Тесты (грамматика).

1. Identify the verbs as simple (S), derived (D) or composite (C) as in the
model. Start with the second verb.
Model: 1) work – S (simple)
1) work 2) stand up 3) milk 4) reread 5) give in 6) stay up 7) disagree
8) overcook 9) uncover 10) compute
2. Identify the verbs as derived by prefixation (P), suffixation (S) or by
conversion (C). Start with the second verb.
Model: 1) lengthen – S (by suffix -en)
1) lengthen 2) water 3) dust 4) falsify 5) undercook 6) unload
7) misunderstand 8) enrich 9) patronize 10) fish
3. Say which of the following words are verbs or may be used as verbs:
1) feed 2) loss 3) blood 4) short 5) strike 6) sing 7) economize 8) law
9) belief 10) advise 11) arrival 12) slowly 13) strength 14) blacken
15) election 16) bite 17) ride 18) fill 19) live 20) pay
4. Derive new verbs from the following verbs, nouns and adjectives by means
of the prefixes: re-, mis-, be-, un-, de-, dis-, over-, en-. Use each prefix only
1) pronounce 2) arrange 3) cover 4) little 5) value 6) feed 7) connect 8) rich
5. Translate using phrasal verbs.
1) Она примирилась с потерей.
2) Не сдавайся! Попытайся снова!
3) Он бросил курить год назад.
4) Их семья распалась.
5) Когда началась война?
6) Берегись! (Осторожно!)
7) Говорите громче, пожалуйста.
8) Давайте прервемся и попьем чая.
Unit 1. General Information
9) Я присмотрю за вашим ребенком.
10) Что вы ищете?
1. Identify the verbs in the following sentences as auxiliary (A) or main (M)
as in the model. Start with the second sentence.
Model: 1) did – A (auxiliary), like – M (main)
1) Did you like the film?
2) The milk is sour.
3) You must wait.
4) His face turned pale.
5) He knows English well.
6) He turned round the corner.
7) I am leaving now.
8) The boy looks strong.
9) Will you come?
10) He hasn't helped me.
2. Identify transitive (T) and intransitive verbs (I) in the following sentences
as in the model. Start with the second sentence.
Model: 1) took – T (transitive)
1) They took a taxi.
2) She sells books.
3) The sun has just risen.
4) He is studying for a law degree.
5) The books sell well.
6) He studied law at University.
7) Did you stay at a hotel?
8) He stopped the car.
9) He stopped to buy a newspaper.
10) She rose from the chair.
1. Identify the tense form of the verbs in the following sentences as in the
model. Start with the second sentence.
Model: 1) left – Past Ind., had talked – Past Perf.
1) He left after he had talked to the manager.
2) She drinks tea in the morning.
Unit 1. General Information
3) The children were sleeping when he came home.
4) If you are tired I'll bring you some coffee.
5) Tomorrow at this time we'll be flying to Italy.
6) Will you have translated the text by 6 o'clock?
7) I have been waiting for you since morning.
8) When will you return?
9) By tomorrow morning he will have been writing the report for 3 months.
10) Have you had dinner?
2. Choose the verb form you would use to translate the following sentences.
1) Они встречаются два раза в год.
A) have met
C) are
B) met
D) meet
2) В прошлом году моя сестра поступила в университет.
A) entered
C) was entering
B) had entered
D) has entered
3) Через год он закончит школу.
A) will have finished
C) has finished
B) will have been finishing
D) will finish
4) Они уезжают в субботу.
A)are leaving
C) left
B) leave
D) have left
5) Она всегда смеется над ним.
A) laughs
C) has been laughing
B) is laughing
D) will laugh
6) Он уже ушел домой, когда мы пришли.
C) had gone
B) has gone
D) had been going
7) Завтра в это время я буду сдавать экзамен по английскому языку.
A) will take
C) will have taken
B) will be taking
D) will have been taking
8) К началу сентября они переедут в новый дом.
A) will have moved
C) will move
B) will be moving
D) are moving
9) Когда я позвонил, они обедали.
A) had
C) had had
B) were having
D) would have
10) К лету будет уже 10 лет, как они живут здесь.
A) will live
C) will have been living
B) will be living
D) have lived
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11) Он был уверен, что встречал ее ранее.
A) had met
B) met
12) Я уйду, если ты не вернешься в 7.
A) won't come
B) don't come
C) had been meeting
D) was meeting
C) will not have come
D) aren't coming
Total: 100/____
I. General meaning
Verbs are words that express a physical or mental action (This
machine cleans carpets. She hopes for the best) or a state of being (She is a
Without a verb, it is usually impossible to make a sentence in
English. On the other hand, a sentence can be made of only one word if
it is a verb: Read!
II. Verb creation
Verbs can be simple (read, run), derived (endanger, intensify) or
composite (sit down, give up).
1. Simple verbs (get, go, come, take, give, etc.) make up the core of
the English verbal system: most of them are native and most frequently
used words.
Some of these verbs are differentiated from their historically related
nouns or adjectives by means of a sound alteration in the root. The
change may affect the root vowel (food n– feed v), root consonant (speech
n – speak v), or both (life n – live v).
There are many verbs in Modern English that were borrowed from
Latin and French together with their verb-building suffixes (e.g. -ate/ -ute)
as dictate, pollute. Now these verbs are simple because their roots do
not have homonymous free words with the same meaning in Modern
English (*dict, *poll).
Some simple dissyllabic verbs borrowed from French retain the
stress on the second syllable while their homographic nouns, which
Unit 1. General Information
have become more assimilated in English, are already forestressed: to
re´cord (v) – a ´record (n), to pre´sent (v) – a ´present (n) (See Ch.1, Unit 1).
2. Derived verbs make up the majority of the English verbal
Derivation of verbs is mostly done by means of prefixes attached to:
a) verbal bases:
re- (‘to repeat an action’): to reread, to reconsider;
under- (‘to do too little’): to underestimate, to undercook;
over-(‘to do too much’): to overestimate, to overcook;
un- (‘to act contrary to that of the simple stem’): to unload, to
dis- (‘to negate the action’): to disconnect, to disagree;
de- (‘to do the opposite’, ‘to undo the action’) – used in many
neologisms: to demobilize, to devalue, to deactivate;
mis- (‘to act wrongly, badly’): to misunderstand, to miscalculate;
b) adjectival bases:
en- (‘to bring into a certain condition or a state’): to enrich, to enable
c) nominal or adjectival bases:
be- (‘to make a thing or quality’): to befriend, to belittle.
Derivation of verbs by suffixes is less common in English. The
most common verbal suffixes are usually added to:
a) adjectival bases:
-fy/-ify: to falsify, to purify;
-en: to widen, to shorten;
b) nominal bases:
-ize, -ise: to cryslalize, to patronise;
Some verbs are derived by conversion – an affixless way of word
formation. Such verbs look simple and usually denote ‘an action highly
characteristic of the object’ (to monkey, to fool), ‘an action with the object’
(to knife, to water), ‘an acquisition or deprivation of the object’ (to milk, to
dust, to fish) or ‘an action leading to a certain state or quality’ (to empty, to
dirty, to clean).
3. Complex verbs (give up, outgrow) are viewed as phrasal or
composite verbs.
A phrasal verb is a multi-word verb consisting of a verb followed
by one or more particles and having a meaning larger than the meaning
Unit 1. General Information
of each of its constituent (drink up 'выпить до дна', put up with
Some phrasal verbs are used in sentences without a direct object:
You have to stay up late tonight.
Some phrasal verbs may be followed by a noun or pronoun: He
looked after the baby. He looked after him.
Some verbs in phrasal constructions may be followed by a noun or
pronoun and then by a particle: He answered John back. He answered him
The number of phrasal verbs in English has remarkably grown in
the last century. They constitute one of the most distinctive features of
English grammar. There are thousands of them now and they require a
lot of memory work on the part of a learner. (Some of them are
presented in Unit 7, § 8 in this book.)
As for compound verbs, the situation is rather complicated.
Some verbs as outgrow, overflow, snowball, or housekeep are often
called compound. But many other scholars deny word compounding in
verbs and view such verbs either derivatives either by means of
prefixation (outgrow, overflow), conversion (to snowball (v) from a snowball
(n)) or back-formation (housekeep (v) from housekeeper (n)).
1.1. Read and translate into Russian the following pairs of words. Observe the
vowel interchange in nouns and verbs.
Fill (v) – full (adj); feed (v) – food (n); strike (v) – stroke (n); ride (v) – rode (n);
knit (v) – knot (n); bleed (v) – blood (n); bit (v) – bite (n); sing (v) – song (n);
tell (v) – tale (n).
1.2. Read the semantically and morphologically related pair set words.
Observe the opposition of unvoiced consonants in nouns (or adjectives) and
voiced consonants in verbs.
Bath (n) – bathe (v); belief (n) – believe (v); advice (n) – advise (v); cloth (n) –
clothe (v); glass (n) – glaze (v); life (n) – live (v); half (n) – halve (v); loss (n) –
lose (v); proof (n) – prove (v); serf (n) – serve (v); shelf (n) – shelve (v); close
(adj) – close (v), choice (n) – choose (v), use (n) – use (v).
Unit 1. General Information
1.3. Read each of the following disyllabic words first as a verb and then as a
noun (or adjective). Observe the stress distinction. Explain and translate the
words into Russian.
Model: to con´vert - ‘to persuade to accept a particular religion, political
belief, etc.; to change into another form’ (обращать, превращать,
конвертировать) – a ´convert - ‘a person who has been persuaded to
accept a particular religion, political belief, etc.’ (новообращенный)
Abstract, contest, contract, contrast, convict, digest, transport, increase, protest,
progress, import, export, produce, rebel, record, survey, conflict, frequent,
perfect, present, impress, permit, object, conduct.
1.4. Change the following nouns and adjectives into verbs by conversion.
Explain and translate the verbs into Russian, give examples of their usage.
Model: land (n) ‘the solid dry part of the earth’s surface’ (земля) – to
land (v) ‘to come to, to bring to, or put on land or water (приземлиться):
We landed safely.
Class, hand, measure, place, clean, dirty, empty, free, market, map, sledge,
skate, ski, rain, snow, bubble, block, shop.
1.5. Derive new verbs from the following verbs, adjectives and nouns by
means of prefixes re-, un-, dis-, under-, over-, de-, pre-, post-, mis-,
en-, be-.
Model: cover – uncover, feed – overfeed, rich – enrich
Agree, arrange, centralize, view, nourish, calculate, contaminate, pronounce,
appear, appoint, little, cook, write, pay, marry, understand, large, graduate,
behave, cloud, bed, able, act, inform, consider, read, simplify, stay, turn,
moralize, work, compose.
1.6. Derive new verbs from the following adjectives and nouns by means of
suffixes -fy/-ify, -en, -ize, -ise.
Model: crystal – crystallize, black – blacken, false -- falsify
Sharp, false, sympathy, character, patron, intense, pure, strength, short, equal,
formal, private, broad, simple, oxide, idol, fertile.
1.7. Say which of the following words are verbs or may be used as verbs.
Translate them and explain your choice.
Arrival, date, execute, strengthen, day, sing, slowly, part, choose, indicate,
simplify, home, short, pay, law, empty, elect, educate, economy.
Unit 1. General Information
1.8. Complete the sentences using a suitable phrasal verb from the box.
break away 'to escape from someone'
break down 'to destroy something, to cause to be defeated'
break in 'to enter a building by force'
break of 'to cure someone of a habit'
break off 'to end'
break out 'to begin suddenly'
break through 'to make a discovery'
break up (esp. of a relationship) 'to come to an end'
Scientists hope to … … soon in their fight against cancer.
Fifteen minutes were enough for them to … … and steal my money.
The police tried to … ... the prisoner’s opposition.
Doctors keep trying to … …his dependence on the drug.
I am afraid their marriage will … … .
The criminal used a gun to … … from the policemen.
The war there may … … at any moment.
Let’s … … work and have some tea.
1.9. Use the phrasal verbs in the box to complete the sentences below. You
may also need to use certain pronoun or a noun.
catch up, cool off, fall behind, give in, grow up keep up, speak up, stay on,
wait up, watch out, bring up, hand over, pull down, sort out, put away
1) Their parents were overseas so their grandparents brought them up.
2) He still behaves like a child. I wish he’d … .
3) Come to the party on Friday and … … for the weekend.
4) I won’t be back until late. Will you … … for you?
5) He was exhausted but he still kept going. He just wouldn’t … … .
6) Please don’t go so fast. I just can’t … … .
7) The garage is falling apart. The best thing is to … … … and build another.
8) Could you … … a bit? I can hardly hear you.
9) … …! Oh dear! Didn’t you see that car coming?
10) You look hot and sticky. Come and sit in the shade and … … .
11) These papers are in a mess. Have you got time to … … …?
12) You go on ahead and I’ll … … .
13) Wait for me. I don’t want to … … .
14) It’s my money. Please … … ….
15) I want to fold these blankets up and … … … .
Unit 1. General Information
I. Kinds of verbs
1. They distinguish between main (or notional, lexical, or
ordinary) verbs which describe a physical/mental action and have a full
meaning of their own (as play, read, go) and auxiliary verbs which have
lost their primary lexical meaning and are used with a main verb to form
tenses, negatives and questions: Do you go there? or in a short answer:
Yes, I do.
Auxiliary verbs are subdivided into:
a) primary verbs that can function either as main verbs or as
auxiliary verbs (be, have and do: I am going; I have bought it; Do you like
b) modal verbs that convey a range of judgments about the
likelihood of events (all in all nine in the class can, could, may, might,
must, shall, should, will, would: He may come + some other words and
phrases having a similar function) (modal verbs are dealt with fully in
Part 3);
c) link verbs that have lost their original lexical meaning and are
used in the compound nominal predicate (be, turn, become, etc.: The soup
is good. The Vice President becomes President if the President dies. Many of
them are usually followed by adjectives: His face turned red. Henry looks
strong. In different contexts the same verb may be used as a notional or
a link verb (cf.: He turned back).
Main and auxiliary verbs differ in use.
Main verbs are not contracted while many auxiliary verbs are: are
not = aren’t, I am = I’m, they will = they’ll.
Main verbs are conjugated (I go but she goes) while many auxiliary
verbs (modal verbs in particular) are not: they remain uninflected, i.e. all
persons have the same form (I can, she can).
Main verbs may be used in progressive tenses (to go – I am going)
but auxiliaries are usually not (to be – I am to go).
2. A verb may be transitive or/and intransitive.
A verb is transitive if it takes a direct object – a noun or noun
construction that follows a verb and “receives” the action of the verb (I
Unit 1. General Information
love you. They take a book. We make a decision) and intransitive if it does
not take a direct object (The sun rises. Babies crawl).
Some verbs are only transitive (take), and some are only
intransitive (rise). There are also verbs that can be both transitive or
intransitive in their different meanings: I sell books (transitive) and The
books sell well (intransitive).
3. Verbs can be regular and irregular.
There are thousands of regular verbs in English that have
predictable forms, and there are less than 300 irregular ones (100 of
them are commonly used), the forms of which go back to Old English
and are unpredictable (go – went – gone).
II. Grammatical categories and forms of verbs
The verb has the grammatical categories of person, number,
tense, voice, and mood.
Thus, English verbs change more readily and more often than
words of any other part of speech. This change may be confusing for a
foreign language learner as even small changes in the form of a verb
reflect many differences in meaning.
The forms of the verb are broadly divided into two classes: the
Finite and Nonfinite forms, or Verbals.
The Finite forms (личные формы) of the verb are those which
limit the verb to a particular number, tense, person or mood: I go; she
goes; she went, etc.).
The Nonfinite forms (неличные формы) do not limit the verb to
any grammatical categories. A nonfinite form of the verb remains the
same in a clause, regardless of any its grammatical variation. For
example, when -ing form is used (asking), the verb can be referring to
any number, tense or mood.
There are three Nonfinite forms of the verb for:
the Infinitive (or the base form): to ask, to teach;
the Present Participle and Gerund (the -ing form): asking,
the Past Participle (the -ed form) in regular verbs: asked, taught.
All in all, generally speaking, almost every English verb has four (if
it is regular) or five (if it is irregular) major forms:
Unit 1. General Information
Major Verb Forms
the Infinitive (base) form
the -s form (3-d person sing. Simple Present)
the -ing (Present Participle and Gerund) form
the -ed (Simple Past) form
the -ed (Past Participle) form
(to) walk
(to) go
Modal verbs have a less number of forms and the verb to be has
eight forms.
Taking into account the forms of all grammatical categories that
finite verbs can express, the real number of the verb forms becomes
much more various and will be discussed in detail in the following units.
2.1. Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining the auxiliary
verb once and the main verb twice.
1) Helen is going to take her entrance exams to the University.
2) Will she pass her exams?
3) She should study hard.
4) Does she work hard on her exams?
5) She has been reading for 6 hours a day all this year round.
6) She became a finalist for a Morehead Scholarship.
7) The cafeteria food smelled terrible.
8) These pears taste delicious.
9) The professor is his office.
10) She was my roommate.
11) He is living in Germany.
12) He doesn’t have any money.
13) I saw an elephant at the zoo but I did not see a giraffe.
14) They could have seen a giraffe.
15) They must have been being advised by the government.
2.2. Determine if the following sentences contain a transitive (T) or
intransitive (I) verb.
1) He told Mary of a party at the Student Union.
2) Dennis cried to his girlfriend about his low economics degree.
3) My mother always says, “Think before you speak”.
4) He showed me the new computer printer.
Unit 1. General Information
The bell rings to end school.
He is young, but he’s learning fast.
What did you learn at school today?
Could you stop the bus, please? I want to get off.
Do you think you could stop in front of the post office?
We are running a course of English.
I can’t run as fast as I used to.
She is studying for a law degree.
He studied law at university.
You are not allowed to drive a car until you are eighteen.
She learned to drive when she was eighteen.
2.3. Use the verb given at the left in the Infinitive, the s-form, the -ing
form or the -ed form to fill in the blanks. Translate the sentences into
1) Your father … that we’re here.
2) Those cameras … too much for me.
3) Paul … interested.
4) I … coffee very much.
5) John … Mary to the movies every Friday.
6) The children … just like their mother.
7) We … everything you told us.
8) … dogs seldom bite.
9) … her is to love her.
10) … is his main desire.
11) The … letter alarmed him.
12) His … to town was unexpected.
13) He answered through the … door.
14) Generally …, I don’t like dogs.
15) I have found her … .
Unit 1. General Information
Time and Tense
As it was mentioned above, verbs express action or a state of
Since action and a state of being involve time – a universal
concept with three divisions for past, present and future – verbs have
linguistic means to indicate time, and they are called tenses.
The system of tenses that a verb may have is different in different
languages and this fact causes difficulties for foreign language learners.
The Tenses in English
The system of tenses in English includes the groups of Indefinite,
Perfect, Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tenses.
1. Indefinite Tenses
In English, there are Indefinite (or Simple) Tenses that are
generally used to denote:
a) a habitual action and that which is true regardless of time (the
Present Indefinite, or Simple Present): The sun sets in the west. Justice is
b) an action that took place in the past time (the Past Indefinite, or
Simple Past): He opened a bank account two years ago. John ate his dinner
at eight),
c) an action that will take place at a certain time (the Future
Indefinite, or Simple Future): I shall/will do it tomorrow. He will be here in
half an hour).
In the diagram below, the group of Indefinite Tenses is presented
with a O-sign on the line of time:
Unit 1. General Information
2. Perfect Tenses
The actions, however, may take place at any other time and be
completed by a certain time in the present, past or future, and these are
expressed in English by means of Perfect Tenses.
Perfect Tenses generally denote an action which:
a) ended prior to some definite time or action in the past (The Past
Perfect): She had finished her work before she went to bed. John had
lived in New York for ten years before he moved to Chicago ;
b) began in the past and has just been finished or is continuing in
to the present (The Present Perfect): I have just seen her. He has
been here for a week;
c) will be completed before some definite time in the future (The
Future Perfect): They will have finished their book by next year. By
the time she gets married, she will have learned to cook.
The group of Perfect Tenses are presented in the diagram below:
-- -- -- ------------- O -------------------- O ------------------------- O -----------→
Past Perfect
Present Perfect
Future Perfect
Thus, we may say, there are at least six tenses in the English
The Present Indefinite:
The Past Indefinite:
The Future Indefinite:
Regular verbs
walk, walks
shall/will walk
Irregular verbs
go, goes
shall/will go
The Present Perfect:
The Past Perfect:
The Future Perfect:
have/has walked
had walked
shall/will have walked
have/has gone
had gone
shall/will have gone
Unit 1. General Information
3. Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tenses. Aspect.
Verbs have the ability to tell us not only when but also how actions
take place. Thus, the expression of time is closely connected with
aspect – the manner in which the verbal action is regarded.
Verbs may stress that the action described by verbs in Indefinite or
Perfect Tenses is in progress. All six of the main tenses also have a
companion progressive form.
The progressive forms of the verb can be viewed as tense forms
and then we may speak about 6 more tenses: Continuous and Perfect
Continuous Tenses:
The Present Continuous Tense:
The Past Continuous Tense:
The Future Continuous Tense:
am/are/is writing
was/were writing
shall/will be writing
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense:
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense:
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense:
have/has been writing
had been writing
shall/will have been writing
The Units below will help you to gain a better understanding of the
logic behind the linguistic tenses in English.
3.1. Correlate the Russian verbs in the following sentences with the English
tense scheme. Name the tense form of the verb you would use in English.
1) Она только что нарисовала картинку.
2) Она сейчас рисует.
3) Она рисует уже час.
4) Она рисует каждый день.
5) Эту картинку она нарисовала вчера.
6) Вчера в это время она рисовала.
7) Она нарисует это в следующий раз.
8) Завтра в 5 часов она будет рисовать.
9) Она уже нарисовала картину, когда он пришел к ней.
Unit 1. General Information
3.2. Which tense (Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous or Perfect Continuous)
would you use for the verb to translate the following sentences:
1) Мы сдаем экзамены два раза в год.
A) take
C) are taking
B) have taken
D) have been taking
2) Я учусь в Академии уже несколько месяцев.
A) study
C) am studying
B) have studied
D) have been studying
3) Я окончил школу два года тому назад.
A) finished
C) was finishing
B) had finished
D)had been finishing
4) Перед тем как поступить в Академию, я работал на заводе.
A) worked
C) was working
B) had worked
D) had been working
5) В прошлом году в это время я сдавал вступительные экзамены.
A) took
C) was taking
B) had taken
D) had been taking
6) Я уже написал письмо.
A) wrote
C) was writing
B) have written
D) had been writing
7) В конце каждого семестра они будут сдавать несколько экзаменов.
A) will take
C) will be taking
B) will have taken
D) will have been taking
8) Он напишет доклад к 1 декабря.
A) will write
C) will be writing
B) will have written
D) will have been writing
9) Сейчас я пишу тест по грамматике английского языка.
A) write
C) am writing
B) have written
D) have been writing
10) Я изучал английский язык в течение 7 лет, перед тем как поступил в
A) studied
C) was studying
B) had studied
D) had been studying
3.3. Without translating the whole sentence use the verb in brackets in the
correct tense form (Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous or Perfect Continuous).
1) Я изучаю (learn) английский язык уже несколько лет.
2) На занятиях английского языка мы читаем (read) и переводим
(translate) тексты, отвечаем (answer) на вопросы преподавателей.
Unit 1. General Information
Сейчас у нас занятие по английскому языку. Мы повторяем (review)
временные формы английского глагола.
Мы уже написали (write) несколько контрольных работ по этой теме.
Вчера я опоздала (be late) на занятие.
Когда я вошла в аудиторию, студенты нашей группы писали (write)
тест уже двадцать минут. Многие из них уже закончили (finish) его и
сдали преподавателю.
Завтра мы будем писать (write) зачетную контрольную работу по этой
3.4. Use the verb ‘to write’ in the 1st person singular in different tense forms
and complete the table. Translate each verb form and add adverbs of time
(обычно, вообще, сейчас, уже, некоторое время, в тот момент, завтра,
вчера, к тому моменту, etc.):
I write 'Я пишу'
(вообще, обычно)
Tense and Aspect
Perfect Cont.
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) I ..... for eight hours last night.
A) sleep
C) slept
B) sleeped
D) was sleep
2) If she ..... me tonight, I'll send her a telegram.
A) not to phone
C) don't phone
B) doesn't phone
D) isn't phone
3) My nephew ..... ten next Saturday.
A) will have
C) has
B) will is
D) will be
4) Who ..... you to translate this article yesterday?
A) helped
C) help
B) did help
D) was help
5) As a rule it often ..... in autumn.
A) is rain
C) rains
B) rain
D) does rain
6) ..... in flying saucers?
A) Do you believe
C) You believe
B) Are you believe
D) Doesn't you believe
7) Let me know when he ..... .
A) will come
C) come
B) comes
D) is come
8) I ..... at home at six the day before yesterday.
A) didn't be
C) wasn't
B) weren't
D) didn't was
9) When ..... here next time?
A) you are
C) will you are
B)you will be
D) will you be
10) Which of you ..... this poem by heart?
A) know
C) knows
B) do know
D) does know
11) I don't know whether he ..... home early today.
A) will come
C) does come
B) comes
D) shall come
12) She ..... him when she was twenty.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
A) meet
C) meted
B) was meet
D) met
13) It's dark here. I ..... on the light.
A) switch
C) shall switched
B) will switch
D) am switch
14) ..... much last winter?
A) Was it snow
C) Did it snow
B) Did it snowed
D) Snowed it
15) He goes to the library every week, .....?
A) don't he
C) goes not he
B) does he
D)doesn't he
16) We won't go for a walk until it ..... raining.
A) will stop
C) doesn't stop
B) stops
D) will not stop
17) Where ..... your last summer holidays?
A) did you spent
C) did you spend
B) you spent
D) were you spend
18) Who ..... to play the guitar?
A) like
C) shall like
B) do like
D) likes
19) He ..... the letter on the table and left the room.
A) laid
C) lay
B) lied
D) was lay
20) Whose watch .....?
A) this is
C) is these
B) does this be
D) is this
21) I hope he ..... here soon.
A) is
C) will be
B) will is
D) shall be
22) ..... a sister?
A) Does she have
C) Have she got
B) Does she has
D) Does she have got
23) When ..... here? – Two hours ago.
A) did they be
C) did they were
B) they were
D) were they
24) They will go abroad as soon as Max ...... his exams.
