Nokia, Finland (1865)
Fredrik Idestam
Espoo, Finland
Pre-telecommunications era
What is known today as Nokia was established in 1865 as a wood-pulp mill by Fredrik Idestam on the
banks of the Tammerkoski rapids in the town of Tampere, in south-western Finland. The company was
later relocated to the town of Nokia by the Nokianvirta river, which had better resources
for hydropower production. That is where the company got the name that it still uses today. The
name Nokia originated from the river which flowed through the town. The river itself, Nokianvirta, was
named after the old Finnish word originally meaning a dark, furry animal that was locally known as the
nokia, or sable, or later pine marten.
Finnish Rubber Works established its factories in the beginning of 20th century nearby and began
using Nokia as its brand. Shwere merged to form Nokia Corporation in 1967.
The new company was involved in many sectors, producing at one time or another paper
products, bicycle and car tires, footwear (including Wellington boots), personal computers,
communications cables, televisions, electricity generation machinery, capacitors,aluminium, etc.
Telecommunications era
The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the electronics section
of the cable division in the 1960s. In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division,
and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment.
First mobile phones
Nokia had been producing commercial and military mobile radio communications technology since the
1960s. Since 1964 Nokia had developedVHF-radio simultaneously with Salora Oy, which later in 1971
also developed the ARP-phone. In 1979 the merger of these two companies resulted in the
establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the Nordic Mobile
Telephony (NMT) network standard that went online in the 1980s and in 1982 it introduced its first car
phone, the Mobira Senator for NMT 450 networks.
The Mobira Cityman 200, Nokia's NMT-900mobile phone from the early 1990s.[16]
Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company, changed the company's
telecommunication branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was
one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced one of the world's first
handheld phones, the Mobira Cityman 900. While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed 9.8 kg
(22 lb) and the Talkman just under 5 kg (11 lb), the Mobira Cityman weighed only 800 g (28 oz) with
the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 Finnish marks (approximately €4,560).[17]Despite the high
price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants’ hands. Initially, the mobile phone
was a "yuppie" product and a status symbol.
And of course the NMT 900MHz offered a better signal, yet a shorter roam.
In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit, along with two
other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy. One
year later, Nokia Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones and in 1991 the first GSM phone was
Involvement in GSM
Nordic Mobile Telephony was the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international
roaming, and provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing Global
System for Mobile Communications (GSM). It is a digital standard which came to dominate the world
of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2006 accounting for about two billion mobile telephone
subscribers in the world, or about 80 percent of the total, in more than 200 countries. The world's first
commercial GSM call was made in 1991 in Helsinki over a Nokia-supplied network, by then Prime
Minister of Finland Harri Holkeri, using a Nokia phone.
Sony Ericsson is a joint venture established on October 3, 2001 by the
Japanese consumer electronics company Sony Corporation and the Swedish
telecommunications company Ericsson to make mobile phones. The stated reason for
this venture is to combine Sony's consumer electronics expertise with Ericsson's
technological leadership in the communications sector. Both companies have stopped
making their own mobile phones.
The company's global management is based in Hammersmith, London, and it has
research & development teams in Sweden, Japan, China, Germany, the United States,
India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom. By 2007, it was the fourth-largest mobile
phone manufacturer in the world after Nokia, Motorola and Samsung. The sales of
products largely increased due to the launch of the Walkman and Cyber-shot series.
3 October 2001
Head Office:
London, United Kingdom
Troubles in Ericsson's mobile phone business
In the United States, Ericsson partnered with General Electric in the early nineties, primarily to
establish a US presence and brand recognition.
Ericsson had decided to source on chips for its phones from a single source, a Philips facility in New
Mexico. In March 2000, a fire at the Philips factory contaminated the sterile facility. Philips assured
Ericsson and Nokia (the other major customer of the facility) that production would be delayed by less
than a week. When it became clear that production would actually be compromised for months,
Ericsson was faced with a serious shortage. Nokia had already begun to obtain parts from alternative
sources, but Ericsson's position was much worse as both production of current models and the launch
of new ones was held up.[4]
Ericsson, which had been in the cellular phone market for decades and was the world no. 3 cellular
telephone handset maker was struggling with huge losses in spite of booming sales since 2000 due to
this fire and its inability to produce cheaper phones like its competitor Nokia. To curtail the losses, it
was thinking of outsourcing production to Asian companies that can produce the handset for lower
Speculation had begun about a possible sale by Ericsson of its mobile phone division but the company's
president said that it had no plans to do that. "Mobile phones is really a core business for Ericsson. We
wouldn't be as successful (in networks) if we didn't have phones," he said.
