and Ericsson. In 2008, Samsung Electronics’ Telecommunication Business declared its new business strategy focusing on consumer and marketing. Samsung mobile phones are divided into 6 major categories – Style, Infotainment, Multimedia, Connected, Essential and Business. Financial information In Q1 2008 Samsung shipped 46.3 million mobile handsets 1Q 2008. Sales of Samsung Telecommunications were 6.65 trillion KRW for the same quarter and it represents 32% sales of Samsung Electronics. The growth is mostly explained by continuous growth of emerging markets while there is weak demand in developed markets. During 2007 amount of shipped units was growing constantly: 1Q 2007 – 34.8, 2Q 2007 – 37.4, 3Q 2007- 42.6, 4Q 2007 – 46.3. In 2007 profit was 23,8 trillion KRW, while net profit reached level of 2.7 trillion KRW. BLUETOOTH: Meaning: Bluetooth is a wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs). It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Origin of the name: Bluetooth was named after a tenth-century king, Harald Bluetooth, King of Denmark and Norway, who united dissonant kingdoms into one kingdom. The implication is that bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, so that there is just one universal standard. Bluetooth is an anglicized version of Harald Blaatand, who was known for his unification of previously warring tribes of the country of Denmark, including now Swedish Scania, where the Bluetooth technology was invented, and the country of Norway. Bluetooth likewise was created to unify different technologies, such as personal computers and mobile phones. It is possible that the name may have been inspired less by the historical Harald, than by the loose interpretation of him in The Long Ships byFrans Gunnar Bengtsson, a Swedish Viking-inspired novel. Origin of the Bluetooth logo: The Bluetooth logo design merges the Germanic runes analogous to the modern Latin letters H and B: (for Harald Bluetooth) merged together, forming a bind rune. (Hagall) and (Berkanan) Implementation: Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 frequencies. In its basic mode, the modulation is Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK). It can achieve a gross data rate of 1Mb/s. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles through a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Uses: Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth makes it possible for these devices to communicate with each other when they are in range. Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in line of sight of each other; they can even be far apart if the transmission has sufficient power. Bluetooth 2.1 Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 is fully backward compatible with 1.1, and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26, 2007.This specification includes the following features: Extended inquiry response: provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection. This information includes the name of the device, a list of services the device supports, plus other information like the time of day and pairing information. Sniff subrating: reduces the power consumption when devices are in the sniff low-power mode, especially on links with asymmetric data flows. Human interface devices (HID) are expected to benefit the most, with mouse and keyboard devices increasing their battery life by a factor of 3 to 10. It lets devices decide how long they will wait before sending keepalive messages to one another. Previous Bluetooth implementations featured keep alive message frequencies of up to several times per second. In contrast, the 2.1 specification allows pairs of devices to negotiate this value between them to as infrequently as once every 5 or 10 seconds. Encryption Pause Resume: enables an encryption key to be refreshed, enabling much stronger encryption for connections that stay up for longer than 23.3 hours (one Bluetooth day). Secure Simple Pairing: radically improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security. It is expected that this feature will significantly increase the use of Bluetooth. Near Field Communication (NFC) cooperation: automatic creation of secure Bluetooth connections when NFC radio interface is also available. This functionality is part of the Secure Simple Pairing where NFC is one way of exchanging pairing information. For example, a headset should be paired with a Bluetooth 2.1 phone including NFC just by bringing the two devices close to each other (a few centimeters). Another example is automatic uploading of photos from a mobile phone or camera to a digital picture frame just by bringing the phone or camera close to the frame. Problems with Bluetooth: Bluetooth is a great technology but sometimes it just doesn’t work. File transfer between pc and mobile phone often fails. Unless there is something really wrong with your pc or phone here are a few steps that should make your Bluetooth work: 1. Unpair all devices. Bluetooth doesn’t like too many paired devices. Go to the settings and delete all pairings. 2. Right-click on the Bluetooth icon in the right bottom corner of your pc screen and stop Bluetooth. 3. Unplug the Bluetooth dongle from your pc and plug it in again. 4. Right-click on the Bluetooth icon and start Bluetooth. 5. Pair your phone with computer. After searching and pairing allow also authorization. This will create more trust between the two devices. Now you should be able to establish connection and transfer files without any problems.