A) will pass
C) shall be pass
B) pass
D) passes
25) He ..... a wonderful picture the other day.
A) draw
C) drew
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
B) drawed
D) drawn
26) The sun ..... early in summer.
A) rise
C) roses
D) rises
B) raises
27) Her son ..... school in two years.
A) finish
C) will finish
B) will be finish
D) will finishes
28) Henry ..... on basketball. He plays it every day.
A) keens
C) is keens
B) does keen
D) is keen
29) I don't know when we ..... this question.
A) discuss
C) are discuss
B will be discuss
D) will discuss
30) He will be a doctor in three years, .....?
A) will he not be
C) won't he
B) isn't he
D) will be not he
31) She'll watch TV after she ..... dinner.
A) has
C) is have
B) will have
D) will has
32) When ..... for Paris? – A week ago.
A) did he left
C) did he leave
B) did he live
D) was he leave
33) There ..... much coffee in the coffee pot.
A) are not
C) does not
B) does not be
D) is not
34) He ..... to go to bed late last summer.
A) wasn't used
C) did used
B) didn't use
D) wasn't use
35) She didn't know where ..... .
A) he lives
C) does he live
B) did he live
D) he lived
36) The weather ..... sunny the day after tomorrow.
A) is
C) will is
B) will be
D) was
37) ..... to see you again?
A) Did she be glad
C) Was she be glad
B) Did she glad
D) Was she glad
38) He ..... his son to drive a car next year.
A) will teaches
C) will teach
B) shall teach
D) will be teach
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
39) Kate ..... any foreign language.
A) don't speak
B) doesn't speaks
40) Why ..... so tired yesterday?
A) did you be
B) were you
C) isn't speak
D) doesn't speak
C) you was
D) you were
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) Every summer they (to go) to the country to see their parents.
42) Last month he (to celebrate) his sixty-fifth anniversary.
43) When you (to be) in Rome? – Two years ago.
44) Why you (not to go) to the cinema with us yesterday? – I (to be) very busy.
I (to have) much work to do.
45) She (to know) English? – When she (to study) at school she (to be) good at
it. But now she (not to remember) a single word.
46) It (to rain) yesterday? – It (to be) rainy and cold yesterday.
47) Why you (to be ready) only in an hour?
48) The day before yesterday he (to have) an important appointment.
49) I (to phone) you before I (to leave) next Sunday.
50) She (to be) twenty the day after tomorrow.
51) It (to snow) tomorrow? – I (to be) sure, the weather (to be) fine tomorrow.
52) If you (to help) her, she (to finish) her work in an hour.
53) They'll contact us as soon as the delegation (to arrive).
54) When Father (to come) we (to have) supper. – When it (to be)? – In half an
hour. He always (to come) home at 6.
55) If you (not to come) at 8 I won't wait.
56) Don't worry. He (to phone) you as soon as he (to come) back.
57) When I returned home it (to be) midnight.
58) When I return home today it (to be) midnight.
59) You always (to return) home at midnight? – Sometimes, but very seldom.
60) My aunt (to come) to see us tomorrow. – She (to come) to see you every
61) Please, send me a telegram when you (to get) to London.
62) If I (not to be busy) tomorrow I (to join) you.
63) She (to leave) next Monday. – When the train (to leave)? – At 3.15.
64) You (to be) rude to that woman just now.
65) If you (not to know) the word in English, ask your teacher.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
66) She (not to be) here next week. She (to be) abroad.
67) When he (to go) to Finland? – About six years ago.
68) When you (to have) breakfast yesterday? – It (to be) 7 o'clock.
69) We (to go) to the country unless it (to rain) tomorrow.
70) What time your classes usually (to begin)? – At 8 o'clock.
71) I wonder if he (to be) a student.
72) The other day she (to get) a letter from her cousin.
73) His train (to leave) at 9. He'll call a taxi as soon as he (to pack) his things.
74) She (to be married)? – Yes, she (to have) a family of her own. She (to get
married) last year.
75) Robert often (to miss) his classes. I think he (to fail) his exams next month.
76) He said that he (to like) to receive letters from his friends.
77) I'm sure it (not to rain) tomorrow.
78) Where you (to spend) last weekend? – At home. The weather (to be) cold.
79) Who (to take) your children to school, as a rule?
80) She (to go) for a walk if she (to have) some free time tonight.
3. Translate into English.
81) В это время года здесь всегда идет дождь.
82) Если завтра будет идти дождь, мы не пойдем на прогулку.
83) В прошлый выходной шел дождь? – Да.
84) Где ты был вчера в 7? Я звонил тебе, но тебя не было дома.
85) Когда вы обычно обедаете? – В три. Но вчера мы обедали в пять.
86) Завтра мой друг приезжает навестить нас. – Когда ты видел его в
последний раз? – Год тому назад.
87) Ты завтра будешь дома вечером? – Да. Я вернусь с работы в 7. Я
всегда возвращаюсь в 7.
88) Она ездит к родителям дважды в месяц. Я поговорю с ней прежде, чем
она уедет.
89) Сколько у тебя будет завтра уроков? – Шесть. По понедельникам у нас
всегда шесть уроков.
90) Ты знаешь этого человека? – Да, мы вместе учились в школе. – Когда
это было? – 10 лет назад.
91) Как правило, летом дети проводят много времени на свежем воздухе.
92) В прошлом году он много тренировался, чтобы принять участие в
93) Я еще не знаю, поеду ли я в Москву на следующей неделе.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
94) Почему ты не позвонила мне вчера? – Я была очень занята. У нас было
95) Ты не знаешь, сколько ей лет? – В прошлом месяце ей исполнилось
96) Если он не возьмет такси, он опоздает на свой поезд.
97) Прошлая зима была очень холодной. Снег шел почти каждый день.
98) Кто обычно помогает тебе делать уроки? – Моя старшая сестра.
99) Когда ты снова будешь в Лондоне? – Я точно не знаю, но думаю, что
поеду туда через месяц.
100) На днях Катя встретила свою бывшую одноклассницу. Она была
рада видеть ее, так как последний раз они виделись десять лет тому
Total: 100/ ____
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Present Indefinite has the same form as the Infinitive
(without to), -s being added for the 3rd person singular.
The negative is formed with does not + Infinitive (without to) for
the 3 person singular, and do not + Infinitive (without to) for all other
persons. Do not is usually contracted to don't, and does not to
The interrogative is formed with does + subject + Infinitive
(without to) for the 3rd person singular, and do + subject + Infinitive
(without to) for all other persons.
I go
You go
He/she/it goes
We go
They go
abroad every
I do not (=don't) go
You do not go
He/she/it does not go
We do not go
They do not go
abroad every
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
Negative Interrogative
Do I go
Do you go
abroad every
Does he/she/it go summer?
Do we go
Do they go
Do I not go
(= Don't I go)
abroad every
Do you not go
Does he/she/it not go
Do we not go
Do they not go
Remember: Affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences with the
verbs to be and to have/have got are formed in the following way:
I am
You are
He/she/it is
We are
You are
They are
I am not
You are not
He/she/it is not
a student.
We are not
You are not
They are not
Am I
Are you
Is he/she/it
Are we
Are you
Are they
a student.
Negative Interrogative
Am I not
Are you not
(= Aren't you )
Is he/she/it not
Are we not
Are you not
Are they not
a student?
a student?
I have/have got
You have/have got
He/she/it has/has got
We have/have got
They have/have got
a dog.
1) I do not have
(= I don't have)
You do not have
He/she/it does not have
We do not have
They do not have
a dog.
2) I have not got
(= I haven't got)
You have not got
He/she/it has not got
We have not got
They have not got
a dog.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
1) Do I have
Do you have
Does he/she/it have
Do we have
Do they have
a dog?
2) Have I got
Have you got
Has he/she/it got
Have we got
a dog?
Have they got
Negative Interrogative
1) Do I not have
(= Don't I have)
Do you not have
Does he/she/it not have
Do we not have
Do they not have
a dog?
2) Have I not got
(= Haven' t I got)
Have you not got
Has he/she/it not got
Have we not got
Have they not got
a dog?
2. U s a g e
The Present Indefinite is used to denote:
1) repeated/ habitual actions (especially with frequency adverbs:
often, usually, etc.): He usually goes to bed at 11.
2) permanent situations or states: She works as a nurse.
3) permanent truths or laws of nature: Water freezes at 0ºC.
4) timetables/programmes (future meaning): The match finishes at 7.
5) reviews/sports commentaries/dramatic narrative: Meryl Streep
acts brilliantly in this film.
The following time expressions can be used with the Present
Indefinite: every day/ week/ month/ year, usually, often, always, rarely,
never, sometimes, from time to time, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening,
at night, on Sundays, etc.
1.1. Explain the use of the Present Indefinite forms. Translate into Russian.
1) Every summer we go to the south to have a rest.
2) As a rule, we have 6 lessons on Mondays.
3) Does he ever eat meat? – No, he never eats meat. He is a vegetarian.
4) It often snows in winter in Belarus.
5) A square has four equal sides.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
6) Our hero goes off to search for the treasure, which he eventually finds after
many adventures.
7) Usually it takes me three days to drive to Los Angeles.
8) Every day she takes her son to school before she goes to work.
9) My plane arrives at 7:30 tomorrow morning.
10) This shop opens next week.
1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) Peter has poor eyesight, so he always wears glasses.
2) She drinks coffee in the morning.
3) On Sundays we go to see our friends.
4) They sometimes miss the 7 o'clock train and have to wait for the next one.
5) The sun rises in the east.
6) I hear somebody knocking at the door.
7) The book contains a lot of useful information.
8) Her parents live in the country.
9) The last train leaves at midnight.
10) We understand you quite well.
11) Magnet attracts iron.
12) Charlie looks just like his father.
13) Our classes usually begin at 9 o'clock.
14) Generally he walks to his office because it is not far from his house.
15) The pupils know this poem by heart.
1) Usually they have much work to do about the house.
2) Kate is absent from class today. She has got a sore throat.
3) Robert is keen on video games. He plays them every day.
4) I have lots of books at home. There are many English books among them.
5) Mark is good at tennis. He has got a lot of ability.
6) This car has a good cassette player.
7) This town is 4000 years old.
8) We have got a new computer.
9) There is a very interesting program on TV this evening.
10) They are often late for the classes.
11) Our house has three bedrooms.
12) We often have dictations in class.
13) Betty and Linda are fond of music.
14) Terry is in bed. He has got the flu.
15) There are many beautiful lakes in Belarus.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
1.3. Ask your fellow-student:
1) how long it takes him/her to get to his/her work;
2) if he/she studies well;
3) where they spend their holidays;
4) when it rains much in Belarus;
5) what time his/her classes begin;
6) what he/she does when the weather is good;
7) what kind of sportsman he/she is;
8) why he/she doesn't know the rule;
9) what this word means;
10) how many cinemas there are in this city;
11) when the train leaves;
12) how well his/her friends speak French;
13) if he/she has a dog;
14) how often he/she has got spelling dictations;
15) why his/her parents are so upset.
1.4. (A) Say that somebody or something does the same. Give your reasons:
Model: I work in the library every day. And Mary?
Mary also works in the library every day. She does her homework there.
1) My parents prefer to travel by air. And your father?
2) Mr Wilson is on business in China. And your boss?
3) She tries to avoid working overtime. And they?
4) Mr Black likes to walk in fine weather. And you?
5) They are fond of pop music. And your friends?
6) His brother watches TV every evening. And his parents?
7) Andy always has breakfast at 8 o'clock. And you?
8) They often go to the theatre. And your sister?
9) She often speaks on the phone. And her younger sister?
10) We usually have 6 lessons a day. And your brother?
11) My friends are students. And your friends?
12) It often rains in September. And in October?
13) There are 10 students in our group. And in your group?
14) You prefer tea to coffee. And your sister?
15) She remembers this poem well. And you?
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
(B) Say that somebody or something doesn't do the same. Give your reasons:
Model: I borrow books from the library. And your friend?
My friend doesn't borrow any books from the library. He has a lot of books at
1) Bob usually reads newspapers in the evening. And his brother?
2) It snows in winter. And in summer?
3) Mary is fond of playing the guitar. And you?
4) There are lots of sights in this large city. And in this small town?
5) I usually have a substantial breakfast. And you?
6) Lots of students make mistakes in spelling. And he?
7) You always agree with Bill. And your friend?
8) I think cats are very intelligent animals. And you?
9) She is very sociable and has many friends. And you?
10) Some people like autumn. And your mother?
11) I am always in time for my lessons. And you?
12) Tom is 18 and he has got a driving license. And his friend?
13) Usually it takes me 10 minutes to get to the park. And your friend?
14) The train for London arrives at 8 o'clock. And the train for Manchester?
15) Mary is an early riser. She gets up at 7 o'clock. And her younger sisters?
1.5. (A) Describe your daily activities by making sentences with frequency
adverbs and the Present Indefinite.
always, sometimes, seldom, never, usually, often, rarely
to eat breakfast
Response: Student A: I usually eat breakfast.
Student B: I never eat breakfast.
Student C: (Student A) usually eats breakfast.
(Student B) never eats breakfast.
1) to drink coffee in the morning
8) to take a bus to school
2) to get up late on Sundays
9) to drive to school
3) to drink more than two cups of tea 10) to have dinner at home
in the morning
11) to study in the library
4) to drink tomato juice in the 12) to watch TV in the evening
13) to go for a walk after classes
5) to be in time for classes
14) to do one's homework
6) to be away from classes
15) to go to bed late at night
7) to walk to school
(B) Write a story of a typical day in your life.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
1.6. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate forms of the verbs to be, to have
and to have got.
1) As a rule Mary (to be) very busy because she (to have) much work to do
about the house.
2) Whose books (to be) these? – One of them (to be) mine.
3) Your desk (to have) any drawers? – Yes, it (to have) six drawers.
4) What you (to be)? – I (to be) a lawyer.
5) Where Tom (to be)? He (to be) here? – No, he (not to be) very well. He (to
be) in bed. He (to have) the flu.
6) Everybody (to be) ready? – Not yet. I (not to be) ready yet.
7) Nick (to have got) a sister? – No, he (not to have got) a sister. He (to have
got) an elder brother. His name (to be) Eric. They (to be) very much alike.
8) The meeting (to be) about to begin. Everybody (to be) here?
9) The Browns (to have) a small garden. They (to be) fond of gardening.
10) There (not to be) much coffee in the coffee-pot.
11) Everything (to be) OK? – No, Mark (to be) late again. I (to be) angry with
him. I (to be) sure, he (not to have) any good excuse.
12) It (to be) cold and frosty in winter. The days (to be) short and the nights (to
be) long.
13) The children (to be) at home? – No, they (not to be). They (to be) in the
14) Tom (to have) a new car. It (to be) very expensive.
15) She (to be) keen on animals. She (to have got) two dogs and four cats.
1.7. Open the brackets. Use the Present Indefinite.
1) What you usually (to do) when you (to get) tired? – I (to go) for a long walk
to the park which (to be) not far from my house.
2) How much time it (to take) you to do your homework? – Usually I (to
spend) three or four hours on it.
3) What she (to be)? – She (to be) an economist. She (to work) for an
insurance company.
4) He never (to listen) to what you say. He always (to think) about something
5) You (to recognize) that man? – I (to think) I have seen him before but I (not
to remember) his name.
6) These things (not to belong) to him. They (to be) mine.
7) So in the first scene we (to see) him getting up and then he (to go) out and
(to meet) a strange woman.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
8) She (to like) to travel by plane? – No, she (not to travel) by plane very
often. She (to prefer) trains.
9) The semester (to end) in two more weeks.
10) You (to have) usually a light or a substantial breakfast? – Frankly speaking,
I (to be) a heavy sleeper and it (to be) very difficult for me to get up early.
Sometimes and it (to happen) often I (to oversleep). Then I (to be) in a
hurry and my breakfast (to consist of) a cup of tea or coffee.
11) The pie (to smell) delicious.
12) He (to have) a big family. There (to be) six members in it.
13) I can't afford that camera. It (to cost) too much.
14) They often (to go) to the theatre? – Yes, they (to be) great theatre-goers.
15) It often (to rain) here in autumn? – Yes, it (to rain) almost every day, the
weather (to be) dull and cool and there (to be) many puddles everywhere.
16) Whose French newspapers (to be) there on the table? – It (to seem) to me,
they (to be) Terry's. – He (to know) French well? – Yes, and he (to go) to
France every year to master the language.
17) She (to be) busy now. She (not to have) any time to help you.
18) You (to be) good at tennis? – Yes, I (to play) it four times a week.
19) The car (to stop) outside the National Bank. Three men (to get) out and the
driver (to stay) in the car. The three men (to walk) into the bank and (to
take) out their guns.
20) We (to have) a new girl in our class. Her name (to be) Linda. She (to look)
nice. She (to be) tall and (to have) long dark hair. Linda (to be) a good
mixer and (to have) lots of friends. She (to be) lively and everybody (to
admire) her.
In London it often (1) (not to snow), but when it (2) (to snow), life (3) (to
become) very difficult for everyone. Cars have to go very slowly because the
roads (4) (to be) covered with ice and wet snow, so there (5) (to be) traffic jams,
and lots of people (6) (to be) late for work. The snow usually (7) (to melt)
quickly and this (8) (to make) the pavements dangerous. Only children really
(9) (to be) fond of snow.
Sam (10) (to work) in the local library where he usually (11) (to have)
much work to do. As a rule, he (12) (to go) to work by bus, but this morning
he's walking because there (13) (not to seem) to be any buses. He (14) (to be)
dressed in his winter coat, but it (15) (to be) cool and it's snowing and the wet
snow is trickling down his neck. It (16) (to make) him feel very uncomfortable.
He (17) (to be) in a hurry. He (18) (to want) to get to the library as soon as
possible to have a nice, hot cup of tea.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
The Willsons (1) (to be) in New England. They (2) (to go) there every
summer because they (3) (to have) a lot of friends there. One day the Porters (4)
(to invite) them to dinner. So the Willsons are motoring along a strange country
road to keep the dinner engagement. But they (5) (to be) late and Mr Willson is
driving at top speed. In spite of this he (6) (to notice) a large house with a sign
which (7) (to say) that a doctor (8) (to live) there.
Half a mile farther on, something (9) (to go) wrong with the car and it
(10) (to crash) against a tree. The driver (11) (to be) unhurt but his wife (12) (to
be) seriously injured and (13) (to need) medical help. The road (14) (to be) a
lonely one and Mr Willson (15) (not to see) any other cars. Suddenly he (16) (to
remember) the doctor's house. He (17) (to lift) his wife, (18) (to walk) back to
that house and (19) (to ring) the bell. A tall, gray-haired man (20) (to open) the
door and (21) (to say) that he (22) (to be) a doctor. There (23) (to be) no one
else in the house. They (24) (to carry) Mrs Willson into a small consulting
room. The doctor (25) (to examine) her and (26) (to declare) that the only
chance of saving her life (27) (to be) to operate at once. Mr Willson (28) (to
hesitate) but (29) he (to have) no choice.
1.8. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where
1) Peter are a good singer. He sing very well.
2) His mother always worry about him.
3) Are airplanes fly all around the world?
4) Water freeze at 0°C and boil at 100°C.
5) Rivers flow towards the sea.
6) Mr Brown have two daughters. Their names is Mary and Kate.
7) The front page of a newspaper contain the most important news of the day.
8) The Smiths have a small cottage in the country. There is 4 rooms in it. Also
it have all modern conveniences.
9) Each season last three months and bring changes in the weather.
10) There is different means of travelling and each of them have its advantages
and disadvantages. All depend on a person.
11) It isn't snow much in winter.
12) It seem to me you doesn't understand what I mean.
13) Do John and Terry schoolboys? – Yes, they studies at the same school.
Besides, they are the best friends and spends much time together.
14) Is everybody remember this rule?
15) Music consist of pleasant sounds.
16) Whose gloves is these? – These gloves is mine.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
17) When he have some leisure time, he like to spend it in the open air.
18) Where do the sun set?
19) There are so many books in your bag, Mark. Are you need all of them?
20) They have breakfast at 9, doesn't they?
21) What are you think about the new sport centre?
22) Where are the keys? I can't find them.
23) What you usually do in summer? – I go to the seaside to relax.
24) She isn't know this man. She has never seen him before.
25) Sometimes Paul is very stubborn and it make me angry.
26) Why don't you believe her? She always tell the truth.
27) What are you do? – I am a student.
28) Where does your father come from? – He comes from Wales.
29) She have got a car, but she don't use it very often.
30) Does it very cold in the room?
1.9. Translate into English. Use the Present Indefinite.
1) Ты всегда говоришь по телефону так долго?
2) Он никогда не стучит в дверь перед тем, как войти в комнату.
3) –Кто обычно готовит завтрак в вашей семье? – Мама. Иногда я
помогаю ей.
4) Летом солнце всходит рано и заходит поздно.
5) Он всегда так быстро говорит, что я его иногда не понимаю.
6) У моего брата есть автомобиль, но я никогда им не пользуюсь. Я хочу
купить свой автомобиль.
7) Научная конференция начинается 20 сентября и заканчивается 1
8) Разве ты не знаешь, кому принадлежит этот дом?
9) – Ваш сын много читает? – Да, довольно много. Несмотря на то, что у
нас дома много книг, он часто берет книги в библиотеке.
10) Роберт увлекается спортом. Он хорошо плавает и неплохо играет в
11) – Чем занимается твой отец? – Он бизнесмен. К сожалению, я редко
вижу его дома, так как он часто ездит в командировки.
12) Когда наступает осень, с каждым днем становится все холоднее и
холоднее, и часто идут дожди.
13) В ее последнем диктанте много ошибок. Это странно, так как она
неплохая студентка и редко допускает ошибки в письменных работах.
14) – Поторопись! Профессор не любит, когда кто-нибудь опаздывает на
его лекции.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
15) – Как часто ты навещаешь родителей? – Я езжу к ним каждое
воскресенье. Они живут недалеко от города, и это занимает у меня
полчаса, чтобы добраться до них.
16) Интересно, когда отправляется поезд на Москву?
17) – Что ты обычно делаешь по вечерам? – Все зависит от настроения.
18) – Я не вижу в классе Тома. Где он? – Он дома. Он болен. У него грипп.
19) – Что ты думаешь об этом фильме? – Мне кажется, он немного
скучноват. Но, если хочешь, давай посмотрим его вместе. Он
начинается в 8 часов.
20) Все знают, что вода замерзает при 0°С.
21) – Извини, но я очень занят. У меня много работы и совершенно нет
времени, чтобы помочь тебе.
22) Мой брат – хирург. Большую часть времени он проводит в больнице.
Но, несмотря на то, что он много работает и приходит домой поздно
ночью, он очень любит свою работу.
23) Вы всегда обедаете дома, не так ли?
24) Ты не знаешь, сколько стоит этот телевизор?
25) – Чем он занимается? – Он художник. Он часто выставляет свои
картины в этой художественной галерее.
1.10. Read the stories and reproduce them. Use the Present Indefinite.
Little Mary goes to school for the first time. When she comes home, her
mother asks her, "Do you like your teacher, Mary?" Mary thinks a bit, and then
she says, "Yes, I like her very much, but I don't think she is very clever." "How
is that?" asks the mother. "Oh," says Mary, "because she asks us so many
An Englishman arrives at a hotel in France. There is a sign on the door of
the hotel which says, "All languages spoken here."
He speaks English to the waiter. But he doesn't understand him. Then he
tries to speak German and Italian. No answer. Then a little annoyed, he asks in
French, "Who is it that speaks all languages here then?" "The hotel guests,"
answers the waiter quietly.
The teacher tells the pupils about the man who always swims across the
river three times before breakfast.
Eric laughs.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
"Don't you believe that a good swimmer can do that?" the teacher asks
Eric. "Yes, I do," answers the boy, "but I don't see how the man gets his clothes
if he doesn't cross the river once more."
Once a young man applies for a job to the manager of a circus. His name
is Terry Black and he is very popular with the public because he can eat six
dozen eggs at a single sitting.
The manager informs him that they give four shows a day and adds that
on Saturday they give six shows. Terry is glad, he remarks that six shows fetch
more money than one.
The manager gives one more detail that on holidays they manage a show
every hour. In his reply to this Terry warns the manager that no matter how
many shows they give a day, he must have time to go out and have his dinner.
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Past Indefinite in all regular verbs is formed by adding -ed (or
-d when the verb ends in -e) to the Infinitive. The form is the same for all
In irregular verbs the Past Indefinite form varies so that the Past
Indefinite form of the verb to begin is began, of the verb to go is went,
of the verb to do is did. These forms must be learnt, but once this is
done there is no other difficulty, as the same form is used for all
The negative (for both regular and irregular verbs) is formed with
did not + Infinitive (without to). It is the same for all persons.
The interrogative (for both regular and irregular verbs) is formed
with did + subject + Infinitive (without to). It is the same for all persons.
1) I enjoyed
You enjoyed
He/she/it enjoyed
We enjoyed
They enjoyed
the show last
1) I did not enjoy
(= I didn't enjoy)
You did not enjoy
He/she/it did not enjoy
We did not enjoy
They did not enjoy
the show last
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
2) I went
You went
He/she/it went
We went
They went
2) I did not go
(= I didn't go)
to France a
year ago.
1) Did I enjoy
Did you enjoy
Did he/she/it enjoy
Did we enjoy
Did they enjoy
2) Did I go
Did you go
Did he/she/it go
Did we go
Did they go
the show last
to France a
year ago?
You did not go
He/she/it did not go
We did not go
They did not go
to France a
year ago.
Negative Interrogative
1) Did I not enjoy
(= Didn't I enjoy)
Did you not enjoy
Did he/she/it not enjoy
Did we not enjoy
Did they not enjoy
2) Did I not go
(= Didn't I go)
Did you not go
the show
last night?
to France a
year ago?
Did he/she/it not go
Did we not go
Did they not go
Remember: Affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences with the
verbs to be and to have/have got are formed in the following way:
I was
You were
He/she/it was
We were
They were
in London
last week.
I was not (= I wasn't)
You were not
He/she/it was not
We were not
in London
last week.
They were not
Was I
Were you
Was he/she/it
Were we
Were they
in London
last week?
Negative Interrogative
Was I not (= Wasn't I)
Were you not
Was he/she/it not
Were we not
Were they not
in London
last week?
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
I had/had got
You had/had got
He/she/it had/had got
We had/had got
They had/had got
a nice job
last summer.