Background of the joint venture
Sony was a marginal player in the worldwide cell phone market with a share of less than 1 percent in
2000. It was also struggling in this area with losses but wanted to focus more in this area. In April
2001, Sony confirmed that it was in talks with Ericsson for a possible collaboration in the handset
business. This was soon after Toshiba and Siemens had announced plans in November 2000 to work
together on handsets for 3Gmobile networks.
By August 2001, the two companies had finalized the terms of the merger announced in April. The
company was to have an initial workforce of 3,500 employees.
Phone series description
Older Ericsson style
Camera focused phones.
T-Mobile network exclusive
Vodafone network exclusive
Vodafone (partial) phones; Gaming focused
Compact Touchscreen series.
(G705 not included
Low-end series
All-around phones
(partial),3G (partial)
Business focused smartphones.
Powerhouse smartphones.
Phones with built-in AM/FM
Fashion and camera focused
All-around phones
T-Mobile USA network
exclusive phones
Vodafone network exclusive
Music-focused phones.
Convergence and powerhouse
Design-oriented phones
Deutsche Telekom
Vodafone / Fun
Generation Web
Kamera (Swedish for
Swivel, 'S'lider,
Tala (Swedish for
Ze Bobber[citation needed]
Local branch in Glostrup, Denmark.
Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928
with its first product being a battery eliminator. The name Motorola was adopted in
1930, and the word has been used as a trademark since the 1930s. Founders Paul
Galvin and Joseph Galvin came up with the name Motorola when the company started
manufacturing car radios[9] in 1930; the name is a combination of "motor" and
Many of Motorola's products have been radio-related, starting with a battery
eliminator for radios, through the first walkie-talkie in the world in 1940, defense
electronics, cellular infrastructure equipment, and mobile phone manufacturing. In the
same year, the company built its research and development program with Daniel
Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies joined the company as
director of research.
In 1943, Motorola went public and in 1947, the name changed to its present name.
The present logo was introduced in 1955. At this time, Motorola's main business was
producing and selling television and radios.
In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to
produce radios and televisions. In 1953, Motorola established the Motorola
Foundation to support leading universities in the United States.
In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in
Phoenix, Arizona to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the
world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Beginning in 1958 with Explorer I, Motorola provided radio equipment for most
NASA space-flights for decades including during the 1969 moon landing. A year
later, it established a subsidiary to conduct licensing and manufacturing for
international markets.
In 1960, Motorola introduced the world's first "large-screen" (19-inch), transistorized,
cordless portable television.
In 1963, Motorola, which had very successfully begun making televisions in 1947
introduced the world's first truly rectangular color TV picture tube which quickly
became the industry standard.
In 1974, Motorola sold its television business.
In 1976, Motorola moved to its present headquarters in Schaumburg.
In September 1983, the firm made history when the FCC approved the DynaTAC
8000X telephone, the world's first-only commercial cellular device. The company was
also strong in semiconductor technology, including integrated circuits used in
computers. Motorola has been the main supplier for the microprocessors used in Atari
ST, Commodore Amiga, Color Computer, and Apple Macintosh personal computers.
The PowerPC family was developed with IBM and in a partnership with Apple
(known as the AIM alliance). Motorola also has a diverse line of communication
products, including satellite systems, digital cable boxes and modems.
In 1986, Motorola invented the Six Sigma quality improvement process. This became
a global standard. In 1990, General Instrument Corporation, which was later acquired
by Motorola, proposed the first all-digital HDTV standard. In the same year, the
company introduced the Bravo numeric pager which became the world's best-selling
In 1991, Motorola demonstrated the world's first working-prototype digital cellular
system and phones using GSM standard in Hanover, Germany. In 1994, Motorola
introduced the world's first commercial digital radio system that combined paging,
data and cellular communications and voice dispatch in a single radio network and
handset. In 1995, Motorola introduced the world's first two-way pager which allowed
users to receive text messages and e-mail and reply with a standard response.
On September 15, 1999, Motorola announced it would buy General Instrument in an
$11 billion stock swap. General Instrument had long been the No. 1 cable TV
equipment provider, supplying cable operators with end-to-end hybrid fiber coax
cable solutions. This meant that GI offers all cable TV transmission network
components from the head-end to the fiber optic transmission nodes to the cable settop boxes, now at the availability of Motorola.