1) I did not have
(= I didn't have)
You did not have
He/she/it did not have
We did not have
They did not have
2) I had not got
(= I hadn't got)
a nice job
You had not got
last summer. He/she/it had not got
We had not got
They had not got
a nice job
last summer.
1) Did I have
Did you have
Did he/she/it have
a nice job
Did we have
Did they have
2) Had I got
Had you got
Had he/she/it got
a nice job
Had we got
Had they got
Negative Interrogative
1) Did I not have
(= Didn't I have)
Did you not have
Did he/she/it not have
Did we not have
Did they not have
a nice job
2) Had I not got
(= Hadn't I got)
Had you not got
Had he/she/it not got
Had we not got
a nice job
last summer?
Had they not got
2. U s a g e
The Past Indefinite is used to denote:
1) complete actions or events which happened at a stated past
time: She called me an hour ago.
2) past habits or states: He used to go/went to school on foot.
3) past actions which happened one after the other: She sealed the
letter, put a stamp on it and posted it.
4) actions which happened at a definite past time although the
time is not mentioned. This action is not connected with the
present: Shakespeare wrote a lot of plays.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
The following time expressions can be used with the Past Indefinite:
yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, (how long) ago, then,
the other day, just now, when, in 1999, etc.
2.1. Explain the use of the Past Indefinite forms. Translate into Russian.
1) The first Olympics took place in Athens more than a hundred years ago.
2) I got up, switched off the radio, and sat down again.
3) They were here just now.
4) Robert used to play football when he was younger, but he stopped playing
some years ago.
5) Where did you spend your last weekend?
6) How long did he sleep last night? – He slept for about four hours. He had a
7) It didn't snow much the other day.
8) He was very busy when I phoned him the day before yesterday.
9) Did the old man use to have a walk before going to bed?
10) The other day she got acquainted with a famous actor.
2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) We enjoyed the performance last night.
2) They used to go to the country every Sunday.
3) He left for London just now.
4) He liked to read detective stories when he was a schoolboy.
5) The other day Sam bought a new car.
6) It rained heavily yesterday.
7) Two years ago John spent a fortnight in Manchester.
8) The Titanic hit an iceberg many years ago.
9) He gave up smoking a year ago.
10) Last year she finished school and went to work.
11) Robert and Kate got married the other day.
12) He used to be a good football-player in his childhood.
13) Every month she went to visit her parents.
14) The other day he sold his flat and bought a cottage.
15) She believed that he was right.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
1) They were friends in their childhood.
2) He had a sleepless night yesterday.
3) He was a famous writer when I met him.
4) She was cheerful and full of energy in those days.
5) The other day my friend was in London. He had a good time there.
6) Terry was ill four days ago. He had the flu.
7) We were glad to see them again.
8) They had three English lessons last week.
9) At school I was good at Chemistry.
10) Usually he had a hot shower before he went to bed.
11) You were fond of sports when you were a student.
12) There were many beautiful flowers in the garden.
13) There was a shop in front of our house long time ago.
14) When the taxi arrived, everything was ready for the trip.
15) He had a nice job last year. He was pleased with it.
2.3. Ask your fellow-student:
1) whether it rained last Wednesday;
2) when they were in the south last;
3) how long Mr Blade lived in London;
4) what he/she did two years ago;
5) when Ann left school and what she did afterwards;
6) if he/she had much work to do yesterday;
7) why he/she was so upset the other day;
8) how many letters there were on the table;
9) why he/she made up his/her mind to become a lawyer;
10) how often he/she wrote letters to his/her parents when he/she was abroad;
11) whom he/she met just now;
12) how he/she used to spend his/her leisure time when he/she was a student;
13) when he/she had dinner;
14) why he/she didn't take part in the conference;
15) who he/she got acquainted with at the party.
2.4. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate form of the verb 'to be'.
1) Where you (to be) yesterday? I couldn't get in touch with you. – I (to be) at
my parents' place.
2) Kate (to be) 18 last Monday.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
3) When we came to London the weather (to be) rather cold. It (to be) rainy
and windy.
4) They (to be) happy to have such a nice weekend.
5) There (to be) many people in the room and it (to be) very noisy.
6) Where she (to be) born? – She (to be) born in France.
7) Henry and Mark (not to be) friends when they studied at school.
8) She (not to be) fond of long walks when she was a child.
9) Who (to be) at the meeting yesterday? – All the students (to be).
10) A: I hear there (to be) a barbecue at the college last Saturday. You (to be)
B: Yes, I (to be). And why you (not to be) there??
A: Oh, I (to be) in London. I (to be) very busy.
B: That's a pity. It (to be) a very good barbecue. The food (to be) great.
A: What the weather (to be) like here?
B: Oh, we (to be) very lucky. It (to be) warm.
A: There (to be) many people there?
B: Yes, lots. Jim (not to be) there, though. He (not to be) very well.
A: What about Mark and Jane?
B: Oh, they (to be) still on holiday then. So they (not to be) at the
barbecue. But all the others (to be) there. We had a good time.
Mr and Mrs Temple (1) (to be) a very average couple. His name (2) (to
be) Steven. Her name (3) (to be) Ann.
They (4) (to be) tall? Mr and Mrs Temple (5) (to be) neither tall nor short.
They (6) (to be) both average height. He (7) (to be) average height for a man
and she (8) (to be) average height for a woman.
They (9) (to be) fat? Mr Temple (10) (not to be) weak or skinny, but he
(11) (not to be) strong or well-built either. He (12) (to be) just medium build
and his shoulders (13) (to be) neither very broad nor very narrow. His wife, too,
could never be described as thin or slim, but then again, she (14) (not to be)
overweight or fat either. Her waist (15) (to be) neither too big nor too narrow. It
(16) (to be) just ... average size.
It (17) (to be) very easy for the Temples to buy clothes because parts of
their bodies (18) (to be) average size too. Their feet (19) (to be) neither very big
nor very small. Their hips (20) (not to be) very wide. And their legs (21) (to be)
neither too short nor too long.
Yes, the Temples (22) (to be) a very average couple. Except for one thing.
They (23) (to be) the only couple in the country who (24) (to be) average in so
many ways at the same time. The Temples (25) (to be) in fact ... unique.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
2.5. Express contrasting past actions. Give your reason.
Model: As a rule she gets up early. (on Sunday)
She didn’t get up early on Sunday. She got up late on Sunday. It was her
day off.
1) Usually I have breakfast at 8. (yesterday)
2) She is always ready to help. (the other day)
3) Tom sleeps very well, as a rule. (last night)
4) I often go abroad on business. (last year)
5) My sister writes to me twice a month. (two years ago)
6) Nick is 20 and he has got a driving license. (when he was 15)
7) Walter is seldom away from classes. (on Monday)
8) Henry waits Kate after work and gives her a lift home. (the day before
9) It often rains this month. (last month)
10) She speaks English fluently. (a year ago)
11) Martha skates very badly. (when she was a schoolgirl)
12) Mr Ryan doesn’t walk much. (when he was younger)
13) My parents aren’t great theatre-goers. (many years ago)
14) Sam wears glasses. (five years ago)
15) Mr Black is in a hurry. He is late for the lecture. (yesterday)
16) They always help their mother about the house. (last Friday)
17) He doesn’t remember her telephone number. (half an hour ago)
18) Sometimes I miss the 5 o’clock train. (last week)
19) He doesn’t go shopping. (the other day)
20) She doesn’t do her homework in the evening. (yesterday)
Oral Activity
The teacher divides the class into two teams and gives a sentence. The teams in
turn ask questions based on the teacher's sentence. Each correct question gets 1
point. The team with the most points is the winner.
Possible sentence: They robbed a bank. / He invited her to dinner. / Ann wrote a
letter. / She bought a new dress, etc.
Team A. S1:
Team B. S1:
Team A. S2:
Team B. S2:
Who robbed a bank?
Did the police catch the robbers?
How much money did they get?
Did the robbers shoot anyone? etc.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
Used to expresses past habits or states. It forms its negative and
interrogative with did and it is the same in all persons. The Past
Indefinite can be used instead of used to: She used to walk/walked long
distances. She didn’t use to stay in and watch TV.
Would expresses past repeated actions and routine. Used to expresses
past states or habits: Grandma would always make me porridge for breakfast
(also: used to make). When I was young I used to live in Leeds (not: would).
Was going to expresses unfulfilled arrangements or unfulfilled plans in
the past, or actions one intended to do but did not or could not do: He
was going to visit Pam but she wasn’t at home.
2.6. Fill in:
(A) used to or would:
I (1) used to live in a small house in the country when I was a little girl. I
(2) ..... get up every day at 7 o’clock and get ready for school. My mother (3)
..... get our breakfast ready and then she (4) ..... walk to the bus stop with us
and wait for the school bus to pick us up. The bus (5) ..... be on time. We stayed
at school until 3.00 pm and then we (6) ..... catch the bus home again. In the
afternoon we (7) ..... walk home alone because mother didn’t pick us up. She
(8) ..... work in an office, but she stopped working last year and now she stays
at home.
(B) was going to, would or used to:
Last week I (1) was going to visit an old house where we (2) ..... play as
children, but I didn’t have the time. We (3) ..... go there every weekend and
play cowboys and Indians. We (4) ..... love it! My friend (5) ..... buy it and turn
it into a hotel or so he (6) ..... say, but of course he didn’t.
2.7. Complete the sentences. Each sentence should have a form of used to.
Add your own words.
1) He didn’t use to stay up past midnight, but now he often goes to bed very
2) What time you ..... to bed when you were a child?
3) Mary ..... coffee in the morning, but now she has a cup of tea.
4) They ..... tennis every Sunday, but now they don’t.
5) When a schoolboy, Terry ..... interested in Physics, but now he isn’t.
6) Ann ..... afraid of dogs, but now she likes dogs.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
7) When you were a little kid, what ..... after school?
8) Kate ..... in a law office, but now she doesn’t have a job.
9) ..... cartoons on TV when you were a child?
10) I ..... shy when I was younger, but now I am not.
11) Jane ..... any physical exercises, but now she exercises for an hour every
12) Peter ..... many books, but now he doesn’t have any time to do it.
13) I ..... with my parents, but now I don’t. I have my own apartment.
14) When you lived in London, ..... to the theatre very often?
15) I rarely eat ice cream now but I ..... when I was a child.
16) Our family ..... in Nottingham, but now we do.
17) There ..... a bank opposite the park, it became bankrupt some years ago.
18) Jim ..... my best friend, but we aren’t friends any longer.
19) I ..... keen on video games, but now I am.
20) He ..... to his office, but now he goes there by bus.
2.8. Open the brackets. Use the Past Indefinite.
1) When your friend (to return) from Australia? – She (to fly) yesterday
afternoon. – You (to go) to the airport to meet her? – Unfortunately, no. I
(to be) too busy.
2) He (to put) the book on the table and (to leave) the room.
3) I (to phone) you last Tuesday but you (not to be) at home. Where you (to
be)? – I (to be) in London. I (to go) there on business.
4) It often (to snow) last winter?
5) He told them that he (to be) fond of football when he (to be) a student.
6) Why you (not to finish) your report yesterday? – Frankly speaking, I (to
have) no time.
7) Why you (to be) so sad when I (to meet) you? Anything (to be) wrong with
8) Ann (to spend) much money the other day. She (to buy) a suit which (to
cost) $100.
9) When I (to reach) the street I (to realize) that I (not to know) the number of
Tom’s house.
10) Robert (to be going) to introduce Susan to his parents a month ago, but he
(to manage) to do this only the day before yesterday.
11) Nick (to be) a student when we (to get) acquainted? – No, he (to be) a
school-leaver then. He (to enter) the University last year.
12) What the weather (to be) like last Sunday? – It (to rain) hard and we (not to
go) to the country.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
13) Last night Mary (to do) her hair, (to put on) her beautiful black dress and
elegant shoes and (to go) to the theatre.
14) Why you (not to be) at the Institute two days ago? – I (to go) to the dentist. I
(to have) a toothache.
15) The other day Linda (to drop) her favourite vase. It (to fall) on the floor and
(to break) into a hundred pieces.
16) When you (to be) in Chicago last? – Two months ago. I (to visit) my uncle.
17) He (to give up) smoking long time ago.
18) In Madrid Mr Foster once (to go) to a bullfight and (to find) it exciting.
19) Why Karen (not to phone) me on Friday? – I think she (to be) away.
20) They (to buy) their tickets and five minutes later the train (to arrive).
When I (1) (to be) a child I (2) (to love) visiting my grandmother. I (3) (to
think) her house (4) (to be) as beautiful as a palace and the garden (5) (to seem)
bigger than a park.
As I (6) (to grow) older the house and the garden (7) (to seem) smaller,
but I still (8) (to love) visiting the old lady. There (9) (to be) so many lovely
things to look at in the house.
Sometimes I (10) (to play) with the doll’s house which (11) (to be) older
than grandmother herself; at other times I (12) (to look) at books which (13) (to
be) lovelier and more interesting than my children’s books at home.
I (14) (to love) her paintings and the old clock, but most of all I (15) (to
love) a big Chinese vase which (16) (to stand) in the hall. It (17) (to be) taller
than me, and I (18) (not to see) anything inside it. I (19) (to walk) round and
round it looking at the beautiful ladies, birds, flowers and trees which (20) (to
be) painted on it. I (21) (to admire) the beauty of the vase and grandmother
often (22) (to tell) me stories about these ladies.
Before my grandmother (23) (to die), she (24) (to give) me the vase I (25)
(to love) so much. I (26) (to be) really happy. It (27) (to look) beautiful in our
modern hall.
2.9. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Present Indefinite.
Hi, Johnny. I haven't heard from you for a long time. Where have you
Johnny: I (1) (to start) a new job six months ago. I (2) (to be) a computer
salesman now. I (3) (to enjoy) it very much. My company (4) (to
send) me abroad every few weeks. Last month I (5) (to go) to Japan –
it (6) (to be) fantastic!
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
Wow! Japan! How long you (7) (to stay) there? Tell me about it!
Johnny: I (8) (to stay) there for three weeks in a luxurious hotel. The company
always (9) (to pay) for everything.
I'd love a job like yours.
Johnny: Well actually, Jane, that (10) (to be) the reason why I am calling you
now. I (11) (to need) an assistant. Last week the company (12) (to
tell) me to choose someone and I immediately (13) (to think) of you.
What you (14) (to think)?
Of course I (15) (to agree).
Yesterday Jane (1) (to wake) up at seven thirty. She (2) (to have) a quick
shower, a cup of coffee, (3) (to get) into her car and (4) (to drive) to work. She
(5) (to find) a parking space outside the office door. "That (6) (to be) very
strange", she (7) (to think) as she (8) (to walk) up to the front door of the office
building; usually there (9) (to be) a lot of cars outside the office and she (10) (to
leave) her car in another street.
The door (11) (to be) locked when she (12) (to try) to open it. This (13)
(to be) very unusual. She (14) (to look) at her watch. It (15) (to be) exactly nine
o'clock! "The door never (16) (to be) locked at nine o'clock," she (17) (to say)
to herself. She (18) (to take) out her key and (19) (to unlock) the door.
As she (20) (to walk) into the office, Jane (21) (to see) that all the
windows (22) (to be) closed. It (23) (to be) summer and her secretary (24) (to
open) the windows when she (25) (to arrive) in the morning. But Jane's
secretary (26) (not to be) at her desk this morning. "Anybody (27) (to be) here?"
she (28) (to shout) nervously. There (29) (to be) no answer.
Jane (30) (to go) to her office and (31) (to sit) down behind her desk.
"What the matter (32) (to be)? Where everyone (33) (to be)?" Then she (34) (to
see) her diary on the desk. "Oh, no!" she (35) (to say). "Today (36) (to be)
2.10. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where
1) He used to went fishing every Sunday.
2) I didn't be very keen on sport in those days.
3) She sured that she remembers my address.
4) Even when they was children, their parents were discussed family problems
with them.
5) She falled ill yesterday and had to stay at home.
6) I come to you on Sunday. Where did you be?
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
7) When he switched on the light, he didn't saw anybody in the room.
8) Why you stayed at home last weekend? – The weather was bad. It was very
cold and it was snow hard.
9) When you lived in London, did you used to travel by bus?
10) The last time I saw Helen was before she leaved for Australia.
11) Did Tom late for his work the day before yesterday?
12) The other day Henry buy a new car.
13) How old did Marian was when they first met?
14) When did you graduated from the University?
15) When you passed the town hall clock, did you noticed what time was it?
16) I supported you at the time because I feeled that you are right.
17) When were they got married? – Two years ago.
18) Did you done your morning exercises every day when you was a
19) She said that she is very hungry and wants to have a snack.
20) Jane was very tired last night, didn't she?
21) Yesterday Terry didn't had breakfast as he was pressed for time.
22) The other day I borrowed this book from the library.
23) She knew that it is very difficult to get this job. But she done her best and
she was taken on.
24) Why did he be so angry with you yesterday?
25) Last month John wasn't go to Singapore on business, was he?
2.11. Translate into English. Use the Past Indefinite.
1) Его родители останавливались в этом отеле каждый раз, когда
приезжали в Лондон.
2) Ты не знаешь, почему Анна не сдала последний экзамен? – На
прошлой неделе она болела и у нее не было возможности хорошо
3) Когда ты последний раз был на юге? – Мы с друзьями ездили туда
прошлым летом. Мы хорошо провели время.
4) В молодости Генри, бывало, проводил свой отпуск в горах. Сейчас он
предпочитает отдых на море.
5) На днях я видел его, но он был очень занят, и мы не поговорили.
6) Когда Марта вернулась из Лондона? – Позавчера. – Как долго она там
была? – Она была там неделю.
7) Почему ты не позвонила мне вчера? – Я опоздала на 8-часовой автобус
и долго ждала следующего. Поэтому я пришла домой слишком поздно.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
8) Как ты написал последний диктант? – Неплохо. В нем было всего пару
ошибок. А ты? – Учительница сказала, что моя работа – лучшая в
9) В котором часу вы сегодня обедали? – Мы обедали в 4 часа, хотя
обычно мы обедаем в 3.
10) В прошлом году было много снега? – Да. Снег шел почти каждый
11) Кто вчера оставил эту книгу на столе? – Я.
12) Неделю назад я потеряла свои очки, но два дня спустя нашла их. Они
были в моей сумке.
13) Где ты была, когда я приходила к тебе в субботу? – Я была у подруги.
У нее был день рождения.
14) Два года назад Джейн вышла замуж и переехала жить в другой город.
Время от времени мы пишем письма друг другу.
15) Почему тебя не было на собрании? Мы обсуждали очень важный
16) Том собирался поступить в университет после окончания школы, но
ему не повезло.
17) Когда я предложила ей сходить вечером в кино, она сказала, что очень
устала и хочет пораньше лечь спать.
18) Зачем мистер Смит ездил в Берлин? – Он принимал участие в научной
конференции. Он выступал там с докладом.
19) Мы познакомились с ней у моей подруги на вечеринке. Но когда я
встретила ее на улице, я вдруг поняла, что не помню ее имени.
20) В прошлом году у него не было водительских прав, так как ему не
было 18 лет.
2.12. Read the stories and reproduce them. Use the Past Indefinite.
Two Englishmen, when in Spain, came into a small restaurant to have
their lunch. But they had a problem. They didn't speak Spanish. And the waiter
didn't understand English. The Englishmen wanted to order some milk but they
didn't know how to explain this to the waiter. They pronounced the word
several times, they spelled it, they drew it with their fingers on the table. All in
vain, the waiter didn't understand them.
At last it occurred to one of the Englishmen to draw a cow. He took out
his notebook and pencil and drew a picture of a cow. When the waiter saw the
picture, he smiled, nodded in approval and rushed out of the room. In a quarter
of an hour he came back panting and put in front of his clients two tickets for a
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
This happened many years ago when people believed in the stars.
There lived a King who had a daughter. He loved her very much. But one
day his daughter fell ill. He used to ask his astrologer to tell him his future. This
time he ordered him to tell him his daughter's future.
The astrologer looked at the stars through his telescope and said: "Your
Majesty, the stars tell me that your daughter is going to die." Soon after this she
died. The King was very upset but then he got angry and decided to punish the
He ordered him to come to his place and asked him: "Now, tell us, what
your stars tell you about your death."
But the astrologer was clever enough to answer: "Your Majesty, the stars
tell me that I'll die two days before your death."
So the astrologer saved his life in such a way.
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Future Indefinite is formed with shall/will + Infinitive (without to)
for the 1st person singular and plural and will + Infinitive (without to) for
the other persons.
The negative is formed with shall/will not + Infinitive.
The interrogative is formed with shall/will + subject + Infinitive.
I shall/will visit
You will visit
He/she/it will visit
We shall/will visit
They will visit
them next
Shall/Will I visit
Will you visit
Will he/she/it visit
Shall/Will we visit
Will they visit
them next
I shall/will not visit
(= I shan't/won't visit)
You will not visit
He/she/it will not visit
We shall/will not visit
They will not visit
them next
Negative Interrogative
Shall/Will I not visit
(= Shan't/Won't I visit)
Will you not visit
Will he/she/it not visit
Shall/Will we not visit
Will they not visit
them next
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
2. U s a g e
The Future Indefinite is used to denote:
1) decisions taken at the moment of speaking (on-the-spot
decisions): Since it's getting dark, I'll turn on the light.
2) hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings, predictions,
requests, comments etc., especially with: expect, hope, believe,
I'm sure, I'm afraid, probably, etc.: I'm afraid I'll be a little late.
3) actions or predictions which may (not) happen in the future:
She'll probably buy this dress (prediction);
or actions which we cannot control or will inevitably happen: He
will be twenty next year.
4) future actions in the object clauses of a compound sentence: I
don't know if (whether) the play will be a success. I wonder when he will
come back.
The Present Indefinite is used instead of the Future Indefinite to
denote a future action in the adverbial clauses of time and condition
(after the conjunctions: when, before, after, till, until, as soon as, if =
whether, unless): I'll call you as soon as he comes. If the weather is fine
tomorrow we'll go to the country.
Remember the difference in the use of if and unless: We'll go to the
country if it doesn't rain tomorrow. We'll go to the country unless it rains
The following time expressions can be used with the Future
Indefinite: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/ month/ year, in
some days, soon, in a week/ month, in an hour, in half an hour, etc.
3.1. Explain the use of the Future Indefinite forms. Translate into Russian.
1) I'm sure you will enjoy your visit to the zoo.
2) He'll call you as soon as he comes.
3) Tom won't pass his exam. He hasn't done any work for it.
4) Martin will have his own car in a year.
5) There will be a meeting tomorrow. Don't forget about it!
6) Christmas Day will fall on Tuesday this year.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
7) I don't know if the play will be interesting.
8) If the weather is fine, they will go to the country tomorrow.
9) Bob probably won't go to the library the day after tomorrow.
10) She said she would write a test on Monday.
3.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) The company will make a profit next year.
2) The boy will remember this day all his life.
3) We'll have a party next Friday.
4) Linda will become a lawyer in four years.
5) The weather will be a bit colder tomorrow.
6) The sun will rise at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning.
7) Dennis has a cold. He'll stay home in bed today.
8) My grandparents will celebrate their golden wedding anniversary next
9) After he finishes school, he'll enter the University.
10) It will rain a lot in October.
11) He'll come to see us soon.
12) I'll recognize Tom when I see him again.
13) It will take her half an hour to get to the cinema.
14) There will be ten students in our group next semester.
15) He'll put on his raincoat if it rains.
3.3. Ask your fellow-student:
1) how long it will take him/her to do his/her homework;
2) whether it will snow tomorrow;
3) when he/she will join them;
4) if they will read this text in class or at home;
5) who he/she will go to the south with as soon as he/she passes all the exams;
6) if he/she will go to the theatre or to a concert this Sunday;
7) where they will go when Jane joins them;
8) why he/she won't try to repair the radio-set before his/her father comes
9) how long he/she will stay in the mountains if the weather is nice;
10) when he is going to teach her to swim;
11) if he/she will go home by bus or by taxi today as it is rather late;
12) when he/she will have his/her day off;
13) why he/she is not going for a walk today;
14) when he/she will graduate from the Academy;
15) if they will go skating next Wednesday.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
Oral Activity I
The teacher divides the class into two teams and chooses a leader. The
teams in turn tell the leader what they are going to do in order to explain why
they can't go to the cinema with him/her. Each grammatically correct answer
gets 1 point. The team with the most points is the winner.
Shall we go to the cinema tomorrow, John?
Team A. S1:
I'm sorry, I can't. I'm going to visit my grandparents tomorrow.
Shall we go to the cinema tomorrow, Mary?
Team B. S1:
I'm sorry, I can't. I'm going to paint the kitchen tomorrow, etc.
Oral Activity II
The students have decided to decorate a house they are going to live in.
The teacher divides the class into two teams. Team A suggests something but
Team B finds a reason to disagree. Then Team A agrees and adds on-the-spot
decisions as a compromise for both sides. Students who produce a correct
sentence get 1 point. Play the game for some time and then change the roles of
the teams.
Here are some ideas:
put paintings / buy carpet (furniture, fridge, TV) / build a garage/ repair
the roof / plant trees / fix the door (windows) / paint the walls pink / put
up new curtains, etc.
Team A. S1:
Team B. S1:
Team A. S2:
Team A. S3:
Team B. S2:
We are going to put paintings on the walls.
We can't put paintings on the walls. They're expensive.
Okay, we'll put posters on the walls then.
We're going to buy new furniture.
We can't buy new furniture. We haven't got enough money, etc.
will+ base 1) decisions made at the
moment of speaking;
2) predictions, often with I
believe, expect, hope,
think, etc.;
3) offers or willingness;
1) OK, I'll see you this
evening at nine.
2) I think it will be a difficult
3) I'll give you a lift if you
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
4) requests;
5) firm intentions, promises;
6) threats;
7) facts about the future;
8) something we believe will
be going 1) intentions, plans;
to + base
2) something in the future
because of information in
the present;
3) predictions, especially
when there is evidence.
4) All right. I'll water the
5) Will you do me a favour?
6) I'll love you forever.
7) I won't speak to you ever
8) This holiday will fall on
Monday this year.
9) Don't carry that heavy box
– you will hurt your back.
1) I'm going to phone her
2) Look. It's going to rain.
3) It's 8 o'clock – you are
going to be late again.
4) 3) That building is going to
collapse soon.
3.4. Fill in: will or be going to.
1) I've lost my keys! – I ..... help you look for them.
2) Watch out! You ..... knock the vase over. – Oh! I didn't see it.
3) This ice-cream is delicious! – Don't eat any more. You ..... be sick.
4) Here is the waiter! Would you like a drink? – Yes, please. I ..... have a glass
of wine.
5) I'll park the car here. – Be careful, you ..... hit the wall!
6) ..... you have a biscuit with your tea? – No, thank you. I'm on a diet.
7) Have you decided what to wear tonight? – Yes, I ..... wear my black velvet
8) Have you seen John today? – No, but I ..... visit him this afternoon.
9) Why did you buy this flour? – I ..... make a pie.
10) Could someone get me a glass of water? – Certainly. I .....get you one.
Would you like some ice in it?
11) Leave the washing up . I ..... do it later.
12) I arranged to borrow some money because I ..... buy a new car next week.
13) What are your plans for the summer holidays? – I ..... spend a week on a
Greek island.
14) Could someone open the window, please? – I ..... do it.
15) Look at all those dark clouds. There ..... be a storm.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
Written Activity
Look at Jim's notes then produce a complete letter using will or be
going to:
go California / summer holidays / by plane (quickest way) / not alone /
friend come/ probably brother if decide / stay San Francisco a week / then
somewhere else / hope / find / place / sleep / sunbathe a lot / take swimsuit and
sunglasses / think / need them / sure / be / good holiday / join us?
Dear Ted,
I'm going to California for the summer holidays.….
Yours, Tim
3.5. Combine the ideas of the two sentences into one sentence. Use adverbial
clauses of time or condition.
Model: I will finish my work. I will go to bed. (after)
After I finish my work I'll go to bed.
or I'll go to bed after I finish my work.
1) The bell will ring. They will leave the room. (when)
2) Bob will study hard. He'll pass the exam. (if)
3) She will come on Monday. She will phone you. (as soon as)
4) He'll tell her everything. He'll leave for Germany. (before)
5) I'll be free in a minute. I'll help you. (as soon as)
6) They will stay at home on Sunday. It will rain. (if)
7) Robert will drive a car. He will be 18 next month. (when)
8) Ann will leave school. She will get this job. (after)
9) Mary will be ready soon. They'll be able to set off. (when)
10) She won't go to bed. He'll come home. (until)
11) Steven will miss his train. He won't hurry. (if)
12) They will discuss the problem. You will arrive. (before)
13) We won't go to the country. The weather will not improve. (until)
14) He is going to take a hot bath. He will get home tonight. (as soon as)
15) It will be hot tomorrow. I'll go swimming. (if)
16) Adam will call Mary tomorrow. He will invite her to the party. (when)
17) He will not write to you. You will write to him. (unless)
18) She will stay in bed. The clock will strike nine. (till)
19) Sam will have a short rest. He will have dinner. (after)
20) Betsy won't study for the test. She'll get a bad mark. (if)
21) I'll be better in some days. I'll go to school then. (as soon as)
22) We'll meet him at the station. He'll return from his business trip. (when)
23) You'll have to wait. He will be busy. (if)
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
24) He won't be able to buy this house. He won't have enough money. (until)
25) Everybody will be in the classroom. The teacher will come in. (before)
3.6. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
1) Nick (to meet) me at the airport when my plane (to arrive) tomorrow.
2) After she (to get) home from school every afternoon, she usually (to drink)
a cup of tea.
3) Before Tom (to go) to bed last night, he (to take) a shower.
4) I don't know when he (to come) tonight, but if it (not to be) late, I (to phone)
5) It's getting late, but before Mary (to go) to bed, she (to finish) her
homework and (to write) a letter to her friend.
6) Every day when Mrs White (to call) me on the phone she (to complain) of
her poor health.
7) Kate will graduate in a year. She (to look) for a job after she (to graduate).
8) Yesterday as soon as the snow (to stop), we (to go) skiing.
9) If I (to see) Mike tomorrow, I (to tell) him about the party.
10) Mr Brown often goes to New York. When he (to be) in New York, he
usually (to see) a Broadway play.
11) Today is Sunday. Greg has gone fishing. I wonder, if he (to catch) any fish.
12) When Betsy (to be) ill last week, Ann (to come) to see her every day.
13) As soon as I (to be) ready, I (to tell) you.
14) We don't know yet when they (to receive) our telegram. But when they (to
receive) it, we are sure, they (to phone) us.
15) Usually if the weather (to be) fine, Cindy (to go) to the beach every day.
16) As soon as the test (to be) over in class yesterday, the students (to leave) the
17) After Peter (to get up) at 8 o'clock, he always (to do) his morning exercises.
18) I wonder, if you (to take) part in the coming competition.
19) It's sunny today, but there's a cold wind blowing. I think you (to be) cold if
you (not to put) on your coat.
20) Ask her to call up Helen as soon as she (to come) home.
21) Every time she (to be) in London, she (to call) us.
22) What you (to do) before you (to go) to bed tonight?
23) I am sure he (to be) angry if John (to come) home late again.
24) They (not to go) out last night until it (to stop) raining.
25) Before you (to leave) the room, turn the lights off.
26) Sometimes Jane has temper tantrums. When she (to get) angry, she always
(to cry) and (to stamp) her feet.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
27) I wonder if he (to go) to the South next summer.
28) When she (to be) a first-year student last year, she (to visit) her parents once
a month.
29) If he (to keep) driving like that, he (to have) an accident.
30) Every time Mr Smith (to arrive) in Manchester two years ago, he (to stay)
at this hotel.
"You (1) (to meet) Agent 205 under the clock at the railway station. When
she (2) (to arrive), she (3) (to give) you an envelope. I don't know if you (4) (to
recognise) her in her disguise, but if she (5) (not to say) the secret code word,
you (6) (to know) she is an enemy agent. You (7) (to take) the envelope and
head for the train to Waterloo Station. When the train (8) (to come), you (9) (to
get on) it and go to Waterloo. If you (10) (to miss) the 9.15 train, you (11) (to
have to) get the next one. As soon as it (12) (to reach) Waterloo, leave the train
and take a taxi to the Opera House. You (13) (to meet) Jenny there, although
I'm not sure exactly when she (14) (to get) there. Give her the envelope. Wait
until she (15) (to drive) off and then go home. We (16) (to call) you there. Are
there any questions?"
3.7. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Indefinite or Present Indefinite.
1) You see the weather (to be) rather nasty today. It (to look) like rain. Put on
your raincoat or you (to get) soaked to the skin.
2) It is May. Soon summer (to come). The Smiths (to go) to the seaside in July.
3) You (to have) your day off tomorrow? – Certainly. Tomorrow is Sunday
and on Sundays I (to be) always free. – You (to stay) at home? – Of course
not, I (not to stay) at home. I (to go) to the skating-rink. I (to be) fond of
4) Look around! How lovely it (to be) here! I (to think) we (to pitch) our tent
near that oak-tree.
5) Ann has made up her mind to go in for gymnastics. So tomorrow she (to
begin) her training.
6) It (to be) time you get up. – All right, I (to get up) in a minute. At a quarter
to eight I (to be) ready and we (to begin) breakfast.
7) He says he (to meet) me at the bus stop, but I (to be) sure he (to forget) to do
8) Her son (to be) ten next year.
9) If she (not to hurry), she (to be) late for her work.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
10) Tomorrow the lecture (to be) over at 3 o'clock. So Mark (to be) at home at
11) We (to be) sure Kate (to take) part in the conference. She always (to take)
part in them.
12) Tell me when he (to finish) his work.
13) I (to be) busy tonight. I (not to be able) to go to the cinema with you.
14) She (to join) her friends in an hour.
15) I wonder if he (to pass) his exams successfully. He is too lazy.
Tom's Uncle George (1) (to be) extremely rich. He (2) (to be) a strange
old man, he (3) (to live) alone, (4) (to have) no wife or friends. He (5) (to have)
a hobby. He (6) (to spend) all his money on buying precious stones.
One day Uncle George (7) (to send) for his nephew because he (8) (to be)
seriously ill and he (9) (to understand) he (10) (to die) soon. Here it should be
explained that it (11) (to be) their first meeting. The matter is that many years
ago Uncle George (12) (to have) a big quarrel with his sister who (13) (to be)
Tom's mother and since then he has never spoken to them.
When Tom (14) (to come) to see him, Uncle George (15) (to tell) him:
"After my death you (16) (to have) all my precious stones. You (17) (to find)
them in an iron box in the bank. But before you (18) (to unlock) the box read
the letter on the top of it."
Soon Tom (19) (to go) to the bank and (20) (to find) the letter which (21)
(to say):
"Dear Tom,
This box (22) (to contain) a large number of precious stones which now
(23) (to belong) to you. Also the box (24) (to contain) a powerful charge of
dynamite which (25) (to explode) as soon as you (26) (to unlock) it. If you (27)
(not to believe) me, open it and you (28) (to be blown) into pieces. I (29) (to be)
sure you never (30) (to forget) your uncle."
So this (31) (to be) Tom's dilemma. A rich man, he (32) (to be) at the
same time poor. He (33) (to have) an iron box that (34) (to contain) great
wealth, but also (35) (to contain) dynamite that (36) (to explode) when the key
(37) (to be used) to unlock it.
3.8. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where
1) Is you going to visit them next weekend?
2) Call me as soon as she will send you a letter.
3) Look at these clouds! It will rain.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
I will help you if I will not be busy.
We don't know what will happen in the future.
He finishes his report before he will go to bed.
She says she will be here until he will come.
Will you see Mr Smith tomorrow? I wonder whether you give him a
message from Mr Black.
9) He will has a new computer next month.
10) When she will arrive, somebody meet her at the station.
11) Where do you work after you will change your job?
12) As soon as Terry get over his illness, his work will improves.
13) Where will you going to spend your summer holidays? – If everything will
be OK, I will go to the seaside.
14) Kate will has her first English lesson next Monday.
15) The teacher will is angry if Tom lates again.
16) I believe the Johnsons will move into their new flat in a month.
17) They will begin to work when everybody are here.
18) Next time it will takes him less time to get to my place.
19) Give me the book as soon as you will read it.
20) Before you will leave, don't forget to shut the window.
3.9. Translate into English. Use the Future Indefinite.
1) Я не знаю, когда он придет, но если рано, я скажу ему, чтобы он
позвонил тебе.
2) Если она не поспешит, она опоздает на автобус.
3) В следующем семестре у нас будет три занятия по английскому языку
в неделю.
4) Она сказала, что придет домой в 9.
5) Я поговорю с ним, как только увижу его.
6) Нам очень важно знать, когда мы получим эти документы.
7) Он спросил ее, что она будет делать, если опоздает на 6-часовой поезд.
8) Еще неизвестно, когда они построят новую школу. Но я думаю, это
произойдет через несколько лет.
9) Спросите его, когда он будет свободен. Нам нужно обсудить с ним
важный вопрос.
10) После того, как она проведет месяц в Москве, она уедет в Киев.
11) Я не знал, что вы собираетесь уезжать. Почему вы не сказали мне об
12) Поторопитесь! Такси будет здесь через несколько минут. Я буду ждать
вас на вокзале через полчаса.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
13) В ближайший выходной он посетит эту художественную выставку,
если ничего не помешает ему.
14) Если ночью будет сильный мороз, я боюсь, утром машина не
заведется, и мы останемся дома.
15) Смотри! Она сейчас упадет. Она совершенно не умеет кататься на
16) На следующей неделе студенты будут сдавать экзамен по английскому
языку. Они будут повторять весь материал, чтобы получить хорошие
17) Мне кажется, ему удастся закончить свою новую книгу в следующем
18) Каковы твои планы на вечер? – Я собираюсь навестить подругу.
19) Когда ты здесь будешь? – Если собрание закончится вовремя, я приду
в 4.
20) Интересно, получит ли она эту работу. Но я надеюсь, что все будет
1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
When Sam White (1) (to retire) last year, he (2) (to buy) a small cottage
in a seaside village. The cottage (3) (to be) built many centuries ago, but (4) (to
be) in very good condition. Sam (5) (to think) that he (6) (to have) a quiet life
there, but in the summer holidays he (7) (to get) a shock. Hundreds of tourists
(8) (to come) to the seaside village. Sam's cottage (9) (to be) the most beautiful
building in the village and many of the tourists (10) (to come) to see it. From
morning till night there (11) (to be) tourists outside the cottage. They (12) (to
keep) looking through the windows and some of them even (13) (to go) into
Sam's garden. This (14) (to be) too much for Sam. He (15) (to decide) to drive
the unwelcome visitors away, so he (16) (to put) a notice in the window. The
notice (17) (to say): "If you (18) (to want) to satisfy your curiosity, (19) (to
come) in and (20) (to look) round. Price: ten pence." Sam (21) (to be) sure that
the visitors (22) (to stop) coming but he (23) (to be) wrong. The number of the
visitors (24) (to increase) and Sam (25) (to spend) every day showing them
round the cottage. "I (26) (to come) here to retire, not to work as a guide," he
(27) (to complain). In the end, he (28) (to sell) the cottage and (29) (to buy) a
small modern house. It (30) (to be) an uninteresting little place and nobody (31)
(to want) to see it.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
There (1) (to live) long ago in the broad lands of Scotland a worthy lord
who (2) (to have) an only son. And as he (3) (to come) to lie on his death bed,
he (4) (to send) for the lad and (5) (to say):
“My son, I (6) (to know) too well that when I (7) (to be gone), you (8) (to
waste) the money and the land that I (9) (to leave) you, and one day you (10) (to
come) to poverty.”
The Heir of Linne, as the youth (11) (to be called), (12) (to begin) to say
that he (13) (to be) careful and (14) (to do) everything to obey the wishes of his
father. But the old man (15) (to tell) him not to make promises which he (16)
(to be tempted) to break, but only to assure him of one thing.
“Far away in the borders of our land,” he (17) (to say), “(18) (to stand) a
deserted cottage known as the Lonesome Lodge. (19) (To promise) that if you
(20) (to sell) all you (21) (to have) in the world, you never (22) (to part) with
this. (23) (To take) the key, and (24) (to hang) it round your neck, and (25) (to
remember) that when your friends (26) (to turn) their backs upon you, and you
(27) (to have) no place to go to, you (28) (to go) to the Lonesome Lodge, and
there you (29) (to find) a friend in need. It (30) (to be) my desire.”
This (31) (to seem) a very strange saying to the young man, but to satisfy
his father, he (32) (to hang) the key round his neck, and soon after the old man
(33) (to die).
Speaking about my parents I should say that my mother and my father (1)
(to be) very different people. Mum always (2) (to be) very calm; not exactly
easy-going, because she (3) (to take) things very seriously sometimes, but she
(4) (not to get excited).
When we (5) (to be) small (my brother and me), she almost never (6) (to
shout) at us. When we (7) (to do) something wrong, she (8) (to talk) to us about
it firmly, but in a calm tone of voice. If we (9) (to shout) and (10) (to cry), she
(11) (to make) us go and sit by ourselves in her room until we (12) (to calm)
Dad, on the other hand, (13) (to use) to shout and go for a long walk to try
to cool off. During the next few days he (14) (to be) cross with us a lot of time,
which (15) (to upset) us, as nothing (16) (to be) our fault.
Both of us kids (17) (to be) worried about what (18) (to be going) to
happen, and a bit afraid, but we (19) (not to talk) to our parents much. Most of
all we (20) (to be) worried about having to leave all of our school friends.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
2. Translate into English:
1) – Джейн нет в офисе. Ты не знаешь, где она? – Она звонила полчаса
назад и сказала, что будет здесь через час.
2) – Когда ты обычно завтракаешь? – Обычно я завтракаю в 8, но по
воскресеньям я встаю намного позже, поэтому завтракаю не раньше
3) – Когда ты последний раз видела Тома? – Неделю тому назад. Мы
ходили в кино.
4) – Спектакль начинается в 7. Дорога займет полчаса. Если ты будешь
готова через час, мы будем в театре вовремя.
5) В следующую субботу Марии исполняется 18 лет. Она собирается
устроить вечеринку для своих друзей.
6) Они, бывало, обсуждали свои проблемы часами.
7) – Кто у вас играет на гитаре? – Мой сын. Хотя он начал играть всего
пару месяцев назад, мне кажется, у него неплохо получается.
8) На днях они закончили строительство нового спортивного комплекса.
Говорят, он откроется через неделю.
9) – Если вы пойдете осматривать достопримечательности, возьмите с
собой мою сестру. Она хорошо знает город и его историю.
10) Билл сказал мне, что хорошо знает моего брата. Они вместе учились в
11) В прошлое воскресенье погода была ужасная. Было холодно, шел
дождь. Мы провели дома весь день.
12) Если ничего не изменится, завтра в 12 он будет на совещании.
Поэтому вы встретитесь с ним не раньше 3 часов.
13) – Она всегда соглашается с ним, потому что уверена, что он прав. Он
редко ошибается в своих предположениях.
14) Ты выглядишь усталым. Тебе нужно отдохнуть. Поспи немного, а я
разбужу тебя через пару часов, и ты закончишь свою работу.
15) Вчера Катя заболела. У нее была высокая температура и болело горло.
Если ей не станет лучше, мы вызовем врача.
16) Я была уверена, что он помнит меня, но делает вид, будто мы
17) – Посмотри на небо! Мне кажется, будет дождь. Если ты не возьмешь
с собой зонтик, ты промокнешь.
18) – Кто в вашей семье отводит детей в школу? – Мой муж. Как правило,
он идет на работу позже меня. Но я всегда забираю детей из школы.
19) – Когда вы приехали? – Позавчера. – Вас кто-нибудь встретил в
аэропорту? – Да, мистер Блэк. Он отвёз меня в отель.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
20) – Почему Аня больше не участвует в соревнованиях? - Ты разве не
знаешь? Она попала в аварию месяц тому назад и сломала ногу.
Доктора сказали ей, что больше она не будет заниматься спортом.
21) Мне кажется, им удастся добраться до вокзала за полчаса. В автобусах
сейчас не очень много пассажиров, и они сумеют сесть на первый же
22) – Летом мы, бывало, жили на даче, и папа всегда брал нас на рыбалку.
Сейчас мы редко проводим свободное время вместе.
23) Эти розы прелестны и пахнут восхитительно! Не удивительно, мой
отец сам их выращивает. Он знает о розах всё. Он начал выращивать
их много лет тому назад.
24) Я не знал точно, когда прибывает его поезд, и боялся опоздать.
25) –Когда ты был в Англии? Сколько времени ты там пробыл? В каких
городах ты побывал?
26) – Ты не знаешь, где Стив? – Думаю, он в командировке. Он ездит в
командировки каждый месяц. Поэтому мы редко видим его в офисе.
27) – Кому принадлежит этот дом? – Я не знаю фамилии этого человека.
Он переехал сюда всего пару дней тому назад.
28) Она сказала, что мистер Джонс проведёт совещание в следующий
вторник, когда вернётся из Лондона.
29) – Твоя сестра старше или младше тебя? – Она старше меня на два года.
В прошлом году она окончила университет и сейчас работает
менеджером на совместном предприятии.
30) – Я рассержусь, если ты опять опоздаешь. Мы всегда тебя ждём.
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) Where ..... when I phoned you the other day?
A) did you be
C) were you
B) you were
D) was you
2) I don’t know whether ..... tomorrow.
C) it snows
A) does it snow
B) will it snow
D) it will snow
3) Kate ..... of playing the piano. She wants to be a pianist.
A) fonds
C) does fond
B) is fond
D) fond
4) Whose book is this? – It ..... to me.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
A) does belongs
C) is belongs
D) belongs
5) ..... to walk in the park every day when she lived in London?
A) Was she used
C) Be she used
B) Did she use
D) Is she used
6) Meet Helen at the station. Her train ..... at 4.30.
A) will arrives
C) is arrived
B) arrives
D) arrive
7) Why ..... for the lesson yesterday? – I overslept.
A) was you late
C) were you late
B) did you late
D) you lated
8) She will go to the party next weekend. I think she ..... a good time there.
A) will has
C) shall have
B) has
D) will have
9) The other day Mark had dinner in a cafe, .....?
A) did he
C) didn’t he
B) hadn’t he
D) had he
10) I won’t go for a walk until I ..... my homework.
A) don’t do
C) will do
B) do
D) won’t do
11) She turned off the light and ..... the room.
A) leaved
C) lefted
B) left
D) was leave
12) He ..... to like cats in his childhood.
A) wasn't used
C) wasn't use
B) didn't use
D) doesn't used
13) I wonder whether he ..... his exam successfully next Monday.
A) pass
C) will pass
B) passes
D) does passes
14) ..... much last October?
A) Was it rain
C) Was it rained
B) Did it rained
D) Did it rain
15) Kate ..... to be alone.
A) isn't like
C) don't likes
B) doesn't like
D) not likes
16) Nick ..... a good swimmer in some weeks.
A) will be
C) shall is
B) will has
D) is
17) ..... a room of his own?
A) Does he has
C) Does he have got
B) belong
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
B) Have he got
D) Does he have
18) If it ..... tomorrow, we won't go skiing.
A) will be snow
C) snows
B) is snow
D) does snow
19) My friend's sister ..... in London last month.
A) didn't be
C) were not
B) wasn't
D) didn't was
20) Who ..... you to play football?
A) did teach
C) taught
B) teached
D) was teach
21) She'll jog in the park when April ..... .
A) will come
C) will comes
B) come
D) comes
22) Mr Black ..... golf twice a week.
A) play
C) plays
B) is play
D) is plays
23) How many cinemas ..... in this town five years ago?
A) they were
C) did they be
B) were there
D) was there
24) His mother always ..... with him when he comes home late.
A) angries
C) is angry
B) will is angry
D) does angry
25) He ..... for his work if he misses this bus.
A) will late
C) will is late
B) will be late
D) shall be late
26) She ..... a nice play just now.
A) sees
C) will see
B) seen
D) saw
27) When .....? – At 4.30.
A) will your train arrives C) your train arrives
B) does your train arrive D) is your train arrive
28) Who ..... this poem? – I don't know.
A) writes
C) did write
B) wrote
D) was write
29) Mary ..... to get up at 6 o'clock last year.
A) did use
C) is used
B) used
D) was used
30) She looks nice, .....?
A) isn't she
C) isn't it
B) does she
D) doesn't she
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
31) He'll write a letter to his parents before he ..... to bed.
A) will go
C) goes
B) go
D) will goes
32) She didn't know what time ..... .
A) did it be
C) did it was
B) was it
D) it was
33) My sister ..... as a nurse.
A) works
C) is work
B) work
D) does work
34) I was sure he ..... us soon.
A) will visit
C) would visit
B) visits
D) will be visit
35) They ..... their work in an hour.
A) will finish
C) will be finish
B) would finish
D) finishes
36) He ..... to Rome the other day.
A) flied
C) fly
B) flew
D) flown
37) The sun ..... early in winter.
A) sits
C) sats
B) sets
D) seats
38) There ..... much sugar in my tea.
A) are not
C) is not
B) do not
D) does not
39) I don't know whether I ..... to join you so soon.
A)am ready
C) ready
B) will ready
D) will be ready
40) She ..... his last novel. It was boring.
A) wasn't enjoy
C) didn't enjoyed
B) didn't enjoy
D) enjoys
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) Linda always (to have) lunch at home. But yesterday she (to have) it in a
42) How often he (to miss) classes last semester? – It (to be) very seldom.
43) Hurry up! Otherwise you (not to catch) your train.
44) Where you (to be) yesterday evening? – I (to be) at home.
45) If Kate (to enter) the Academy, she (to be) a lawyer in 5 years.
46) I don’t know if she (to pass) the coming exams successfully. She is a bit
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
47) You (to watch) this film the day before yesterday? – Yes, but I (not to like)
it. I (to be) bored.
48) What your father (to do)? – He (to be) an engineer. He (to work) at a plant
which (to produce) machinery.
49) Janet (to invite) you to the party just now? – Yes. Everybody (to enjoy) it.
We (to have) a good time there.
50) As soon as the negotiations (to be) over, we (to sign) a contract with this
company, I am sure.
51) Anybody (to meet) him at the station when he (to arrive) yesterday? – Yes.
It (to be) Max. They (to go) to the hotel at once.
52) I hope it (not to snow) next Sunday and we (to go) skiing.
53) Jack (to be) a heavy sleeper? – No, he never (to get up) later than at 7
54) She used to be shy when she (to be) younger but now she (not to be).
55) He said that he (to attend) the soccer game if nothing (to prevent) him.
56) Many students usually (to take) part in scientific conferences? – It (to
57) You (to be) always in time for your work? – Yes, but yesterday I (to be) late
because I (to miss) my bus.
58) You (to go) to the skating-rink with us? – No, I (to be) very busy now. But
as soon as I (to finish) my work, I (to join) you.
59) It (to rain) often here in summer? – No, it (to rain) very seldom. The
climate (to be) usually warm and dry here.
60) You (to go) to the Crimea last year? – Yes, I (to go) there with my friends.
We (to spend) three weeks there.
61) If she (to have) an opportunity to go abroad this year, she (to leave) for
France. She (to know) almost everything about this country already.
62) Who (to teach) you English? – Mrs Fox does. She (to be) a good teacher.
63) Don’t forget to switch off the light before you (to leave).
64) Mr Smith (to be) a sales representative. He often (to go) on business trips.
In a month he (to go) to Germany.
65) Why you (to be) so upset when I (to meet) you in the street the other day?
66) What she (to do) on Sundays? – As a rule, she (to visit) her parents. They
(to live) in the country.
67) What she (to do) last Sunday? – She (to stay) at home. She (to be) ill.
68) His grandparents (to celebrate) their golden wedding anniversary next
69) When she (to be) here? – She (to be) here in a few minutes.
70) Mrs Watson (to be) keen on animals. She (to have) two dogs and four cats
and she (to take) much care of them.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
71) If it (to be) cold tomorrow, he (to put on) his warm coat.
72) She always (to be) glad to see us when we (to come) to her place in
73) I asked him whether he (to like) ice-cream.
74) When your daughter (to finish) school? – Last year.
75) She (to be) ready? – Not yet. But she (to be) ready in half an hour.
76) Mark told me that he (to buy) a new TV-set soon.
77) You (to swim) well when you (to be) a schoolgirl? – Unfortunately, I
couldn't swim at all.
78) Nobody (to like) to stay in town in hot weather.
79) They'll discuss this question when Mr Sutton (to arrive).