In June 2000, Motorola and Cisco supplied the world's first commercial GPRS
cellular network to BT Cellnet in the United Kingdom. The world's first GPRS cell
phone was also developed by Motorola.
In 2002, Motorola introduced the world's first wireless cable modem gateway which
combined a high-speed cable modem router with an ethernet switch and wireless
home gateway.
In 2003, Motorola introduced the world's first handset to combine a Linux operating
system and Java technology with "full PDA functionality".
Headquarters Schaumburg, Illinois, United States
LG electronics Korean Consumer Electronics & Home Appliance Manufacturer, LG
Electronics have started mobile appliance business since 1996. Formerly known as
LG Information & Communication Co.(LGIC), which former Goldstar
Telecommunication Company successor, build the first Korean made CDMA phones
for Korean consumer market, and later it merged to mother company as department
and start GSM division for export based mobile phone business. In 2002, LG UMTS
Mobile division demonstrate the World first WCDMA Video Telephony at KoreanJapan World Cup Game Openning Ceremony, the nominal growth of Mobile
Communication have been started. Currently LG MC Company produce CDMA,
GSM, WCDMA products and recent success of design based phone concept series
Black Label Series boosted its revenue since 2005.
Seoul, South Korea (1958) previously, Goldstar Telecommunication
Headquarters Seoul, Pyung Taek, South Korea
Samsung Telecommunications is one of five business units within Samsung Electronics, belonging to
the Samsung Group, and consists of the Mobile Communications Division, Telecommunication
Systems Division, Computer Division, MP3 Business Team, Mobile Solution Centre and
Telecommunication R&D Centre. Telecommunication Business produces a full spectrum of products
from mobiles and other mobile devices such as MP3 players and laptop computers to
telecommunication network infrastructure. Headquarters is located in Suwon, South Korea.
In 2007 Samsung Telecommunication Business reported over 40% growth and became the second
largest mobile device manufacturer in the world. Its market share was 14% in Q4 2007, growing up
form 11.3% in Q4 2006. In Q1 2008 Samsung strengthened its second position on the market and
achieved 15.6% world handset market share.
History of Telecommunication Business
Initial stage (1977-1993)
In 1977 Samsung Electronics launched the Telecommunication Network business, and in 1983 it
initiated its mobile telecommunications business with the hope that this would become the company's
future growth engine. In 1986, Samsung was able to release its first built-in car phone, the SC-100, but
it was a failure due to the poor quality. In spite of unsuccessful result Ki Tae Lee, the then-head of the
Wireless Development Team, decided to stay in the mobile business. He asked the company to buy
ten Motorola mobile phones for benchmarking. After 2 years of R&D Samsung developed its first
mobile phone (or "hand phone" in Korea), the SH-100 in 1988. It was the first mobile phone to be
designed and manufactured in Korea. But the perception of mobile devices was very low and although
Samsung introduced new models every year, each model sold only one or two thousand units.
Time of changes (1993-1996)
In 1993 it was decided that the development team should focus on improving connectivity due to
specific mountain topography of Korea. They found the optimal length of a mobile phone antenna and
developed a method of using gold to connect the point between the antenna and the communication
circuits, thus significantly reducing resistance and enabling steadier wave conductivity. They also
developed the wave-searching software that was specially designed for Korea's topography.
Another event triggered Samsung's mobile phone business. On June 4, 1993, Kun Hee Lee, the thenchairman of the Samsung Group during the meeting with top executives of Samsung in Tokyo got the
report about ‘Management and Design’ This report came as a shock to chairman Lee, and forced him to
reexamine his efforts to improve the company's system of quality management, which he had worked
hard at strengthening since he had become the chairman in 1987.