80) Our fridge (to be) out of order just now, but father (to manage) to repair it.
3. Translate into English.
81) Многие люди не любят зиму, так как временами стоят суровые морозы
и часто идет снег.
82) – Кто вчера забыл здесь эту книгу? – Я думаю, Джон. Иногда он очень
83) На днях Майкл получил водительские права. Он надеется, что, если у
него будет достаточно денег, через пару месяцев он купит себе
84) – Вчера я заходила к Марте, но ее не было дома. Ты не знаешь, где
она? – Позавчера она уехала в командировку. Она будет дома через
85) Если снег не прекратится, мы не пойдем завтра на каток, так как
кататься будет невозможно.
86) Он сказал, что прочтет эту книгу, как только сдаст экзамены.
87) Я уверена, что он не уйдет домой, пока не обсудит этот вопрос с
88) В молодости он, бывало, проводил выходные за городом. Теперь он
все чаще предпочитает оставаться дома.
89) Когда он обычно заканчивает работу? – В пять. Завтра у них будет
собрание, и он придет домой в восемь.
90) – Когда твой отец открыл свою фирму? – Полгода назад. – Чем они
занимаются? – Они продают мебель.
91) – Я начал играть в шахматы, когда мне было 7. – Кто научил тебя? –
Мой отец. Он хорошо играет в шахматы.
92) Ник сказал, что позвонит нам, как только встретит Джона в аэропорту.
93) Если чай недостаточно сладкий, добавь сахару.
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses
94) – Почему ты не хочешь ехать с нами на экскурсию в субботу? – Мы
поедем с друзьями за город, если не будет дождя.
95) Через два дня Генри будет в Лондоне. Он будет обсуждать
финансовые вопросы с нашими партнерами.
96) На днях Макс закончил свой новый роман. Он надеется, что он
понравится его читателям.
97) – Как часто твой отец играет в теннис? – Теперь два раза в неделю. В
молодости он, бывало, играл в теннис почти каждый день.
98) Катя не пойдет завтра в школу, если не будет чувствовать себя лучше.
99) – Когда Марта приехала с юга? – Позавчера. – Кто встречал ее на
вокзале? – Ее брат.
100) Фильм начинается в 7. Сейчас без четверти семь, а Марка все еще
нет. Он опять опаздывает! Если его не будет через пять минут, мы не
будем его ждать.
Total: 100/_____
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) Why do you look so unhappy? – I ..... my purse.
A) had lost
C) have lost
B) lost
D) will have lost
2) We are late. The meeting ..... an hour before.
A) has started
C) started
B) had started
3) She was the most delightful person I ..... .
A) ever met
C) have ever met
B) had ever met
D) has ever met
4) Julia ..... all the housework by 3 o’clock tomorrow.
A) will finish
C) has finished
B) will have finished
D) finished
5) Mother is asking the children if they ..... some biscuits for tea.
A) had bought
C) have bought
B) will have bought
D) has bought
6) That morning she went out after she ..... somebody.
A) phoned
C) has phoned
B) had phoned
D) have phoned
7) I promise I ..... in touch with you by 5.
A) will have got
C) got
B) will get
D) have got
8) We are going to buy a car. By the end of next month our family ..... money
for it.
A) saved
C) had saved
B) will save
D) will have saved
9) I am so happy to see you again. I ..... you since I left London.
A) haven’t seen
C) didn’t see
B) hadn’t seen
D) won’t see
10) Alice ..... the big house in the country.
A) always has
C) had always had
B) has always had
D) will always had
11) The Hills managed to arrive exactly on time because they ..... a taxi.
A) took
C) have taken
B)were taking
D) had taken
12) He said that he ..... the vase one week before.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
A) broke
C) had broken
B) has broken
D) would have broken
She ..... by the time we arrive.
A) will have lunch
C) is having
B) will have had lunch
D) will be having
I ..... some pictures to be developed. Are they ready?
A) have left
C) am leaving
B) has leave
D) left
We asked Peter to come with us but he refused. He ..... to play tennis with
his friends.
A) had already promised
C) already promised
B) has already promised
D) will have promised
By the time I come, they ..... .
A) will go away
C) will has gone
B) will have gone away
D) went away
It is snowing heavily. Have you listened to the weather forecast for
tomorrow? – I hope it ..... snowing by tomorrow morning.
A) will stop
C) has stopped
B) will have stopped
D) stops
After I ..... all my letters, I went to the kitchen to make coffee.
A) wrote
C) write
B) had written
D) had wrote
Hardly ..... the envelope when she felt some strange pain.
A) she opened
C) had she opened
B) she had opened
D) has she opened
The students ..... the text by the end of the lesson.
A) will translate
C) will has translated
B) will have translated
D) translated
My parents ..... to the USA many times.
A) were
C) has been
B) have been
D) will have been
I can’t find my umbrella. I think somebody ..... it by mistake.
A) took
C) had taken
B) has taken
D) will have taken
She ..... speaking over the phone when the phone rang again.
A) hardly finished
C) has hardly finished
B) had hardly finished
D) had finished hardly
The students ..... the text by the end of the lesson.
A) will translate
C) will be translating
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
B) will have translated
D) will has translated
By the beginning of his holidays he ..... all the exams.
A) will have passed
C) will pass
B) will has passed
D) passes
I am very tired. I ..... the ceiling today.
A) has painted
C) painted
B) have painted
D) will have painted
One of the passengers ..... in that accident.
A) has died
C) has dying
B) has dead
D) have died
The workers say that they ..... a district by the beginning of 2008.
A) will have built up
C) will build up
B) will build up
D) built up
Tell him about these events. He ..... about them.
A) have never heard
C) never has heard
B) has never heard
D) will have never heard
He was tired because he ..... in the garden the whole day.
A) worked
C) has worked
B) had worked
D) is working
I am afraid I ..... my book at home.
A) have leaved
C) have left
B) left
D) will have left
My parents ..... by 5 to collect me from school after the tennis match.
A) will have arrived
C) has arrived
B) will arrive
D) arrived
By this time next month I ..... my exams.
A) will finish
C) finished
B) have finished
D) will have finished
I ..... the story. Could you listen to me?
A) have learnt
C) will have learnt
B) had learnt
D) will learn
They ..... me about the accident.
A) have already informed C) will have informed already
B) had already informed D) will inform already
I ..... from him since he left for Paris.
A) hadn’t heard
C) didn’t heard
B) haven’t heard
D) will not hear
Jane was afraid she ..... her key at home, but she found it in her bag.
A) had left
C) would leave
B) left
D) has left
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
38) I wasn’t hungry because I ..... breakfast.
A) had just had
C) am just having
B) has just had
D) just had
39) By this time next month I ..... my exams.
A) will finish
C) will have finished
B) have finished
D) had finished
40) We ..... some good films recently.
A) have seen
C) will see
B) has seen
D) will have seen
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) Granny (to be) ill for a fortnight.
42) I (not to see) Tom for ages.
43) The builders (to finish) most of the work by Sunday.
44) Jack wasn’t at home when I came back. He (to go) out 20 minutes before.
45) Peter saw an urgent message on his table. Somebody (to leave) it the day
46) By the time I get up tomorrow morning, the sun (to rise) already.
47) I apologized I (not to phone) them.
48) By the time I come, they (to go).
49) Where is Jane? – She (to go) to the shops. She’ll be back soon.
50) Mr. Brown doesn’t often mow the lawn. He (not to cut) the grass for ages.
51) By the end of the year we (to be) through with our experiment.
52) I (never to sail) again since that journey.
53) Dora isn’t playing the piano well. It is the first time she (to play) the piano
this month.
54) I recognized him at once though I (to meet) him many years before.
55) He told me that he (to come back) a fortnight before.
56) Have you got any money? – Yes, I (to borrow) it from my brother.
57) I think she (to cook) dinner by the time mother comes home.
58) Mom (to lose) her car keys, so we have to open the door by force.
59) Sue (not to take) a lot of drugs since she joined the health club.
60) The doctor (to examine) the patient by 5.
61) She (to have) a headache since she came from the theatre.
62) They couldn’t believe he (to give up) his job in the bank.
63) Mr. Jackson said that he (already to buy) everything for lunch.
64) I bought a new dress last week, but I (not to wear) it yet.
65) I (to be) very busy lately, so I (not to type) your letter yet.
66) It is the third time he (to visit) Rome.
67) Tell John about this film. He (never to see) it.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
Why were you looking so unhappy yesterday? – I (to lose) my bag.
I (to watch) TV by midnight.
When will you repair your bike? – I (to do) it tomorrow by 8.
He quickly forgot everything he (to learn) at school.
The man (to be) unconscious for a few minutes when an ambulance
Hardly I (to finish) speaking with a porter when I saw Paul.
By the end of this year Bob (to save) enough to go to America.
I began writing to you instead of going to the seaside, as I (to plan) before.
I am so happy to see you. I (not to see) you since I left Rome.
Sam was upset because Judy (not to come).
Your guests (to go) by 4?
They (to pick) all the apples by the end of October.
After I (to write) all the letters, I went to the kitchen to make tea.
3. Translate into English.
81) Последние несколько дней у нас стоит прекрасная солнечная погода.
82) Уверен, что они не прочтут эту книгу к назначенному сроку.
83) Она спросила меня, где я купил эту книгу.
84) Не успела эта семья снять дом, как начала искать новый.
85) К 3 часам мой старший брат уже вернулся из школы.
86) Они закончат эксперимент к зиме, не правда ли?
87) Вы опаздываете уже третий раз за эту неделю.
88) Лектор сообщил, что население города достигло миллиона.
89) Они осмотрят весь город к вечеру.
90) Я никогда раньше не видел ее такой сердитой.
91) Моя младшая сестра только что вернулась из Лондона.
92) Этот дом очень старый. Строители снесут его к тому времени, когда
вы вернетесь в город.
93) Когда я приехал в Варшаву, Джон уже уехал в Лондон.
94) Мы сделаем это упражнение к 2 часам, а потом вместе пойдем в парк.
95) Рабочие уже закончили ремонт дома. Кто-то уже переехал?
96) Что ты успеешь сделать к тому времени, как я приду?
97) Они не напишут тест к приходу учителя.
98) Надеюсь, что к концу недели они купят новый телевизор.
99) Джейн была не голодна. Она только что позавтракала.
100) Мои друзья вернуться из путешествия к 1 сентября.
Total: 100/______
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
§ 1.
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary to have in the Present
Indefinite + the Past Participle: I have just finished my work.
The Past Participle in regular verbs has exactly the same form as the
Past Indefinite: loved, walked, etc.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to have in the
Present Indefinite + the Past Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to have in the
Present Indefinite and the subject+ the Past Participle.
I have just finished
(= I've just finished)
You have just finished
He/she/it has just finished
We have just finished
They have just finished
Have I finished
Have you finished
Has he/she/it finished
Have we finished
Have they finished
I have not finished
(= I haven't finished)
You have not finished
He/she/it has not finished
We have not finished
They have not finished
Negative Interrogative
Have I not finished
(= Haven't I finished)
Have you not finished
Has he/she/it not finished
Have we not finished
Have they not finished
2. U s a g e
The Present Perfect is used to indicate a completed action the result of
which is felt at the moment of speech or an action, which began at a
certain moment of the past time but is still going on now.
The Present Perfect is used to denote:
1) an accomplished action which is viewed from the moment of
speaking as part of the present situation. Attention is centred
on the action itself or on the result of the action: I've changed
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
2) a recent action when the time is not mentioned: I have read the
instructions but I don't understand them.
3) an action which began in the past and is still continuing (with
verbs which are not used in the Continuous form) or an action
which began in the past and is finishing at the moment of
speaking: I have known him since childhood. He has lived here all his
life (he still lives here). It has been very cold lately but it is beginning to get
a bit warmer.
4) opening up a conversation, introducing a new topic or
summing up a situation: I'm afraid I've been terribly boring and
talked too much.
5) news reporting; the use of this tense makes the event seem
immediate and of direct reference to the present: The Prime
Minister has announced that taxes are to increase from the beginning of
next year.
6) an action in clauses of time and condition after the
prepositions when, after, as soon as to indicate the
completion of the action: I'll give you back your ring when I've
found it.
The following words and time expressions can be used with the
Present Perfect:
today/ this week/ month / year, etc. denoting an incomplete period
of time: Have you seen him today? (= at any time today).
just, lately, recently, yet (in negative sentences and in interrogative
sentences when it corresponds to the Russian word "уже"), already (in
affirmative sentences; and in interrogative sentences to express
surprise), ever, never, before, and in some cases always: He has just
gone out. I have seen wolves in that forest lately. I haven't finished my work
yet. Has he come back yet? You have already solved this problem. Have you
read the book already?! I have never been to Italy. “What is the point?” “I
have made it clear enough before.” We have always lived in this town.
for (used with the period of time), since (used with the beginning of the period of
time): We have lived in London for 10 years / for a long time. She has been here
since 8 o'clock/ since she left Moscow.
1.1. Explain the use of the Present Perfect forms. Translate into Russian.
1) I have just had lunch.
2) I have visited China twice.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
I have never been to India.
He hasn't driven a car since December.
John hasn't written to me recently.
Has it stopped raining yet?
The door was white, now it is blue. Mary has painted the door.
We have known each other since we were at school.
It's 12 o'clock, so I have been here for 2 hours.
You can read this poem with the correct intonation after you have listened
to it 3 times.
1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) She has already done her homework.
2) He has always lived here.
3) She has been here several times before.
4) We have just listened to the story.
5) They have already received a new flat.
6) I have already passed my driving test.
7) I have already found a good job.
8) He has tried to give up smoking 5 times this year.
9) We have met a lot of interesting people for one year.
10) He has studied very hard this term.
1.3. Transform into an interrogative form according to the model.
Model: I have known him for 5 years (since 1980).
How long have you known him?
Since when (what time) have you known him?
1) Tom and I have known each other for 20 years already.
2) Since Christmas the weather has been bad.
3) Ann has been on holiday for 3 days.
4) He has had his car since February.
5) Bob and Mary have been married for 5 years.
6) He hasn't been at home for 2 weeks.
7) Three days have passed since the beginning of the 1st term.
8) He hasn't been to the theatre for a long time.
9) They haven't seen each other since they graduated from the Institute.
10) He has studied very hard for 2 years.
1.4. Put in: yet or already.
Mike: Haven't you cleaned the bathroom (1) yet?
Chris: Stop complaining! You've (2) ….. asked me that 3 times today. Why is
it so important?
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
I've (3) ….. told you. My parents are coming to stay this weekend.
Well, don't worry! They haven't come (4) ….. , have they? Anyway,
it's not my turn to clean the bathroom. I've (5) ….. done it this month.
That's not true. You've been living here for nearly a year and I haven't
seen you do any cleaning (6) ….. .
1.5. Put in: since or for.
John and Norma have been married (1) for 20 years. They have been in
New York (2) ….. 1989. John has known Wall Street (3) ….. 4 years and he has
made a lot of money (4) ….. he started working there. Norma hasn't worked (5)
….. she moved to New York, but she hasn't written a book (6) ….. the past 2
years. She has had a lot of spare time (7) ….. their son left home 4 years ago to
work in France.
1.6. Open the brackets. Use the Present Perfect.
1) The clock is slow. – It isn't slow, it (to stop).
2) He (not to smoke) for 2 weeks. He is trying to give it up.
3) It (to be) cold this year. I wonder, when it is going to get warmer.
4) We (to miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk.
5) I (to lose) my black gloves. You (to see) them anywhere?
6) Why you (not to bring) me the letters for signature? You (not to type) them
7) You (to finish) checking the accounts? – No, not quite. I (to do) about half
so far.
8) You (to see) today's paper? – No, anything interesting (to happen)? – Yes,
two convicted murderers (to escape) from the prison down the road.
9) How long that horrible monument (to be) there? – It (to be) there for 6
months. Lots of people (to write) to the Town Council asking them to take
it away but so far nothing (to be) done.
10) How long you (to be) out of work? – I'm not out of work now. I just (to
start) a new job.
11) I (to learn) the abstract of this poem. Could you listen to me?
12) He is the most handsome man I (ever/to know).
13) I (not to hear) from him since he left Paris.
14) You (to have) a holiday this year?
15) We (not to see) each other since that evening at Mr. Grey.
1.7. Combine the given phrases. Translate what is given in the right-hand
1) I have lived in this city
A) с детства
B) на протяжении 10 лет
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
2) I have waited for the boss
3) They have been our business
4) Steve has lived in Germany
5) I haven't seen Tom
6) The weather has been quite mild
7) They have known each other
8) He has been ill
C) с 8 лет
D) с тех пор, как мы купили здесь дом
в 1990 году
A) с 9 часов
B) 2,5 часа
C) с тех пор, как он позвонил мне
D) с тех пор, как мы закончили
разговор с Джоном
A) уже 2 года
B) с прошлой осени
C) с тех пор, как познакомились
D) на протяжении многих лет
A) с тех пор, как закончил школу
B) с детства
C) всю свою жизнь
D) 10 лет
A) последнее время
B) еще
C) с апреля
D) с тех пор, как мы переехали
A) с Рождества
B) уже несколько дней
C) целую вечность
D) с тех пор, как прошел дождь
A) долгое время
B) уже 10 лет
C) с тех пор, как пошли в школу
D) с 1990 года
A) уже 3 недели
B) с тех пор, как влюбился
C) с тех пор, как поел мороженое
D) с тех пор, как промок под дождем
1.8. Use adverbs or adverbial phrases given in the right-hand column instead
of the underlined ones. Change the tense if necessary.
1) She has just arrived.
A) the other day
B) today
C) just now
D) already
E) half an hour ago
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
2) I have been to Paris recently.
3) Have you had a holiday this
4) I haven’t
5) Has he driven a car yet?
6) I have already peeled
7) I didn't see him two weeks ago.
8) She is always making mistakes.
9) They don't often phone their
A) 2 days ago
B) never
C) once
D) several times
E) lately
A) just
B) ever
C) last year
D) a year ago
E) already
A) just now
B) never
C) yesterday
D) the whole life
E) since I fell ill
A) before
B) ever
C) recently
D) today
E) last week
A) yesterday
B) just
C) the other day
D) several hours ago
E) just now
A) lately
B) never
C) last Monday
D) recently
E) for ages
A) never
B) just now
C) last month
D) just
E) today
A) never
B) just
C) last week
D) regularly
E) lately
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
10) We are going to the cinema A) just
B) just now
C) the day before yesterday
D) today
E) last Sunday
11) Jane met her friends at the A) never
B) already
C) last June
D) today
E) lately
12) She never dances with you.
A) last Sunday
B) when you were children
C) for many years
D) since her birthday party
E) since you quarrelled
13) She was playing tennis the A) never
whole morning yesterday.
B) since childhood
C) for 20 years
D) for many years
E) last summer
1.9. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of the Present Perfect.
1) We ..... some good films recently.
2) I ..... from him since he left Paris.
3) She is the most beautiful and clever girl I ..... .
4) My parents ..... to the USA many times.
5) It's the third time Jill ..... her this evening.
6) I ..... this film yet but I'm going to see it.
7) We ..... a lot of interesting people in the last few days.
8) We ate a lot yesterday but we ..... much so far today.
9) I ..... just ..... in touch with them.
10) I ..... never..... to Paris before.
1.10. Translate what is given in the left-hand column. Use the Present Perfect
or Past Indefinite adding the phrases in the right-hand column.
1) Джон не был здесь
A) today
B) for ages
C) since 1980
D) last Sunday
E) in 1980
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
Они купили новый дом
A) last year
B) already
C) this year
D) recently
E) a year ago
Они не навещали нас
A) lately
B) for ages
C) since they got married
D) last summer
E) today
Мы не виделись
A) since we left school
B) last summer
C) for a long time
D) lately
E) since he retired
Моя подруга играла в теннис A) last year
B) when she was at school
C) a long time ago
D) today
E) since she was five
Oral Activity
Choose 8 things you have never done or have not done recently. Discuss them
with your group mates.
1) eat a chocolate/ a piece of melon
2) watch the sun come up/ go down
3) climb a tree/ a ladder
4) sing in the bath/ the shower
5) kiss a man with a beard/ a little girl
6) break a promise/ a window
7) have a bad dream/ a headache
8) write a love letter/ a poem
9) sleep in a tent/ the open air
10) wear a gun/ shorts
11) go to bed before 10/ after 2
12) lose one's temper/ anything important
Begin your discussion like this:
I have never ...….
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
I haven't ...…. for two weeks/ for months/ years, etc.
I have not ...… since last year/ 1980/ I was 15/ a young girl, etc.
Written Activity
The table below summarizes the results of matches played this season by 3
football clubs in the English First Division.
Matches played
Manchester United
P – Played, W – Won, D – Drawn, L – Lost, F – For, A – Against.
Now write 4 sentences of your own about these clubs.
1.11. Translate into English. Use the Present Perfect.
1) – Где ваши дети? – Они только что ушли на прогулку.
2) – Что вы здесь делаете? – Где-то здесь я потерял свои ключи и ищу
их. Вы их не видели?
3) Пойдем гулять. Дождь уже кончился.
4) Я не могу найти зонт. Я думаю, кто-то взял его по ошибке.
5) – Где Джейн? – Она ушла в магазин и скоро вернется.
6) Я заходила к нему сегодня уже четыре раза, его нет дома.
7) Они недавно получили квартиру и сейчас живут недалеко от нас.
8) Наши друзья уже несколько раз приглашали в гости. Ты уже купила
9) Следующие выходные мы проведем в Италии; мы уже упаковали
вещи, купили билеты, все готово для поездки.
10) Я не получал от него никаких известий с тех пор, как он уехал в
1) –Мы прождали ее уже целый час. – Странно, она еще никогда не
2) Мэри еще не вернулась с работы. Она никогда не приходила раньше 8
часов с тех пор, как переехала сюда.
3) Я знаю его уже много лет, но мы не виделись целую вечность.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
– Вы были здесь раньше? – Да, несколько раз я проводил здесь свой
5) Дети только что вернулись и уже сделали уроки.
6) Его нет на работе уже несколько дней. Он болеет с понедельника.
7) Они только что закончили работу и собираются в кино. Они не
ходили в кино уже целую вечность.
8) – Ты когда-либо был в Англии? – Да, я вернулся из Англии недавно и
уже сделал доклад об этой стране.
9) Она никогда не видела моря, но говорит, что поедет в Италию этим
10) Я была 5 раз в США, но никогда не ездила в Германию, хотя всегда
мечтала посетить эту страну.
1) – Привет, Джек. Я не видел тебя целую вечность! Где ты был? – Я
был в Швейцарии. Я только что вернулся. Мне очень понравилась эта
страна. Я катался на лыжах и коньках. – Я тоже каталась на коньках,
когда училась в институте, но 5 лет назад я сломала ногу и с тех пор
никогда не каталась.
2) – Привет, Боб. Я не видел тебя почти месяц. Что нового? – Я сдал
экзамен по вождению, но машину еще не купил.
3) Мы только что получили письмо от Джека. Последнее время он часто
звонил нам. Он собирается приехать скоро. Он уже купил билеты.
4) – Я слышал, что вы купили новый дом. – Да, но мы еще не переехали.
Рабочие его только что отремонтировали.
5) – Я уже помыла лук и салат, порезала помидоры, почистила
картошку. А ты что сделала? – А я уже помыла посуду.
6) – Джон еще не пришел. Я полагаю, что у него опять сломалась
машина. – Его машина все время ломается. В этом году она ломалась
уже 3 раза.
7) – Ты часто навещаешь своих друзей? – Не очень. Мы не виделись с
тех пор, как закончили институт.
8) – Вы уже вернулись из Лондона? – Мы еще не ездили туда, мы
собираемся поехать в следующие выходные. Все уже готово для
поездки. Когда мы вернемся, мы Вам позвоним.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
– Вы уже видели Анну? – Нет, но я только что говорила с ней по
телефону. Она уже выздоровела и чувствует себя хорошо.
10) Ты уже все приготовила? Гости только что приехали и будут здесь с
минуты на минуту.
1) – Как давно у тебя эта машина? – Уже почти год. Я езжу на ней почти
каждый день и уже проехал сотни километров. – А я тоже собираюсь
купить машину. Я посетил уже 60 занятий по вождению. Скоро сдам
экзамен и получу права.
2) Мне здесь очень нравится. Это замечательный город. Он очень
сильно изменился с тех пор, как я был здесь в последний раз 8 лет
3) – Ты собираешься лететь в Германию самолетом? – Да, я всегда
летаю самолетом. Это очень удобно. – А я никогда не летал
самолетом. Это очень опасно.
4) Это мой первый визит в Москву. Я никогда не был здесь раньше. Но я
много слышал об этом городе от отца. Он был здесь несколько раз.
Город очень изменился с тех пор.
5) Я уже многое здесь посмотрел. Я был за городом, посетил многие
достопримечательности. С тех пор, как я приехал, у меня не было ни
минуты свободного времени!
6) Я вижу, что ты уже упаковала чемоданы и все приготовила для
путешествия. А я приготовила тебе бутерброды. Не забудь их,
7) Я только что рассказал им всю правду. Конечно, они поняли меня и
не стали осуждать за то, что я сделал.
8) Он недавно вернулся из Франции, несколько раз он был в Англии,
поэтому хорошо говорит по-английски. Но у него еще не было
возможности посетить Америку.
9) Он был так добр ко мне, когда я был ребенком, что по сей день я не
забыл его доброту, и не забуду никогда.
10) – Кого ты здесь ждешь? – Я жду Джона, который только что сдал
экзамен. Ты его не видела?
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
§ 2.
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Past Perfect is formed with the auxiliary to have in the Past
Indefinite + the Past Participle. It is therefore the same for all persons:
I had finished my work by the time my friends came.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to have in the
Past Indefinite+ the Past Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to have in the Past
Indefinite and the subject+ the Past Participle.
I had finished
(= I'd finished)
You had finished
He/she/it had finished
We had finished
They had finished
school when
they came.
Had I finished
Had you finished
Had he/she/it finished
Had we finished
Had they finished
school when
they came?
I had not finished
(= I hadn't finished)
You had not finished
He/she/it had not finished
We had not finished
They had not finished
Negative Interrogative
Had I not finished
(= Hadn't I finished)
Had you not finished
Had he/she/it not finished
Had we not finished
Had they not finished
2. U s a g e
The Past Perfect is used to indicate an action completed before a
definite moment of the past time or before another completed past
The Past Perfect is used to denote:
1) an action which began before a certain moment in the past and
continued up to that moment or stopped just before it. This
certain moment in the past is usually indicated with the preposition
by: When I met him, he had been in the army for 2 years. When I arrived,
Ann had just left. He had done the work by June.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
2) an action expressed in clauses after the prepositions after, as soon
as: After he had left Rome, he went to Paris. As soon as he had passed the
exam he went to see his friends.
3) an action in reported speech : She said she had had a lovely time.
The following words, time expressions and conjunctions can be used
with the Past Perfect :
ever, never, before, already, yet, always, just, etc.: I wasn't hungry. I
had just had lunch. He had phoned us before he left.
for (used with the period of time), since (used with the beginning of the
period of time): The house was dirty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks since
hardly … when, scarcely .... when, no sooner ..... than: They had
scarcely come home when it began to rain. Hardly had she laid the table when
the phone rang. No sooner had they entered the hall than the lecture began.
2.1. Explain the use of the Past Perfect forms. Translate into Russian.
1) I understood he had just fallen asleep.
2) I saw he hadn't written a single sentence yet.
3) She had known him long before he left for India.
4) The students had passed their last exam by the 1st of July and left for the
5) No sooner had the clock struck midnight than there was a loud knock on
the door.
6) Hardly had he entered the room when he heard some noise.
7) Maggy had scarcely introduced her new boy-friend to me when I
recognized him.
8) He went home only after he had spoken to the manager.
9) She wondered where Mum had put her new bag.
10) Mary told me that she hadn't gone to her grandmother since she finished
2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) From his worried expression I learnt that he had heard my story.
2) It was true that I had cleaned the garden properly.
3) The boy told his father everything that had happened to him.
4) By the evening he had lost the temper and nobody wanted to talk to him.
5) When I was 16, I had already earned the title of “prince”.
6) I had already cleaned the carpet by the time my mother asked to clean it.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
7) They had spent all their savings before their son left school.
8) When I arrived at the café, it had already closed.
9) After I had washed and dressed, I had breakfast.
10) They had already had dinner when Jack came home.
2.3. Say that somebody had already done the thing he/she was asked to.
Model: My mother asked me to clean the window but ...
My mother asked me to clean the window but I had already cleaned it.
1) John asked his friend to pick up his little daughter form the nursery school
but .....
2) I asked Jim to buy some bread for dinner but .....
3) She advised me to contact Deny but .....
4) I recommended Kelly to apply for a job but .....
5) The secretary told Bob to pay his exam enrollment fee but .....
6) They wanted us to buy a house but .....
7) The receptionist at the hotel asked him to fill in an arrival card but .....
8) Mr. Baker told the secretary to reply to the letters but .....
9) John recommended his friend to spend the money saved on a car but .....
10) I advised my friends to see "Titanic" but .....
2.4. Answer the following questions. Use the Past Perfect.
Model: Why didn't you invite him to your party? (to go to Moscow)
I didn't invite him because he had gone to Moscow.
1) Why did you come so soon from your holiday? (to spend all the money)
2) Why didn't you phone Tom? (to quarrel with him)
3) Why couldn't you get into the flat? (to lose the key)
4) Why didn't you send him a letter at once? (to send a telegram)
5) Why didn't you give Nina the book yesterday? (to give it to Ann)
6) Why were you late for classes yesterday? (to miss the 8 o'clock train)
7) Why didn't you cook salad? (not to buy vegetables)
8) Why did he feel so upset? (to lose the job)
9) Why did he refuse to go to the pictures with you? (to see the film)
10) Why didn't you see Ann on Sunday? (to go for the weekend)
2.5. Complete the sentences. Make use of the suggested Russian phrases.
1) We walked home after
закончили работу в офисе
2) They thought that
она еще не пришла
3) Did you ever see him after he
закончил институт
4) I went down to the beach after
они ушли
5) The girl felt easier after she
поговорила с ним
6) When I turned round
она уже вышла из комнаты
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
7) When the parents came home
8) She didn't want to speak to him
9) She couldn't believe that they
10) We decided to go to see them after
дети уже легли спать
после того, как они поссорились
сделали это сами
купили для них подарок
2.6. Make up a complex sentence. Combine two simple sentences using either
the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect.
Model: The children went to bed. They did their lessons.
The children went to bed after they had done their lessons.
1) She wrote a very good article. She studied the problem thoroughly.
2) The train started. He kissed her tenderly and wished good luck.
3) He rose to fame. He wrote the novel "Pickwick Papers".
4) She learned the poem by heart. She listened to the record 10 times.
5) He was a widower for a year. He met Mrs. Jones.
6) She fell ill. They moved to Siberia.
7) We packed our things. The taxi arrived.
8) The bell rang. The children ran out of the classroom.
9) Mary dusted the furniture in her flat. Soon she felt tired.
10) Mother laid the table for supper. The family sat down to table to have it.
2.7. Write a compound sentence to show that one action happened after
another in the past. Use the conjunctions "after, before, as soon as".
Model: Irene's mother cooked dinner. Irene came home soon.
Irene's mother had cooked dinner before Irene came home.
1) I washed and dressed. Then I had breakfast.
2) Gill felt tired. She stopped working.
3) The weather became stormy. The air Traffic Control delayed the flights.
4) The plane took off from Gatwick Airport. Then the hijackers seized it.
5) Andrew got the first profits. Then he decided to expand his business.
6) James listened to the latest news. Then he went downstairs to the recreation
7) Nelly introduced her sister Helen to us. Then Helen joined our company.
8) Mary had bacon and eggs, a cup of tea. Then the clock struck 8.
9) I bought tickets. Then I went to the theatre.
10) I learnt the material. Then I went to pass the exam.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
2.8. Jane arrived late at different places yesterday. What had happened when
she arrived at each place?
Model: When she arrived at the station, her train had already left.
1) the station
2) the theatre
3) the post-office
4) the dress shop
5) Jack's house
6) the tennis court
7) the café
8) the University
9) John's office
10) cinema
– her train/ already/ leave
– the play/ already / start
– it/ already/ close
– they/ sell/ the dress she wanted to buy
– he/ go out
– the game/ nearly/ finish
– her friend/ just/ leave
– her classes/ already/ begin
– he/ already/ leave for New York
– the tickets/ already/ sell out
2.9. Combine two sentences to make a compound one with the conjunctions
hardly … when, scarcely … when, no sooner ... than.
Model: She started cooking. The phone rang.
Hardly had she started cooking when the phone rang.
1) He saw the policemen approaching the house. He decided to escape at once.
2) We ran into difficulty. Jacob knew how to overcome it.
3) She typed one letter but then the boss gave her another.
4) Mark started business but then the war began.
5) They packed the things. Then it was high time to go to the station.
6) The last passengers got on the train. It started.
7) He touched the pillow. He fell asleep.
8) He entered the hall. The lights went out and the curtains rose.
9) We started. It began raining cats and dogs.
10) She recovered from the illness. There followed another heart attack.
2.10. Put the verbs in brackets into the required tense form:
1) He hardly (to reach) the door of his office when he (to encounter) two young
2) He scarcely (to say) the first words when she (to interrupt) him.
3) She scarcely (to take) a few steps along the street, when three men (to
appear) from around the corner.
4) Hardly he (to ask) his questions when she (to answer) them.
5) No sooner the curtains (to fall) than he (to rise) to go.
6) No sooner the robber (to enter) the bank than he (to hear) the police running.
7) Hardly she (to occupy) the post of a manager in the firm when she (to
decide) to give up this job.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
8) Scarcely the (to buy) the tickets to go to Rome to participate in the scientific
conference when something serious (to happen).
9) She scarcely (to agree) to make a report when she (to change) his decision.
10) No sooner the judge (to pass) the verdict than the jury (to ask) to think it
over again.
2.11. Complete the sentences. Supply the missing parts.
1) Hardly had the day broken when …..
2) No sooner had the singer appeared on the stage than …..
3) Scarcely had he opened the door when …..
4) Hardly had the snow covered the ground when …..
5) ..... when he realized that he had left his wallet at home.
6) ….. than they rushed out of the room.
7) ….. when she cried.
8) ….. than the child went to sleep.
9) ….. when the train arrived.
10) ….. than he asked another question.
2.12. Complete the following sentences. Use either the Past Perfect or Past
1) After he had seen his sister, he .....
2) Before they reached the house, they .....
3) As soon as he had bought the tickets, he .....
4) Hardly had he entered the room when he .....
5) After he had arrived in London, he .....
6) Scarcely had he walked home when he .....
7) She left the office as soon as she .....
8) We met after he .....
9) Before he turned round, they .....
10) No sooner had they become friends than they .....
2.13. Fill in with the Past Perfect.
When I entered the house, something smelt awful. Someone (1) had burnt
(to burn) the meal. I (2) (to visit) the house once before and (3) (to meet) the
family but I didn't know what (4) (to happen) since then. The house was a
mess. The children (5) (to leave) their toys all over the floor. Someone (6) (to
leave) all the windows open. All the curtains (7) (to get) wet and dirty. I asked
the children where their parents were. They told me that their mother (8) (to
be) in hospital for the past two weeks. Their father (9) (to be) with them since
then. Obviously he (10) (to do) his best, but he couldn't do any better since he
worked all morning long and had to leave them always alone.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
2.14. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of the Past Perfect.
1) My father was 40 and he (to be) a widower for 15 years.
2) Hardly ... we (to take) our seats when he (to come over).
3) Why were you so angry when I saw you yesterday? – Oh, I (just/ to have) a
big argument with my parents.
4) He was very nervous when he first drove in Britain because he (not to drive)
on the left before.
5) When I heard his voice on the phone, I knew that I (to speak) to him before.
Then I remembered I (already/ to meet) him.
6) When I found my wallet, I discovered that someone (to take) the credit
cards out of it.
7) The girl’s hair was wet because she (just/to swim) in the sea.
8) They weren’t eating when I went to see them. They (just/to finish) dinner.
9) The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (to go) to bed.
10) Yesterday at a restaurant I saw Pam Donnelly, an old friend of mine. I (not
to see) him for years. He (to lose) at least 15 pounds.
Not all students of English are hardworking. What do you think the teacher and
students actually said in this conversation? Use the Present Perfect or Past
Teacher: Right, I'll collect your homework now.
Student: I (to leave) it at home, sir.
And you?
I (to forget) to take my book home, sir.
Now get out your books and do it now. What is it, Nick?
Yesterday when I came home I found out that I (to lose) my book.
Well, share it with Tom then. Where is your pen, Tom?
I can't find it, sir. I think somebody (to steal) it.
Use a pencil, then.
My friend reminded me last week that I (to lend) it to somebody.
Now, Jack, what's your answer to the first question?
I can't read it, sir. I (to break) my glasses.
Has anyone seen Ann today?
Yes, sir. She said she (to leave) her homework on the kitchen table.
She (to go) home to get it.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
Write sentences to show that one action happened after another one in the past.
Model: 9.35 – I arrive at the café. The café closes at 9.30.
When I arrived at the café, it had already closed.
1) 9.00
– he telephones Ann's house. Ann goes to work at 8.45.
2) 12.00 – we reach the airport. The plane takes off at 11.50.
3) 10.30 – they get to the meeting. The meeting begins at 9.30.
4) 7 p.m. – I switch on TV. The program finishes at 6.55.
5) I met Miss Davis. She finds out my name.
6) 8.02
– we arrive at the station. The train goes at 8.00.
7) We come to Bristol. Mr Smith lives there for 10 years.
8) I arrive at the reception. The person I want to see goes home.
2.15. Translate into English. Use the Past Perfect.
1) Мальчик рассказал отцу обо всем, что с ним произошло.
2) Не успела певица закончить свою знаменитую арию, как зал начал
3) До того, как они встретились, она работала официанткой в кафе.
4) Я думала, они уже уехали в Париж. Но они сказали, что еще только
готовились к переезду.
5) Когда я позвонила ей, она уже уехала на дачу.
6) Никто не знал, что случилось с ними.
7) После того, как он уехал на Север, она ничего о нем не слышала.
8) Когда он вернулся домой, дети уже легли спать.
9) Обед уже был готов; все давно проголодались, но двое из гостей еще не
10) Как только я заказал номер в гостинице, я поехал в офис.
11) Преподаватель сказал, что его произношение улучшилось после того,
как он поработал в лингафонном кабинете.
12) Солнце еще не взошло, когда мы тронулись в путь.
13) Когда я проснулся, родители уже ушли.
14) Преподаватель сказал, что я пропустил много занятий и мне придется
много работать.
15) Я нашел это письмо после того, как уехал из Москвы.
16) Я вернулся домой в 5. К этому времени мои друзья уже приехали.
17) Не успели мы приехать в аэропорт, как объявили наш рейс.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
18) К 9 часам Мария позавтракала. Не успела она надеть пальто, как
зазвонил телефон.
19) Я узнал, что с тех пор, как мой друг приехал в Москву, он не получил
ни от кого ни одного письма.
20) Не успели мы войти в зал, как началась лекция.
1) Когда женщина вернулась домой, она увидела, что в ее доме побывали
грабители, и сразу вспомнила о своих драгоценностях, которые
подарил ей муж.
2) Когда я вошел в зал, выступал молодой архитектор. Я нашел место и
начал слушать. Он проделал большую работу в своем городе, чтобы
сделать его красивым и современным.
3) Когда мы присоединились к туристам, гид рассказывал им разные
легенды. Я никогда раньше не слышал этих легенд и нашел их очень
4) Не успел Джон подъехать к дому, как у него появилось неприятное
чувство, что кто-то побывал там, пока его не было. Когда он зашел в
зал, он понял, что в доме действительно были незнакомцы.
5) Петр встретил Джона на улице и спросил его, действительно ли он
решил подыскать новую работу. Джон сказал, что он уже нашел
6) Не успели мы поужинать, как позвонил Джек. Он сказал, что купил
новую машину и хочет показать ее нам. Я подумал, где он взял деньги
на покупку.
7) Во время антракта Анна встретила своего старого друга Ника. Она
была очень удивлена, когда его увидела, так как она думала, что он
уехал в Италию.
8) Осенью мы приехали в Петербург. Шел небольшой дождь. Мой друг
никогда не был в Петербурге и никогда еще в жизни не видел более
красивого города.
9) К 8 часам Павел закончил работу. Он вышел на улицу. Дождь уже
прекратился, было довольно прохладно. Когда он шел по улице, он
увидел товарища, которого не встречал уже целую вечность.
10) Роберт уже однажды слышал имя этого пианиста. Концерт ему очень
понравился, а выступление пианиста произвело на него большое
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Future Perfect is formed with the auxiliary to have in the Future
Indefinite + the Past Participle.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to have in the
Future Indefinite+ the Past Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to have in the
Future Indefinite and the subject+ the Past Participle.
I shall have finished
(= I'll have finished)
You will have finished
He/she/it will have
We shall have finished
by the
They will have finished
Shall I have finished
Will you have finished
Will he/she/it have
Shall we have finished
Will they have finished
I shall not have finished
(= I shan't have finished)
You will not have finished
(= You won't have finished)
by the
time they
He/she/it will not have
We shall not have finished
They will not have finished
Negative Interrogative
by the
Shall I not have finished
(= Shan't I have finished)
Will you not have finished
by the
time they
Will he/she/it not have
Shall we not have finished
Will they not have finished
2. U s a g e
The Future Perfect is used to indicate an action which will be
completed before a definite moment of the future time.
The Future Perfect is used to denote an action which will be
completed before or by a certain moment in the future. This certain
moment is indicated with the preposition by: The TV program will have
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
finished by 5 before we come back. I'll have read 5 books by the end of the
In subordinate clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions
when, after, as soon as etc. to stress the completion of the action the
Present Perfect is used instead of the Future Perfect: After I've read
the book, I'll give it to you.
3.1. Explain the use of the Future Perfect forms. Translate into Russian.
1) Alice and Robert will have made up with each other by the evening.
2) They will have got married by the time you return from abroad.
3) I'll telephone him when I have completed my work.
4) The teacher will have looked through all our exercise-books by the end of the
5) The film will have already started when we get there.
6) I shall have read this book by next Monday.
7) We shall have finished our work by the time the bell rings.
8) In two weeks' time we'll have completed our training.
9) After we have done 3 years at the University, we'll have our teaching
10) By the time the dinner is ready, she will have done the rooms.
3.2. Transform the sentences into negative and interrogative forms.
1) She will have cooked dinner by the time you come.
2) The play will have already been over when we get to the theatre.
3) I shall have read the book by next Sunday.
4) My parents will have gone to bed when we come back from the theatre.
5) The students will have passed their exams by July.
6) We'll have finished our work by 7.
7) They will have learnt to speak Spanish by the end of the term.
8) By October George will have saved enough money to buy a video player.
9) Before we part with our friends, we'll have made plans for going to the
country next Sunday.
10) By April the prices for essential goods will have risen by 10%.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
3.3. Read the situation and then respond to it. Use the Future Perfect.
Model: Tom is going to the cinema. The film begins at 7.30 and it's 7.25
already. It takes Tom 20 minutes to get there. (film/ to start)
When he gets there, the film will have already started.
1) Jim always goes to bed at 11 o'clock. Andrew is going to visit him at 11.30
this evening. (Jim/ to go to bed)
2) My friends are building a new cottage. Next spring they are planning to
finish it. (they/ to build)
3) John is on holiday. He has very little money and he is spending too much too
quickly. Before the end of the holiday … . (he/ to spend)
4) The Halls are receiving guests tonight. They are expecting them to come at
6. Mrs. Hall is having a lot of things to do. (she / to do everything)
5) Betty's passion is driving. She started saving up 10 years ago. Next summer
she is going to buy a car. (she / to save enough money)
6) Mary came to Italy from the USA two years ago. Next Monday it will be
exactly two years since she arrived. (Mary/ to be here)
7) Next year is Ted and Amy's 25th wedding anniversary. (they/ to be married)
3.4. Answer the following questions about the actions which will have
happened by a certain moment in the future according to the model.
Model: Has Jim taught you to play tennis? (next month)
Not yet, but he'll have taught me to play tennis by next month.
1) Have Tony and Jill decided to get married? (Monday)
2) Have the Halls bought a new car? (Christmas)
3) Have you done most of the work? (7 o'clock)
4) Have you got everything arranged for your trip? (midday)
5) Has Monica started a new job? (Friday)
6) Have you booked a long distance call to NY for me? (lunchtime)
7) Has John been to the bank to get a mortgage? (Wednesday)
8) Has Nora realized her plan of visiting Rome? (next June)
9) Has the international flight BA 2 850 from Beijing landed yet? (2.05 a.m.)
10) Have you signed the contract? (tea-time)
3.5. Read the situation and then respond to it. Use the verb in the Future
Perfect in an affirmative and negative form, and by then. Expand your
responses according to the model.
Model: Will you be able to return from your trip to Moscow on Sunday?
Yes, I'll have been at home by then. I'll have seen all the places of
interest in Moscow by Saturday.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
No, I shan't have been at home by then. On my way to Moscow I'm
going to visit my relatives who live in the country.
1) Shall we come round at 8?
2) Will you finish your work on Sunday?
3) Can you call on me on Sunday if you return from your tour of Brest?
4) Will they have supper at 6?
5) Can you come to our meeting on Monday to tell us about your impressions
of Moscow?
6) Shall we be able to see him if we arrive in time?
7) Can you give me a ride in the car on Sunday if you repair it?
8) Will she make her new dress for the party?
9) Can you take us out on Saturday if you return from your business trip?
10) Will they manage to build a new house if winter comes earlier than usual?
3.6. Complete the sentences. Use a suitable modifier of time among those
given in the margin and translate these modifiers into English.
1) We hope our luggage will have
a) до того, как отправится поезд
2) They will have become worst
b) до того, как они проведут там
enemies …..
3) Everything will have been ready
c) до того, как ему исполнится 50
4) He will have been in firm
d) они уедут навсегда из Англии
industry for years …..
5) We'll have packed our suitcases
e) он вернется из офиса
long before …..
6) The doctor will have examined
f) к 3 часам
his last patient …..
7) People will have forgotten him
g) к 10 часам
and his book long before …..
8) They'll have arrived at some
h) конференция закончится
agreement before …..
3.7. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect.
1) By 7.00 p.m. they (to play) cricket 8 times.
2) I (to finish) painting your room by the time you get home.
3) Tom (to write) his third novel by the end of this year.
4) This film (probably/ not/ finish) until midnight.
5) Don't worry! You (to forget) all about it by this time next year.
6) Hopefully, he (to cook) dinner for us by the time we get home.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
7) I (to read) this book by tomorrow night.
8) He hopes he (to make) a million pounds by the time he is thirty.
9) By 5 o'clock I (to do) this crossword puzzle.
10) By the time he arrives in London, John (to graduate) from the University.
11) I hope you (to go) to bed by 11.
12) The news of their marriage (to reach) their village before they get there.
13) They believe the ship (to come) back by the end of the navigation.
14) They (to take) their last exam by the 1st of July.
15) By the time you come, I (to clean) the flat and (to cook) the dinner.
Look at the work schedule and say what the situation will be by the following
times: mid-March, the end of April, mid-June, early September , etc.
Stanstead Airport Work Schedule
oct. nov. dec. jan. feb. mar. apr. may jn. jul. aug. sept. oct. nov. dec. jan.
work on approach road
work on runways
foundation for Terminal 1
construction of Terminal 1 building
foundations for Terminal 2
construction of Terminal 2
Each student says two things that he/she will have done in 15 years' time.
Model: In 15 years' time I will have bought my own house.
3.8. Translate into English. Use the Future Perfect, the Future Indefinite and
the Future Continuous.
1) Я не могу встретиться с тобой в 4. Я буду работать. – Жаль. Как насчет
того, чтобы встретиться в другой день?
2) В следующем месяце Джон уходит на пенсию. К 5 сентября он
проработает на заводе уже 16 лет.
3) Я закончу этот отчет к обеду, и ты напечатаешь его к концу дня.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
4) К концу недели мы решим, что делать. – В таком случае, сообщите мне
о своем решении заранее,
5) Вы не хотели бы пойти посмотреть город завтра утром? – Боюсь, что я
не смогу. Я уезжаю поездом, который отправляется в 8 утра.
6) Пьеса заканчивается в 11.30, так что я буду дома около полуночи. –
Хорошо, я буду ждать тебя.
7) Когда ты закончишь свою работу, мы отправимся в путь. Я подожду
тебя в машине.
8) Ты сделаешь для меня до того, как уедешь? – Только, если для этого
потребуется несколько секунд.
9) Не подписывай документ, пока тщательно не изучишь его. – Не
волнуйся. Я внимательно прочитаю его.
10) Мне очень хочется знать, выучим ли мы язык и будем ли мы хорошо
понимать его к концу первого курса.
3.9. Translate into English. Mind the use of tenses.
1) Он вернется домой к 15 августа.
2) Через неделю в этом время наш теплоход будет приближаться к
берегам Кубы.
3) Через два дня студенты начнут сдавать экзамены.
4) К 10 часам концерт уже закончится.
5) К концу семестра студенты прочитают 5 рассказов Агаты Кристи.
6) Мы уберем квартиру и накроем на стол до того, как придут гости.
7) К концу года он сделает большие успехи в английском языке.
8) Завтра к 7 они уже доберутся до аэропорта.
9) К тому времени, когда артисты закончат свое выступление, мы уже
покинем зал.
10) К 2009 году он побывает в Польше уже 4 раза.
1) К тому времени, когда соберутся гости, все уже будет готово. Но где
музыканты? Никто не видел их сегодня. Надеюсь, что Джон уладит
этот вопрос к 10 часам.
2) Моя сестра ушла в магазин. Мэри только что видела ее, когда
возвращалась из института. К тому времени, когда она вернется, мы
уже пообедаем.
3) Он придет к 7, так как я позвонила и сказала ему, что мы его ждем. Я
уверена, что он легко найдет дорогу, так как он был здесь уже
несколько раз.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
4) К июлю Джон решит все проблемы и поедет во Францию. Он
несколько раз был в Англии и бегло говорит по-английски.
5) Мы ждем гостей. Они придут ровно в 5. К этому времени я приготовлю
все к обеду и накрою на стол.
6) В конце июня у студентов начинаются каникулы. К этому времени они
сдадут все экзамены и разъедутся по домам.
7) В 8 часов мы идем в кино. К половине восьмого я постараюсь сделать
все дела по дому и приготовить ужин.
8) В этом году подруги проведут свой отпуск у моря. Анна уезжает 20
июня, Мария будет занята до 10 июля. Когда она приедет на юг, Анна
будет там уже болeе двух недель. К тому времени, когда приедет
подруга, она хорошо загорит, а потом они вместе осмотрят все
достопримечательности городка.
9) Каждый год одиннадцатиклассники заканчивают школу. К июлю моя
подруга закончит школу и будет поступать в институт.
10) Мы опаздываем. Я думаю, что фильм уже закончится к тому
времени, когда мы прибудем в кинотеатр.
1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
1) I am sorry, but I can't accept your invitation. We already (1) (to make) our
plans for the holiday. We (2) (to decide) to go to Greece. You ever (3) (to
be) there?
2) You are smoking another cigarette. At this rate you (4) (to smoke) a whole
pack before lunchtime.
3) You (5) (to take) all the exams by the end of January?
4) By the end of next week my wife (6) (to do) her spring сleaning and we'll
be able to relax.
5) Anyone (7) (to see) my dictionary? I can't find it. Yesterday I (8) (to put) it
on my desk. Who (9) (to take) it?
6) When Professor Jones retires next month, he (10) (to teach) for 45 years.
7) I will go to bed at 10 p.m. He will get home at midnight. I (11) (to be
asleep) for 2 hours by the time he gets home.
8) I (12) (to know) Helen for 10 years. She is one of my best friends. We (13)
(to be) friends since we (14) (to be) 7.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
9) Why are you limping? – I (15) (to twist) my ankle. – When it (16) (to
10) Are you the boy whose dog (17) (to make) a terrible noise last night? – I am
sorry, but you are mistaken, sir. I never (18) (to own) a dog.
11) The house they (19) (to buy) recently looks much larger than ours. When
they (20) (to buy) it? – They (21) (to buy) it two years ago.
12) Look! Peter (22) (not to eat) all the bread and butter, he (23) (to leave) some
in the plate.
13) I never (24) (to see) so many beautiful girls as here at the party! – And you
ever (25) (to eat) such a delicious cake?