On June 7, 1993, in Frankfurt, Lee gathered 200 Samsung executives and pointed out every problem
that Samsung had and emphasized that Samsung needed a turnaround and declared a new management
initiative "Samsung New Management". The "New Management" reached to the mobile phone
business as well, and chairman Lee gave the division an ultimatum: "Produce mobile phones
comparable to Motorola's by 1994, or Samsung would disengage itself from the mobile phone
In November 1993, the development team finally unveiled a new model, the SH-700. This model was
quite remarkable. It weighed less than any other company's models, the design was compact, and its
quality was substantially improved over previous models. Each product manufactured was tested pieceby-piece to assure perfect quality. Phones with any kind of defect were burned openly for all
employees to see. (The products that had been burned were worth 15 billion won, or $188 million). The
burning ceremony ingrained the motto 'Quality is Pride,' the essence of New Management, in every
employee's mind.In October 1994, the SH-770 was introduced under the brand name "Anycall". It was
a result of the marketing team's effort at brand-building. The model was an upgraded version of the
SH-700, with a few changes in design and improvements in product quality. Samsung expected that
branding would change customers' perception of Samsung's mobile phone and build up their trust.
Aggressive marketing campaigns started as well. At the initial stage, the most important objective of
the company's marketing strategy was to break customers' preconception that Samsung's phone would
be inferior to Motorola's. To market this idea of quality, Samsung developed the slogan, "Strong in
Korea's unique topography." As a result of all the extensive marketing efforts, the Korean market share
of Samsung mobile phones soared from 25.8 percent in October 1994, to 51.5 percent in August 1995.
In the same period, Motorola's market share dropped from 52.5 percent to 42.1 percent.
CDMA Era (1996-1998)
Samsung developed its first CDMA mobile phone in March 1996, to coincide with the launch of
CDMA service. The first digital handset, the SCH-100, was extra light and slim, and enabled clear
voice communication. Before long, Samsung became the leader in the PCS market. It partnered
with KTFreetel and Hansol PCS to provide PCS phones. Its first PCS phone, the SCH-1100, entered
the market with innovative features, including a lightweight body, enhanced battery life, and the ability
to capture delicate sounds. The design was targeted at the young generation because the young
generation had emerged as a large and growing customer base. It also shifted its marketing
communications strategy. For the CDMA cellular market, it emphasized the phone's new functions, for
example, its voice recognition feature. For the PCS market, the company coined a new slogan, "Strong
in small sounds," to emphasize the mobile phone's capability to capture delicate sounds.
By the end of 1997, one year after the CDMA service was first launched; Samsung had achieved a 57%
market share in the CDMA cellular market and 58% in the PCS market. Also, in April 1997, it
achieved sales of one million CDMA phone units.
market and GSM Era (1998-now)
Samsung made its first foray into the global market in 1996, when it exported its PCS phones to Sprint,
an American CDMA carrier. Sprint signed $600 million contract with Samsung, under which Samsung
would provide its PCS phones to Sprint for three years under the co-branded name "Sprint-Samsung."
After this Samsung expanded into Hong Kong (Huchinson, CDMA) in 1997, and Brazil
(TELESP and TELERJ, CDMA) in 1998. After successfully exporting to Brazil, Samsung built a
mobile phone production facility in Brazil in 1998, in the hopes of expanding into Latin America.
In 1999, Samsung secured the number one position in the worldwide CDMA market where it
accounted for more than 50% of market share. However, the worldwide CDMA market was far smaller
than the GSM market, which accounted for 70% of the total worldwide mobile communications
market. Moreover, the domestic market was approaching saturation, and competition was becoming
more intense.
Thus, to achieve further growth, Samsung had to penetrate the GSM market.
The first GSM model was the SGH-200, which was made for European customers. But it was not as
good as the company's CDMA phone. It was difficult to hurdle the high entry barrier, which the then
"Big 3" Nokia, Motorola, and Ericsson had built for years. The company's next few models didn't
attract Europeans, either. The development team realized that a simple change in the circuit system
wouldn't work in the European market. Thus, it decided to look more closely at the customer's point of
view. They found that Europeans preferred geometric, balanced, and simple designs. Using this
information, Samsung adopted 'simple' as the design concept, then developed a new design to suit the
tastes of Europeans.
The SGH-600 was born in September 1998. To market this model, Samsung changed its market entry
strategy by adopting a high-end strategy. Samsung needed to escape from its low-end image. It figured
that its new mobile phone, with its sophisticated design and distinguished functionality, would help it
do just that. Samsung was granted the "Best Manufacturer" award twice by the Mobile News Award,
an award that was previously given to Nokia and Ericsson.
In 2008, Samsung Electronics’ Telecommunication Business declared its new business strategy
focusing on consumer and marketing. Samsung mobile phones are divided into 6 major categories –
Style, Infotainment, Multimedia, Connected, Essential and Business.