14) I (26) (to order) a taxi to take us to the airport. So we'll be on time. You
(27) (to pack) our things yet?
15) You (28) (to cut) your finger! How it (29) (to happen)?
16) Unfortunately they (30) (to destroy) most of the houses by June.
17) He waited until the rider (31) (to disappear) and started on his way home.
18) By the end of that year he almost (32) (to recover).
19) More than a year (33) (to pass) since I first met him.
20) I (34) (to speak) to our agent about the schedule by 9 and I think the matter
will be settled to your satisfaction.
21) George (35) (to pass) his driving test by Monday and he (36) (to buy) a car
by June.
22) As I (37) (not to get) an answer, I sent him another letter.
23) We reached the village before it (38) (to grow) dark.
24) After John (39) (to listen) to the radio, all the batteries ran out.
25) Hardly the robbers (40) (to steal) the car when they drove away.
26) By the time you leave the city, we (41) (to visit) the museum.
27) By 10 o'clock I (42) (to clean) the flat.
28) The clock (43) (to strike) sooner than the first guests (44) (to appear).
29) No sooner I (45) (to come) than the lecture (46) (to begin).
30) This man (47) (to be) ill for years when the doctor came.
31) When I woke up, it was 6 a.m. Although it (48) (to stop) raining, it was very
32) Hardly I (49) (to come) home when they brought me a telegram.
A few days after Sue's encounter with the policeman, she decided to visit
her parents. It was a long drive and she felt rather nervous on account of her
lack of driving experience. It (50) (to rain) earlier that morning and the road
still (51) (to be) wet. Before she (52) (to get in) the car, she (53) (to check) that
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
her rear lights were working properly! When she (54) (to make sure) that the
road behind her was clear, she (55) (to drive) off.
She (56) (to be) on the road for about 20 minutes when she (57) (to see) a
warning sign for a sharp bend. By this time, it (58) (to start) raining again and
the roads (59) (to be) slippery. She (60) (to look) in her rear mirror and (61) (to
see) to her horror that a sport car behind her, driving much too fast, was just
about to overtake! It was heading for a collusion with an oncoming Mini!
Sue (62) (to jam) on her brakes and (63) (to pull up) at the side of the road to
give the sports car room to pass. The two cars (64) (to scrape) against each
other and came to a sudden halt. Luckily, there were no serious injuries. As
soon as the drivers (65) (to recover) from the shock, they (66) (to get out) to
view the damage.
10 minutes later, a policeman already (67) (to arrive) at the scene of the
accident, the same policeman Sue (68) (to encounter) the week before! When
he (69) (to see) Sue, he (70) (to say): "Oh! So it's you again, is it?" But before
he could continue, the driver of the Mini broke in: "If this young woman hadn't
reacted so quickly, officer, I might have been killed! She's obviously a very
experienced driver!"
Good morning. This is Peter Dale speaking. I've been wondering
whether any decision has been taken on the applications for the post
of graphic designer.
I'm afraid I can't help you very much at the moment, Mr Dale. Mr
Finch will not be able to come to a decision until he (71) (to
interview) all the applicants.
He (72) (to let) all the applicants know as soon as he (73) (to reach)
a decision.
He (74) (not to be) in a position to offer anyone a post officially
until he (75) (to speak) to the Board. When his decision has been
passed to the Board, he (76) (to make) an offer to the successful
candidate immediately.
You (77) (to inform) me as soon as you know his decision?
If you like I (78) (to ring) you at your home number as soon as Mr
Finch (79) (to dictate) a reply to you.
That would be most kind. You'll understand that the matter is rather
important to me. Thank you very much. Goodbye.
Goodbye, Mr Dale.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
Dear Elizabeth,
I (80) (to get) 2 pieces of news which I am simply dying to tell you!
First of all, Peter (81) (to get) the job which I told you about in my last
letter! We are so thrilled, as it means an increase in salary. Also, it means that
Peter will be free of his grumpy old boss, who is really beginning to get on
Peter's nerves!
Secondly, we (82) (to buy) that old house which was advertised by the
local estate agent. I (83) (to tell) you about it recently, the one which was in
quite bad repairs and therefore very cheap for its size. The owner, who (84) (to
be) abroad for a year now, was willing to let it go for almost any price! The
repairs, which unfortunately took longer than expected, were completed a week
ago, so we'll be moving in very soon! The new neighbour, whose wife (85) (to
be) for 2 weeks in hospital, says that he'll do what he can to help, but what I
need most is someone to give a hand with all the cleaning!
Do come and visit us when we move in!
With much love,
Dear Jim,
We (86) (to move) into the old house at last! The repairs took longer and
were more expensive than we (87) (to expect), but living in the old house is just
as much fun as we (88) (to hope) it would be!
The cleaning wasn't quite so bad as we were anticipating, but of course,
the more we cleaned, the less we enjoyed it! But we knew that the sooner we
started, the sooner we'd have it all finished.
The actual removal went quite smoothly. Fortunately, the removal men
weren't as careless as we (89) (to fear), so we had fewer breakages as expected.
The grandfather's clock stood up to it all very well!
How are things with you and the family? Sorry I (90) (not to write)
earlier, but as we say "Better late than never!"
Dear Chris,
Many things (91) (to happen) since I last was in New Baytown. My best
friend, Tony, was no longer there when I came. He (92) (to go) away. By the
way, the neighbours told me on the first day I came here that Mr Jackson didn't
live in Oak Street any longer. He (93) (to leave). You wouldn't recognize the
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
Grand Street. They (94) (to change) there everything there. But on the whole I
found the town much as it (95) (to be), green and quiet. On the second day I
went to see our school and it was still there, but they (96) (to add) a new wing.
The bookstore where we used to buy textbooks and pens was no longer there. It
(97) (to close) down. But they (98) (to build) a new bookstore not far from it
and they (99) (to open) a very nice café in the old building for a month. On the
whole I was very pleased to see the place again. I (100) (not to see) it for 10
years, you know.
2. Translate into English.
1) К тому времени, как мы соберемся, приедет такси, и мы отправимся на
2) Вы сделали лишь несколько ошибок в этом тесте.
3) Не опаздывайте. Если вы опоздаете, я уеду в театр в 7.30.
4) С тех пор, как она переехала в этот город, ее жизнь очень изменилась.
5) Это самый вкусный салат, который я когда-либо пробовал. Ты сама
приготовила его?
6) После того, как он окончил школу, он поехал в Париж.
7) Когда я рассказал друзьям всю правду, они не осудили меня за то, что
я сделал.
8) Ты уже купил подарки всем? – Нет еще, но к среде я все сделаю.
9) Почему вы собрались здесь? Что-то случилось? – К 5 часам начнется
10) Я говорил ему много раз, что не знаю, кто разбил окно, а он мне так и
не поверил.
11) Она увлекается биологией с тех пор, как прочитала эту книгу. Она уже
написала много статей по этому предмету.
12) Ник уже сдал экзамен по вождению? – Нет, он будет сдавать его в
13) Я уверен, что мы уже встречались где-то раньше, но я не помню, где.
14) Мой брат – актер. Он сыграл несколько ролей, но он еще не сыграл
свою лучшую роль.
15) После того, как он ушел, она сказала мне имя этого человека.
16) После того, как она пробыла в больнице 2 месяца, она вернулась
17) К тому времени, как он зашел за мной, я сделала весь перевод.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
18) Они прожили за городом 5 лет до того, как переехали в город.
19) После того, как она немного отдохнула, она занялась поисками новой
20) К маю 2001 года он посетил Англию уже 12 раз.
21) Завтра у моей сестры экзамен в музыкальной школе. Завтра к 5 часам
она уже сдаст экзамен, и мы поедем за город.
22) Этот режиссер снимет много интересных фильмов к тому времени, как
он получит эту награду.
23) Он сдал экзамен по немецкому после того, как выучил всю
24) Мы закончим переезд к 10 июня и позовем друзей на новоселье.
25) Когда Энтони войдет в зал, там соберется уже человек 25.
26) Ты продаешь свою квартиру? – Да, хочу купить дом. Надеюсь к
Новому году уже переехать.
27) К сентябрю он вернется в родной город, где жил с родителями в
28) Когда мы вернулись в офис, управляющий только что ушел обедать.
29) Мы еще не решили, где проведем отпуск.
30) К тому времени, когда мы вернемся из отпуска, наши друзья уже
устроятся на работу.
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) In 2 weeks’ time we ..... our training.
A) will complete
C) have completed
B) will have completed
D) had completed
2) We knew the Smiths ..... to Bridge Street.
A) had moved
C) have moved
B) had moving
D) will have moved
3) He is sorry that he ..... about his friend’s birthday.
A) had forgotten
C) will have forgotten
B) has forgotten
D) forgot
4) I am afraid I ..... my keys at home.
A) have left
C) have leave
B) left
D) will have left
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
5) No sooner ..... than she fell ill.
A) had she come
C) she came
B) has she come
D) she will have come
6) By mid-February they ..... most of the road.
A) have built
C) will build
B) will have built
D) will be building
7) The policeman ..... the robber.
A) just caught
C) has just caught
B) had just caught
D) has caught just
8) She looked tired. She ..... 5 letters since morning.
A) has typed
C) will have typed
B) had typed
D) typed
9) When he gets there, the film ..... already.
A) will have started
C) had started
B) will start
D) started
10) They ..... me to play golf by next month.
A) will teach
C) will be teaching
B) will have taught
D) had taught
11) He asked me how many times I ..... to Rome.
A) have been
C) will have been
B) had been
D) was
12) The TV programme ..... by 9.30.
A) will finish
C) will be finished
B) will have finished
D) had finished
13) Before the end of the holiday he ..... all his money.
A) will spend
C) has spent
B) will have spent
D) will be spent
14) We were sure that the workers ..... on a strike for 3 weeks.
A) had been
C) will have been
B) have been
D) were
15) You ..... many letters today and you are very tired.
A) have written
C) had written
B) have wrote
D) wrote
16) They ..... all the experiments by Friday.
A) will complete
C) will has completed
B) will have completed
D) will be completing
17) They knew that Jane ..... 3 articles so far.
A) has written
C) had written
B) will have written
D) had write
18) I can’t believe he ..... his job in the bank.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
A) has given up
C) will have given up
B) have given up
D) has gave up
19) ..... them anything about their summer plans?
A) Have they told
C) Has they telling
B) Has they told
D) Having they told
20) By the time the dinner is ready, Helen ..... the rooms.
A) will have done
C) will be doing
B) will do
D) will has done
21) I ..... 5 books by the end of the term.
A) will read
C) will be reading
B) will have read
D) will has reading
22) It is so cold today. Why ..... your warm coat?
A) haven’t you put on
C) hadn’t you put on
B) hasn’t you put on
D) have no you putting on
23) Last season our team didn’t win many games, but this season we ..... only
one so far.
A) lost
C) will have lost
B) have lost
D) have losing
24) When I saw the girl, I was sure I ..... her before.
A) had seen
C) had seeing
B) have seen
D) saw
25) The pupil can’t do the translation because he ..... some special terms.
A) haven’t learnt
C) hasn’t learnt
B) didn’t learn
D) did not learnt
26) I hope I ..... to speak English a bit by the end of the term.
A) will have learnt
C) will be learning
B) will learn
D) will has learnt
27) His aunt ..... for 5 days.
A) has been ill
C) have been ill
B) was ill
D) has being ill
28) He ..... unemployed for many years when we came to the city.
A) had been
C) will have been
B) was
D) has been
29) My Dad ..... the paper yet.
A) hasn’t read
C) having not read
B) haven’t read
D) didn’t read
30) We were hurrying because we thought that the bell ..... .
A) had already rung
C) have already ringing
B) has rung already
D) already rang
31) By 3 o’clock he ..... all the letters. He wondered, why Ann was away.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
A) had answered
C) will have answered
B) has answered
D) answers
32) I ..... here since September.
A) haven’ been
C) will not be
B) wasn’t
D) hadn’t been
33) The Brians ..... a new car by Christmas.
A) will have bought
C) bought
B) have bought
D) buy
34) They ..... near London before they went abroad.
A) have lived
C) will have lived
B) had lived
D) live
35) When he came out of the shop, the car was no longer there. He wondered, if
someone ..... it or if the police ..... it away.
A) had stolen; had driven C) will have stolen; will have driven
B) has stolen; have driven D) will steal; will drive
36) Things ..... by the time he comes to Rome.
A) will have changed
C) had changed
B) have changed
D) will change
37) My brother is an actor. He ..... in several films.
A) has already appeared C) will have already appeared
B) had already appeared D) appeared already
38) It is the best salad I ..... . Can you give me the recipe?
A) had ever eaten
C) will have ever eaten
B) have ever eaten
D) ever ate
39) By August I ..... my old house, but at the moment I am having 2 houses.
A) sold
C) had sold
B) have sold
D) will have sold
40) By the time he comes to the station, the train ..... .
A) has already left
C) will have already left
B) had already left
D) will leave already
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) We (to have) everything arranged for our business trip by midday.
42) He says they (to finish) the house by the end of next month.
43) The workers already (to build) a new road.
44) Ring me up at 4. I think I (to do) most of my work by then.
45) The flight from NY (not to land) by noon because of the stormy weather.
46) Why are you looking so unhappy? – I (to lose) my watch.
47) You’d better ring me up back in half an hour. By then I (to find) the letter.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
48) When he arrived at the office, he discovered that he (to leave) all the papers
at home.
49) By October George (to save) enough money to buy a video player.
50) I am sure that they (to invite) us to lunch by Saturday.
51) Hardly we (to go) to bed when somebody knocked at the door.
52) Hey! Someone (to drink) all my coffee! My cup is empty.
53) After the stewardesses (to serve) lunch to the passengers, they calmed
54) It is the first time my brother (to go) to Zoo.
55) I (to make) my final decision by 5 o’clock.
56) We are going to buy a car. Our family (to save) money for it.
57) They (to finish) work by 11 and went home.
58) I (to give) you my address by the end of the month.
59) Where are my glasses? Anybody (to see) them?
60) My parents (to be) to the USA many times.
61) No sooner she (to come) than she fell ill.
62) His smile is something she (never to see) before.
63) Jane washed all the test-tubes after she (to complete) the experiment.
64) Jerry is nervous, for he (never/ to flow) in an aeroplane before.
65) The workers (to build) the road by the end of the year.
66) The workers (to be) on a strike for 3 weeks when the agreement on pay was
67) He (to book) a long distance call to NY for us by lunchtime.
68) The door was unlocked. She (to leave) the door open.
69) You (to get) any money? – Yes, I (to borrow) it from my brother.
70) By the end of its university course he (to attend) 1,300 lectures.
71) Our daughter (to enter) Moscow University. We are proud of her.
72) Roy is on his way. He probably (to get) here by 5.
73) We shan’t be able to start discussing the project in an hour because our
friends (not to arrive) by then.
74) He felt sick because he (to eat) too much.
75) After she (to finish) her report, she went to bed.
76) Our group (to stay) in London for a week by the time our visit comes to an
77) The bus (to leave) before I reached the bus station.
78) Before we part with our friends, we (to make) plans for going to the country
next Sunday.
79) Alice is away. Something (to happen) her, I’m afraid.
80) When we met our friends, they (already/ to learn) the news.
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses
3. Translate into English.
81) Если я буду продолжать диету, то я похудею на 10 килограммов к
концу месяца.
82) Она выглядит счастливой с тех пор, как вернулась из путешествия.
83) Вчера я посоветовал своему другу обратиться в компанию, чтобы
получить работу, но он уже это сделал.
84) К понедельнику Билл поправится и приступит к работе.
85) Жарко, и уже больше месяца нет дождей. Надеюсь, что к
понедельнику погода изменится.
86) Не успел Джон представить всем своего нового знакомого, как все
сразу узнали его.
87) Я знаю его почти 18 лет. Он совсем не изменился.
88) Я вернусь через 2 часа. Надеюсь, что к этому времени вы уже
закончите перевод.
89) Сколько лет они женаты? – Десять или одиннадцать, не помню точно.
90) Не успела секретарь подойти к телефону, чтобы позвонить в милицию,
как грабители появились вновь.
91) Из-за снегопада поезд прибудет на станцию к 10 часам вечера.
92) Она не звонила мне с тех пор, как нашла новую работу.
93) Мы все приготовили задолго до того, как они приехали.
94) Кто разбил эту чашку? – Не знаю, я с утра не был на кухне.
95) Когда мы подъехали к дому, солнце уже село.
96) Он был очень расстроен, так как к 3 часам он ответил только на
половину писем.
97) Я закончу эту работу к концу недели.
98) Как только управляющий отделом сбыта вошел в офис, он сообщил
подчиненным о своей предстоящей деловой поездке в Японию.
99) Завтра я уезжаю за город на 2 недели. К вечеру я уже уложу все вещи,
и все будет готово для поездки.
100) Строители уже отремонтируют здание к Рождеству.
Total: 100/_______
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) Kate ..... TV now.
A) watching
C) is watching
B) is watch
D) are watching
2) When the phone rang, Tom ..... a shower.
A) was tooking
C) was takening
B) was taking
D) was take
3) What ..... at this time next Sunday?
A) you will being do
C) you will doing
B) will you doing
D) will you be doing
4) It's October now. It ..... colder and colder.
A) be getting
C) is getting
B) getting
D) getting is
5) ..... at the Park Hotel at present?
A) Are they staying
C) Are they stay
B) Do they staying
D) Staying they
6) What ..... at 5.30 yesterday?
A) was you doing
C) you were doing
B) were you doing
D) were you do
7) They ..... a very important question the whole lesson tomorrow.
A) will be discuss
C) will are discussing
B) are discussing
D) will be discussing
8) Look! Somebody ..... up that tree over there.
A) are climbing
C) is climbing
B) is being climbing
D) is climb
9) The children ..... with a ball while I was sunbathing.
A) were playing
C) will be playing
B) was playing
D) are playing
10) From 2 to 6 the day after tomorrow he ..... his younger brother to skate.
A) will is teaching
C) will be teach
B) will be teaching
D) shall be teaching
11) When he came in Kate ..... the piano.
A) played
C) was playing
B) was play
D) playing
12) ..... a test now?
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
A) Do they writing
C) Are they write
B) Are they writing
D) Are they written
They ..... their trip at this time tomorrow.
A) will not discussing
C) will not be discuss
B) will be not discussing D) will not be discussing
She ..... in the park when she met him.
A)was walking
C) is walking
B) were walking
D) be walking
What ..... here? – I'm waiting for Peter.
A) do you do
C) are you do
B) do you doing
D) are you doing
We'll be playing tennis while they ..... football.
A) are playing
C) will be playing
B) will be play
D) shall be playing
He is still ill but he ..... better now.
A) getting
C) be getting
B) is gotting
D) is getting
When he left the house it still ..... .
A) was rain
C) was raining
B) rained
D) is raining
..... her things the whole morning on Sunday?
A)Will she packing
C) Will be she packing
B) Will she be packing
D) Will she is packing
..... anything in the room? – No, it's very dark here.
A) Are you seeing
C) Are you see
B) Do you see
D) Do you seeing
What ..... from three to five o'clock the day before yesterday?
A) will he be doing
C) was he doing
B) is he doing
D) were he doing
They ..... dinner when Jack arrived.
A) was having
C) are having
B) having
D) were having
It's 11 o'clock, so Mary ..... to bed now.
A) was going
C) is going
B) going
D) are going
She'll be working in the garden while they ..... the house.
A) are decorating
C) will be decorating
B) were decorating
D) will decorating
The day was fine. The sky was blue, the sun ..... brightly.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
A) is shining
C) were shining
B) was shine
D) was shining
While Peter ..... his homework, his friends are playing in the yard.
A) is doing
C) was doing
B) will be doing
D) doing
Ann fell asleep when she ..... a book.
A) is reading
C) were reading
B) will be reading
D) was reading
Don't phone her at nine. She ..... the baby to bed.
A) will be putting
C) will is putting
B) was putting
D) will putting
What ..... for? – I've lost my purse.
A) is you looking
C) are you looking
B) you looking
D) do you looking
They were revising the topic while the teacher ..... new words on the
A) was writing
C) is writing
B) was writtening
D) is wroting
She still ..... this article when he comes.
A) is translating
C) will be translating
B) would be translating
D) was translating
Everybody was silent while she ..... .
A) was sanging
C) was songing
B) is singing
D) was singing
What language ..... now? – French.
A) he is learning
C) is he learning
B) he learning
D) does he learning
Today from eleven to twelve Susan ..... a picnic lunch with her friends.
A) will be hasing
C) would be having
B) will is having
D) will be having
Mary is talking with Henry while Kate and Nick ..... .
A) is dancing
C) are dancing
B) were dancing
D) shall be dancing
They ..... cards when the light went out.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
A) are playing
C) were being play
B) were playing
D) were being playing
Kate will be writing a composition while her brother ..... a new poem by
A) is learning
C) will be learning
B) was learning
D) will is learning
He was dismissed a month ago. He ..... for a new job at present.
A) looking
C) is looking
B) was looking
D) shall be looking
They ..... in the gym at 4 o'clock last Wednesday.
A)didn't training
C) wasn't training
B) were not training
D) wouldn't be training
..... your report the whole day tomorrow?
A) Would you be preparing
C) Will are you preparing
B) Will be you preparing
D) Will you be preparing
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) – What's the matter? Why you (to look) at me like that?
42) I (to try) to get in touch with you all day yesterday. Where you (to be)?
43) – Don't call her at 2 o'clock tomorrow. She (to have) her English lesson at
this time.
44) I (to do) the room when my mother came home from work yesterday.
45) He is very absent-minded. He always (to lose) his things.
46) The child still (to sleep) when his parents (to come) home from the concert
tomorrow evening.
47) – What you (to do) when I called you yesterday evening? – I (to read) a
48) While she (to make) supper, I (to lay) the table now.
49) I (to use) Kate's mobile phone because I've left mine at home.
50) I'm sure in four hours' time he (to relax) on his yacht.
51) He was busy and (not to understand) what they (to talk) about.
52) – What your brother (to do)? – He (to listen) to his favourite music.
53) Yesterday at the party Kate (to wear) a nice dress.
54) The whole day tomorrow Mark (to prepare) for his exams.
55) I (not to speak) too fast to you, am I?
56) Sam (not to work) in the garden at 10 o'clock tomorrow.
57) You will be preparing for your entrance exams while we (to travel) abroad.
58) While I (to do) my homework last night, my sister (to read) a book.
59) At present he (to talk) on the phone while Janet (to play) the piano.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
This time next week John (to take) his English exam.
– Why you (to cry)? What has happened to you?
At 5 sharp last Sunday George (to wait) for Kate at the theatre.
– What he (to think) about? – He (to think) about the coming weekend.
It goes without saying that tomorrow at this time they (to enjoy) skating.
– Where are the children? – They still (to play) in the yard.
When I left the house in the morning, it still (to rain). I had to return home
to take my umbrella.
It's a lovely day today. The sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing).
At this time next Sunday Tom (to ski) with his friends.
– Where you (to go)? – I (to go) to the library. I usually get ready for my
classes there.
While the children (to play) football, the rain began to fall.
My cousin John came from Germany the other day. He (to come) to see us
next Friday.
I (to recognize) this place now. I was here many years ago.
The plane (to land) when the thunderstorm broke out.
Tom (to repair) the fridge the whole morning tomorrow.
Don't turn on the light. Father (to sleep).
What film you (to watch) at 7 o'clock the day before yesterday? – I don't
Next time we (to play) snowballs while they (to ski).
I (to watch) TV now while Nick (to play) computer games.
What you (to do) when your mother called you? – I (to wash) my hair.
Could you help me, please? I (to look) for my spectacles.
3. Translate into English.
81) Не звоните ей сейчас. Я думаю, что она еще спит.
82) Пока взрослые играли в волейбол, дети купались в реке.
83) – Поторопись! Поезд отправляется через полчаса. Если мы опоздаем,
наша поездка не состоится.
84) Завтра он будет весь день работать в читальном зале.
85) Она не видит, что мы смотрим на нее, так как разговаривает по
86) – Что ты делал, когда я позвонил тебе? – Я смотрел телевизор.
87) – Каковы твои планы на выходные? – Я собираюсь навестить
88) – Не опаздывайте. Она будет ждать вас в библиотеке в 11 часов.
89) Она постоянно разговаривает на уроках.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
90) Вчера я возвращался домой довольно поздно. Было холодно, и шел
91) Он очень занят и не слышит, о чем мы говорим.
92) Я не думаю, что буду все еще просматривать эти бумаги, когда ты
93) Мы собираемся купить новый телевизор на следующей неделе.
94) Лекция была очень интересная, и все с удовольствием слушали
95) Пока гимнасты будут готовиться к следующему упражнению, судьи
будут обсуждать их результаты.
96) Было 8 часов вечера. Солнце садилось и начинался дождь. Мы
поспешили домой.
97) Она все еще упаковывала вещи, когда пришло такси.
98) На следующей неделе Брауны отмечают день рождения сына. Ему
исполнится десять лет.
99) Завтра в это время мистер Смит будет подписывать контракт с
нашими новыми партнерами.
100) Катя играла на пианино, когда пришла ее подруга.
Total: 100/______
§ 1
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Present Continuous is formed with the Present Indefinite of the
auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle (the Infinitive + ing).
The negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliary verb to be in
the Present Indefinite + the Present Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting subject and the auxiliary verb to
be in the Present Indefinite + the Present Participle.
I am playing
You are playing
He/she/it is playing
We are playing
in the
I am not playing
You are not playing
(= You aren't playing)
He/she/it is not playing
in the
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
They are playing
yard now.
Am I playing
Are you playing
Is he/she/it playing
Are we playing
Are they playing
We are not playing
They are not playing
yard now.
Negative Interrogative
in the yard
Am I not playing
(= Aren't I playing)
Are you not playing
in the yard
Is he/she/it not playing now?
Are we not playing
Are they not playing
2. U s a g e
The Present Continuous is used to denote:
1) actions happening at or around the moment of speaking: She is
looking for a better job.
2) temporary situations: They are staying at this hotel at present.
3) repeated actions with "always" expressing annoyance or
criticism: She's always interrupting me!
4) fixed arrangements in the near future: The Browns are visiting us
5) changing or developing situations: His English is getting better.
The following time expressions can be used with the Present
Continuous: now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, always, still,
while, etc.
1.1. Explain the use of the Present Continuous forms. Translate into Russian.
1) Look through the window. It is snowing hard.