Financial information
In Q1 2008 Samsung shipped 46.3 million mobile handsets 1Q 2008. Sales of Samsung
Telecommunications were 6.65 trillion KRW for the same quarter and it represents 32% sales of
Samsung Electronics. The growth is mostly explained by continuous growth of emerging markets
while there is weak demand in developed markets. During 2007 amount of shipped units was growing
constantly: 1Q 2007 – 34.8, 2Q 2007 – 37.4, 3Q 2007- 42.6, 4Q 2007 – 46.3. In 2007 profit was 23,8
trillion KRW, while net profit reached level of 2.7 trillion KRW.
Bluetooth is a wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed
and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs). It was originally
conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connect several
devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
Origin of the name:
Bluetooth was named after a tenth-century king, Harald Bluetooth, King
of Denmark and Norway, who united dissonant kingdoms into one kingdom. The
implication is that bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, so that
there is just one universal standard.
Bluetooth is an anglicized version of Harald Blaatand, who was known for his
unification of previously warring tribes of the country of Denmark, including
now Swedish Scania, where the Bluetooth technology was invented, and the country
of Norway. Bluetooth likewise was created to unify different technologies, such as
personal computers and mobile phones.
It is possible that the name may have been inspired less by the historical Harald, than
by the loose interpretation of him in The Long Ships byFrans Gunnar Bengtsson, a
Swedish Viking-inspired novel.
Origin of the Bluetooth logo:
The Bluetooth logo design merges the Germanic runes analogous to the modern
Latin letters H and B: (for Harald Bluetooth)
merged together, forming a bind rune.
(Hagall) and (Berkanan)
Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which
chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 frequencies. In its
basic mode, the modulation is Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK). It can
achieve a gross data rate of 1Mb/s. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange
information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal
computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras,
and video game consoles through a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific,
and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth. The Bluetooth
specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest
Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of
telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics.
Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low
power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters,
100 meters) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth
makes it possible for these devices to communicate with each other when they are in
range. Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do
not have to be in line of sight of each other; they can even be far apart if the
transmission has sufficient power.
Bluetooth 2.1
Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 is fully backward compatible with 1.1, and
was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26, 2007.This specification includes the
following features:
Extended inquiry response: provides more information during the inquiry
procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection. This information
includes the name of the device, a list of services the device supports, plus other
information like the time of day and pairing information.
Sniff subrating: reduces the power consumption when devices are in the sniff
low-power mode, especially on links with asymmetric data flows. Human
interface devices (HID) are expected to benefit the most, with mouse and
keyboard devices increasing their battery life by a factor of 3 to 10. It lets devices
decide how long they will wait before sending keepalive messages to one another.
Previous Bluetooth implementations featured keep alive message frequencies of
up to several times per second. In contrast, the 2.1 specification allows pairs of
devices to negotiate this value between them to as infrequently as once every 5 or
10 seconds.
Encryption Pause Resume: enables an encryption key to be refreshed,
enabling much stronger encryption for connections that stay up for longer than
23.3 hours (one Bluetooth day).
Secure Simple Pairing: radically improves the pairing experience for
Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security. It is expected
that this feature will significantly increase the use of Bluetooth.
Near Field Communication (NFC) cooperation: automatic creation of secure
Bluetooth connections when NFC radio interface is also available. This
functionality is part of the Secure Simple Pairing where NFC is one way of
exchanging pairing information. For example, a headset should be paired with a
Bluetooth 2.1 phone including NFC just by bringing the two devices close to each
other (a few centimeters). Another example is automatic uploading of photos from
a mobile phone or camera to a digital picture frame just by bringing the phone or
camera close to the frame.
Problems with Bluetooth:
Bluetooth is a great technology but sometimes it just doesn’t work. File
transfer between pc and mobile phone often fails. Unless there is something
really wrong with your pc or phone here are a few steps that should make
your Bluetooth work:
1. Unpair all devices. Bluetooth doesn’t like too many paired devices. Go to
the settings and delete all pairings.
2. Right-click on the Bluetooth icon in the right bottom corner of your pc
screen and stop Bluetooth.
3. Unplug the Bluetooth dongle from your pc and plug it in again.
4. Right-click on the Bluetooth icon and start Bluetooth.
5. Pair your phone with computer. After searching and pairing allow also
authorization. This will create more trust between the two devices.
Now you should be able to establish connection and transfer files without any