2) Do you remember Mr Laker? He is coming to tea today.
3) Nelly's mother is angry with her because she is fond of chatting. She is
always phoning her friends.
4) Do you know that Max is building his own house?
5) While I'm waiting for him at the bus stop, he is chatting with Kate over a cup
of coffee in the cafe.
6) They are meeting their friends at the airport tomorrow morning.
7) The world is changing. Things never stay the same.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
8) What are you thinking about?
9) He is still working at his new novel.
10) I am not speaking too fast to you, am I?
1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) The sun is shining brightly in the sky.
2) He and Mary are discussing their plans for the coming weekend.
3) We are celebrating his birthday on Saturday evening.
4) At the moment the child is making a lot of noise, playing with his toys.
5) They are getting married next week.
6) He's playing tennis with his friend in front of the house.
7) I'm still tidying up the room.
8) Helen is sitting in the armchair and talking on the phone.
9) If I am not mistaken, the Browns are buying some articles of furniture for
their new house.
10) Betty is leaving for London at the end of the term.
1.3. Say that somebody is doing it.
1) We often visit them. (today)
2) Business in this area never booms much. (at the moment)
3) Kate cleans the house regularly. (this afternoon)
4) Felix plays golf every weekend. (now)
5) We sometimes go to the zoo. (tomorrow morning)
6) We always economize. (at the moment)
7) Mr Turner, the head of the division, generally has a talk with newcomers.
8) I often meet Janet after work. (this evening)
9) My wife always makes some sandwiches for breakfast. (now)
10) Our son usually goes to the cinema with his friends. (tomorrow)
11) Every time I meet Joan she complains of losses her firm suffers. (now)
12) I don't work on Saturdays. (next Saturday)
13) During the afternoon our boss has meetings with clients. (this afternoon)
14) His hobby is gardening. He works in the garden too much. (at the moment)
15) My neighbour is a great theatre-goer. She goes to the theatre very often.
1.4. Ask your fellow-student:
1) if he/she is leaving college this year;
2) what she is doing during her winter holidays;
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
3) if her brother is playing football at present or whether he is watching the
match on TV at home;
4) when he/she is beginning his/her new job;
5) why he/she is always making a lot of mistakes in his/her dictations;
6) what he/she is going to cook for breakfast;
7) where they are going during their holidays;
8) if she is visiting the circus on Saturday;
9) how many museums we are going to visit in London;
10) what his mother is doing in the kitchen;
11) why he/she is putting on his/her warm winter coat;
12) what time he/she is going to listen to the latest news;
13) whom he/she is going to invite to his/her birthday party;
14) where they are leaving for at the end of the week;
15) why she is staying away from classes tomorrow .
1.5. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Continuous or Present
1) Hurry up! The bus (to come). I (not to want) to miss it.
2) I'm sorry it's so noisy, but we (to move) the furniture.
3) It's 12 o'clock, so I (to go) to bed now.
4) The river (to flow) very fast today – much faster than usual.
5) We usually (to grow) vegetables in our garden, but this year we (not to
grow) any.
6) This coat (to belong) to you? – No, my coat (to hang) there behind the door.
7) Peter is in the Institute canteen. He (to have) his lunch.
8) While Lucy's grandmother (to knit) a sweater for little Nick, he (to play)
with his toys.
9) I (to sell) this car. You (to want) to buy it?
10) Please, be quiet! You continually (to interrupt).
11) I (not to understand) what you (to wait) for.
12) They (to revise) the words now?
13) George, is it true that you (to get) married next week?
14) Ron is in Chicago now. He (to stay) at the Hilton hotel. He usually (to stay)
at this hotel when he's in Chicago.
15) I (to fly) to Switzerland next week for discussions with Head Office about
16) Hello, Alec. What you (to do) these days?
17) What your father (to do)? – He's a teacher, but he (not to work) now.
18) He is still ill but he (to get) better now.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
19) I'm about to move to London and I (to try) to decide what books and records
to take along.
20) "You must let me out here. Now I can easily walk to the railway station."
"What train you (to take)?" "The next to Montreal." "Then you (to leave)
Canada." "Yes." "Just a holiday?" "No. I (to return) to England."
21) June : Hi, Mum!
Mum: Hello, June. Where you (to call) from?
June : I (to be) at work at the moment. My boss (to have) lunch with his
wife now. He often (to take) her to lunch on Tuesdays.
Mum: Well, why you (to phone)? Is there anything wrong?
June : No, I just want you to know that I (to come) home next Saturday.
Mum: What time your train (to arrive) in Leeds?
June : It (to leave) London at 11 o'clock and (to arrive) in Leeds at 2
Mum: See you on Saturday then.
I work in a large office with about thirty other people, most of whom I (1)
(to know) quite well. We (2) (to spend) most of the day together, so we have all
become friends. In fact, most of my colleagues are so interesting, that I (3) (to
think) of writing a book about them!
(4) (To take) Helen Watson, for example. Helen (5) (to run) the accounts
department. At the moment she (6) (to go) out with John Martin, our manager,
and they (7) (to seem) very happy together. But everyone (8) (to know) that
John always (9) (to make) eyes at Mary Black. But I (10) (to happen) to know
that Mary (11) (to dislike) John. "I can't stand people who (12) (to apologize) all
the time!" she told me. "And besides, I know he (13) (to deceive) poor Helen.
He (14) (to see) Betty Wilson from the overseas department." And plenty of
other interesting things (15) (to go on). For example, every week money (16)
(to disappear) from the petty cash box. When you (17) (to realise) that
someone in your office is a thief, it (18) (to upset) you at first. But I also (19)
(to try) to catch whoever it is before the police (20) (to be called) in.
Greetings from Wales! Ben and I (1) (to do) something different this year.
We're at the North Wales Activity Centre. People (2) (to come) here every
summer to learn more about their hobbies and interests. I (3) (to do)
photography and tennis this week and Ben (4) (to learn) about computers. We
(5) (to get) up at half past eight every morning and (6) (to do) lessons from ten
to half past twelve. We (7) (to have) lunch at one and then there are more
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
lessons. So it's hard work. But I (8) (to like) it here. We (9) (to have) a super
time. It's half past seven in the evening now, and we (10) (to sit) out on the
grass in front of the Centre. The weather is good.
See you soon.
Written Activity
Write a postcard to an English friend from the place where you last went on
holiday. Say what you do every day on holiday and what you are doing at the
Verbs describing a permanent state (stative verbs) do not normally have
continuous forms. These are:
1) verbs of the senses: see, hear, smell, feel, taste etc. We often use can
or could with these verbs: Can you see that tall boy over there?
The verbs look, watch, and listen express deliberate actions and can be
used in continuous forms: Be quiet please! I'm listening to the news.
But: I can't hear you. Can you speak louder, please?
The verbs feel and hurt can be used in either continuous or simple
forms, though: How are you feeling today? or How do you feel today? My leg
is hurting. or My leg hurts.
2) verbs of opinion: agree, believe, consider etc.
3) verbs of emotions: feel, forgive, hate, like, love etc.
4) other verbs: appear (= seem), be, belong, fit (= be the right shape and
size for something), have (= possess), know, look (= appear), need,
prefer, require, want, weigh, wish etc.: He knows where Peter is. (not is
Some stative verbs (see, smell, taste, feel, think, have etc.) have continuous
forms but there is a difference in meaning.
I think she's rich. ( = I believe)
The milk tastes awful.
(= it has a bad flavour)
He has a pet dog. (= he owns)
I'm thinking about your plan.
(=I'm considering)
He's tasting the sauce; it might need
some salt. (= he's trying its flavour)
He's having dinner now. (= he's eating)
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
This cloth feels like velvet.
(= has the texture)
I see you're in trouble.
(= I understand)
He comes from Spain.
(= he was born in)
I love holidays. (in general)
Your hair looks great.
(= it appears)
The baby weighs 5 kilos.
(= it is)
Ann is very tall.
She's feeling her way in the dark.
(= she's finding her way)
I'm seeing my lawyer tonight.
(= I'm visiting)
He's coming from Spain.
(= he's travelling from)
I'm loving this holiday.
(= I'm enjoying; specific)
She's looking at some old photographs.
(= she's examining)
I'm weighing myself on my new scales.
(= I'm finding out my weight)
Ann is being very kind to me these
days. (= she's behaving)
1.6. Open the brackets. Use the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite.
1) Are you hungry? You (to want) something to eat?
2) Air (to consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.
3) He (to listen) to a tape but he (to wear) earphones so nobody else (to hear) it.
4) This coffee (to taste) bitter.
5) Why you (to smell) the milk? It (to smell) sour?
6) These shoes (to belong) to you?
7) George says he's 80 years old but nobody (to believe) him.
8) Who is that man? What he (to want)?
9) Who is that man? Why he (to look) at us?
10) She (to taste) the pudding to see if it is sweet enough.
11) You (to know) the girl who lives next door?
12) Don't put the dictionary away. I (to need) it.
13) Don't put the dictionary away. I (to use) it.
14) The director (to see) the applicants this morning.
15) She (to see) that the situation is out of control.
16) He (to have) a Siamese cat.
17) Anna is Italian. She (to come) from Italy.
18) Joan (to weigh) 50 kilos.
19) Mary (to be) very naughty these days.
20) You (to enjoy) the party?
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
Sue: What (1) you (to do) now?
Mark: I (2) (to look) through these old film magazines. Look, here's an old
picture of Jack Nicholson.
Sue: Oh, I (3) (to think) he (4) (to look) awful! And his suit (5) (not to fit)
him properly.
Mark: Yes, I (6) (to agree). And he (7) (to appear) to be really angry. I
wonder what he (8) (to think) about.
Sue: He (9) (to be) in that new film that's on at the Odeon now, isn't he?
Mark: Yes, I saw it last night. He (10) (to look) very different now. He (11)
(to weigh) a lot more.
Sue: I (12) (to hope) it's a good film. I (13) (to see) it tonight. Stuart (14)
(to take) me. Actually, he (15) (to be) very nice to me these days.
Mark He probably (16) (to want) to borrow some money.
Sue: I (17) (to see). That explains it.
1.7. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.
1) What exactly ….?
A) is this job involving
B) does this job involve
2) Terry is in bed. He …. flu.
A) has
B) is having
3) Who exactly ….. ?
A) does own this car
B) does this car belong to
4) ….. that we have been here for six months already!
A) Do you realise
B) Are you realising
5) This new teaching job is really difficult, but ….. .
A) I survive
B) I'm surviving
6) I ….. with you completely.
A) agree
B) am agreeing
7) ….. this house. Do you want to buy it?
A) I sell
B) I'm selling
8) He ….. the milk to see if it's OK.
A) tastes
B)is tasting
9) I never do anything ….. is against my principles.
A) I feel
B) I'm feeling
10) I'm thinking of doing a postgraduate degree. What …..? Is it a good idea?
A) do you think
B)are you thinking
11) Of course, you're Mary, aren't you? I ….. you now.
A) recognize
B) am recognizing
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
12) ….. on Niko's sofa until I find a place of my own.
A) I sleep
B) I'm sleeping
1.8. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning remains
the same.
1) What's your opinion of his new book? – What do ….. ?
2) Nigel keeps interrupting me. – Nigel is ….. .
3) What is the meaning of this word? – What does ….. ?
4) The cost of excursions is part of the price of the holiday. – The price ….. .
5) The number of people who own bicycles is increasing. – More and more
people ..... .
6) What is the weight of that piece of meat? – How much ….. ?
7) There's a smell of onions in this room. – This room ….. .
8) What is inside the box? – What does …..?
9) Paul has flu. – Paul is ….. .
10) I find working here really enjoyable. – I am ….. .
1.9. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where
1) Is this total including the new students?
2) These potatoes are tasting a bit funny.
3) What's that you're eating?
4) Are you believing in God?
5) I always look forward to hearing from you.
6) I have a feeling that something goes wrong.
7) Are you hearing anything from Wendy these days?
8) What is your father doing? – He is a lawyer.
9) Look! That man tries to open the door of our car!
10) Excuse me, but do you wait for someone?
11) Right now I am looking at the board. I'm seeing some words on it.
12) Do you listen to me, Paul?
13) You haven't said a word all morning. What do you think about?
14) I am not knowing where she keeps the keys.
15) Why do you smell the milk? Do you think it has gone off?
1.10. Translate into English. Use either the Present Continuous or Present
1) – Почему вы накрываете на стол так рано? – Мы сегодня ждем друзей к
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
2) Я уверена, что он знает правильный ответ. Он очень редко ошибается.
3) Начальник отдела не может сейчас принять вас, так как разговаривает
по телефону с директором фирмы.
4) –Кто сейчас работает в этом зале? – Белов.
5) Генри – врач по профессии. Сейчас он в больнице, но завтра утром он
уезжает в Лондон на конференцию врачей.
6) Родители Наташи на юге. За ней сейчас присматривает ее бабушка.
7) Пока Ольга пишет примеры на доске, студенты читают текст.
8) – Посмотри в окно. Идет дождь?
9) Когда ты собираешься послать телеграмму родителям?
10) Она постоянно разговаривает на уроках.
11) Она не видит, что я на нее смотрю, так как читает что-то с большим
12) – Что ты делаешь на кухне? – Пока мама готовит обед, я мою посуду.
13) Я не знаю человека, который разговаривает с директором.
14) Обычно он играет в теннис очень хорошо, но сегодня он играет
15) – Где вы собираетесь провести свой летний отпуск? – Мы проведем
несколько дней у наших родственников в Киеве, а затем едем
отдыхать в Ялту.
16) Брауны сейчас в Англии. Они гостят у своих друзей и возвращаются в
Канаду на следующей неделе.
17) – Где мама? – В гостиной. – Что она там делает? – Разговаривает по
телефону. – С кем она разговаривает? – Думаю, с тетей Леной.
18) – Что ты делаешь? – Перевожу статью. Обычно я перевожу тричетыре статьи в неделю.
19) – В чем дело? Почему ты так на меня смотришь?
20) – Позвоните ему сейчас. Я думаю, он еще не спит.
1.11. Read the stories and reproduce them.
Some people are waiting at a bus stop. One of them has a transistor radio
and they are all listening to the report of a spaceship's flight. When the report is
over, a lady smiles and says, "Well, the spaceship has just been round the
world, but we are still waiting for that bus."
Charlie is a bad boy and his mother is going to spank him, but he creeps
under the bed. His mother is too stout to creep after him. Charlie's father is
rather thin and when he comes home he is able to creep under the bed to get
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
Charlie out. When the boy sees his father come, he asks:" Is she going to spank
you, too, Daddy?"
– Why are you carrying that umbrella over your head? Do you think it is
– No, I don't.
– But the sun is not shining either.
– No, it isn't.
– So why on earth are you carrying that umbrella over your head?
– You see, when it rains, Father wants it, when it shines, Mother wants it, so
now is the only time when I can use it.
Two men who live in the same district often meet on the bus. They talk
together from time to time when they sit next to each other. However, they don't
know each other's names. "Are you going to Small's lecture today?" "Yes, I
am." "Well, take my advice and don't go. They say his lectures are not
interesting." "Unfortunately I must go. You see I am Small."
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Past Continuous is formed with the Past Indefinite of the auxiliary
verb to be + the Present Participle (the Infinitive + ing).
The negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliary verb to be + the
Present Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting subject and the auxiliary verb to
be + the Present Participle.
I was watching
You were watching
He/she/it was watching
We were watching
They were watching
TV at 6
I was not watching
(= I wasn't watching)
You were not watching
He/she/it was not watching
We were not watching
They were not watching
TV at 6
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
Was I watching
Were you watching
Was he/she/it watching
Were we watching
Were they watching
Negative Interrogative
Was I not watching
TV at 6
(= Wasn't I watching)
Were you not watching
yesterday? Was he/she/it not watching
Were we not watching
Were they not watching
TV at
6 o'clock
2. U s a g e
The Past Continuous is used to denote:
1) actions in the middle of happening at a stated past time: They
were playing football at 5.30 yesterday.
2) past action in progress interrupted by another past action. The
longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter is in the Past
Indefinite: Mark was having dinner when somebody knocked at the door.
3) two or more simultaneous past actions: While I was swimming,
Jane was sunbathing.
or background description to events in a story: She was flying to
Rome. The sun was shining.
The following time expressions can be used with the Past
Continuous: while, still, when, as, etc.
2.1. Explain the use of the Past Continuous forms. Translate into Russian.
1) I was shaving while the children were having breakfast.
2) Were you reading a newspaper when I came in?
3) At 8 o'clock on Thursday evening the students of our group were having a
4) They were revising for their preliminary in English when I arrived.
5) Jane and Lewis were whispering in class while the teacher was looking at
them with indignation.
6) At this time yesterday Pete was preparing for his exam in Economics.
7) I fell asleep when I was watching TV.
8) It was raining the whole day yesterday that's why we couldn't take part in the
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
9) He was working in the garden from 7 to 8 o'clock yesterday evening and he
didn't hear the telephone ring.
10) They were waiting for us when we came back.
2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) I was looking for you all day yesterday.
2) When the phone rang, he was sitting at the breakfast.
3) They were watching TV at 10 o'clock yesterday.
4) At this time yesterday she was meeting them at the airport.
5) It was raining cats and dogs when we got to the station.
6) They were playing cards when the stranger appeared on the deck.
7) The foreigner was speaking slowly because he wanted us to understand the
8) Tom was learning English the whole day yesterday.
9) My friends were playing chess when the light went out.
10) The secretary was still dialling 911 when she saw the burglar again.
2.3. Refer the following actions to the past.
Model: At the moment Ted is taking his exam. (to prepare for)
At this time yesterday Ted was preparing for his exam.
1) Ann is working as a secretary at the moment. (to train for secretarial work)
2) At the moment Susan is having no job. (to work in an art gallery)
3) At the moment we are having a class in English Grammar. (to have a class
in Russian)
4) At the moment Andrew is showing the foreign students the main building
of our University. (to meet them at the airport)
5) Jill and Ben are breeding pigeons this year. (to breed rabbits)
6) Max is working overtime this month. (to have a rest in Torino)
7) Ted is now learning to drive a car. (to go to classes in computer
8) At the moment she is finishing doing her paperwork. (to report on the
project to her boss)
9) We are now putting the project into practice. (to work out its main points
10) We are producing a new type of boiler which is 25% more efficient. (to
11) At the moment my fellow-students are working hard at their pronunciation
in the language laboratory. (to play basketball in the gymnasium)
12) At the moment the executive manager is having talks with our Australian
partners. (to analyse the information on the activities of their company)
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
13) We are returning home. ( to swim in the sea)
14) The students are correcting their mistakes. (to write a test)
15) At the moment the teacher is dictating some sentences. (to explain the rule)
2.4. Ask your fellow-student:
1) what report he/she was making when you entered the hall;
2) if he/she was doing his/her grammar exercises from 9 to 10 yesterday;
3) when he/she was going to write a letter to his/her parents;
4) who was always making mistakes last term;
5) if the students were asking or answering questions during the lesson;
6) what the students were doing all the time while the teacher was marking
their dictations;
7) why he/she was hurrying to the University when you saw him/her;
8) what time he/she was taking his/her exam in Latin yesterday morning;
9) whom he/she was practising the intonation patterns with while you were
reading an article;
10) why Ann was constantly lagging behind the group in Grammar;
11) what games they were playing the whole day yesterday;
12) whom he/she was having some practice in spelling with between 5 and 6
o'clock yesterday afternoon;
13) if he/she was reading something interesting when you saw him/her;
14) why he/she wasn't doing anything in the language laboratory while his/her
fellow-students were listening to the new poem;
15) why he/she was constantly complaining of being ill.
2.5. Combine the two sentences into one compound sentence each time saying
(A) one action was interrupted by another action.
I watched TV. I fell asleep.
I fell asleep when I was watching TV.
1) Maison went out. I came in.
2) We waited for the bus. We saw an accident.
3) The doorbell rang. Jack left the house.
4) Mike had an accident. He drove too fast.
5) I ate dinner. Jim came.
6) He fell asleep last night. He heard a strange noise.
7) Eric studied. Amanda called him on the phone.
8) I didn't hear you. I listened to the radio.
9) He bought a ticket. The train left.
10) We played cards. The light went out.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
(B) two actions were going on at the same time.
Model: I shaved. The children had breakfast.
I was shaving while the children were having breakfast.
1) You had a bath. The girls washed the dishes.
2) She planted flowers in the garden. The children played with a ball in the
3) You talked to Mary. I talked to John.
4) Alison got ready. Eric fetched the car.
5) I made the tea. Jimmy cleaned the car.
6) The children enjoyed playing chess. Their mothers chatted in another
7) It rained. He walked up the hill.
8) The house burnt. We slept.
9) We listened to the teacher very attentively. Pete and Jane whispered.
10) I read up for my exam. My younger sister watched TV.
2.6. How did it happen?
Model: How did Alex hurt himself? (play soccer)
He hurt himself while he was playing soccer.
1) How did Martin burn himself? (iron his clothes)
2) How did Helen cut herself? (slice onions)
3) How did Jennifer meet her husband? (repair the car)
4) How did Martin break his arm? (skate)
5) How did you lose your wallet? (ride my bicycle)
6) How did Bob get a black eye? (fight with his brother)
7) How did Martha injure her leg? (dance)
8) How did Eric fall off the ladder? (paint the ceiling)
9) How did Ann break the plate? (do the washing-up)
10) How did Susan and Ben get acquainted? (breed pigeons in the park)
2.7. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Continuous or Past Indefinite.
1) Sally (to burn) her wrist when she (to cook) the dinner.
2) Last night I (to read) in bed when suddenly I (to hear) a scream.
3) We (not to go) out because it (to rain).
4) One day I (to play) by the big window in our front room where I used to sit
on wet days looking at the rain.
5) When Sid (to be) young, he (to work) from morning till night.
6) While he (to read) aloud, I (to write) a letter to my friend.
7) Last night my neighbours (to shout) for hours and I couldn't get to sleep.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
The whole day yesterday Nick (to get) ready for his report.
What you (to do) at this time yesterday?
The phone still (to ring) when I (to rush) into the room.
I (not to drive) very fast when the accident (to happen).
I (to make) the tea while Jimmy (to clean) the car.
Isabel always (to ask) difficult questions to answer when she (to be) a little
Ann (to break) a plate last night. She (to do) the washing-up when it (to
slip) out of her hand.
At this time yesterday the students (to have) a Grammar test.
Malcolm (to fall) off the ladder while he (to paint) the ceiling.
We (to enjoy) the film when suddenly the electricity (to go) off.
He (to open) the book and (to start) to read.
Last night at 9.35 the Director of school (to walk) from the office to his car
when somebody (to attack) him from behind.
Everyone was having a good time, although not many people (to dance).
Last night I (1) (to be) alone at home. I (2) (to lie) on my bed and I (3) (to
watch) TV when I (4) (to hear) a strange noise. The noise (5) (to come) from
the kitchen. I (6) (to go) downstairs, (7) (to pick up) a heavy vase from the table
and (8) (to head for) the kitchen. I (9) (to open) the door very slowly. Then I
(10) (to see) someone. He (11) (to search) in the fridge. I (12) (to be) so
frightened that I (13) (to drop) the vase I (14) (to carry) and it (15) (to crash)
onto the floor. The man (16) (to turn) towards the door and I (17) (to see) his
face. It (18) (to be) my husband!
Tom went back to the camp the following morning, but it (1) (to be) in
some confusion. Soldiers (2) (to wander) around carrying equipment from one
place to another, but there (3) (not to seem) to be any purpose to what they (4)
(to do). Tom had never been in an army camp before and he (5) (not to know)
what to do. He (6) (to try) to phone the newspaper, but something (7) (to be)
wrong with the telephone lines. He (8) (to try) to find out what exactly (9) (to
go on), when the first plane (10) (to appear). A wooden building a few hundred
yards away suddenly (11) (to disappear) in an explosion of flame. Soon bombs
(12) (to explode) all round him. Smoke (13) (to rise) from burning buildings.
And suddenly everything (14) (to go) quiet.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
It was a typical summer afternoon; the sun (1) (to shine) brightly, the cars
(2) (to creep) slowly round the corner of the park. Five or six children (3) (to
play) in the stream by the fountain, jumping in and out of the water, their
laughter mixing with the noise of the traffic. All the world (4) (to wear) shorts
or T-shirts, or bathing costumes; yet Walter Harrison, sitting on a park bench in
his overcoat, (5) (to feel) cold and lonely. After a few minutes he (6) (to get up)
and (7) (to walk) through the park gates. His adventure was about to begin…
He (8) (to stop) just before putting his key in the front door. Something
(9) (to happen) in the back garden. Quietly he (10) (to creep) around the side of
the house and (11) (to look) through the gate. Two men (12) (to stand) at the
back of the house, holding a ladder. A third man was at the top of the ladder
and a fourth inside the house: he (13) (to pass) furniture through the window to
his partner. All four (14) (to work) quietly and efficiently and the pile of
furniture in the garden (15) (to get) bigger and bigger. Walter couldn't believe
his eyes: the strangers (16) (to empty) his flat, and they (17) (to behave) as if it
was the most normal thing in the world. He (18) (to cough) loudly and then (19)
(to say), "Excuse me!" – and the man at the top of the ladder (20) (to drop) his
portable TV onto the concrete below.
The other day I (1) (to happen) to finish work earlier than usual. The
weather was charming, so I (2) (to decide) to take a walk. When I (3) (to pass)
by one of the numerous pubs, it (4) (to occur) to me that I could do with a bottle
of beer and (5) (to enter) the bar. There (6) (to be) not many customers in it.
Several men and women (7) (to have) their lunch at the tables, others (8) (to
stand) at the bar and (9) (to drink) beer. I (10) (to take) a seat and (11) (to
order) a bottle of beer. While I (12) (to drink) my beer, the place (13) (to be
filled) with visitors. When I (14) (to be going) to leave the bar, it (15) (to begin)
to rain. I (16) (to wait) a few minutes, but the rain (17) (not to stop). The
strange part of it was that there (18) (to be) no clouds in the sky and the sun
(19) (to shine) brightly, and yet it (20) (to rain) hard.
Oral Activity
The Alibi Game
A murder happened at 11 o'clock last night. Two students are the main suspects.
They leave the classroom and must create an alibi to prove their innocence (where
they were, what they did, what they were wearing, etc.). In the meantime the rest of
the class take the role of detectives and think of questions to ask them. Each
"suspect" (student) enters the class and is questioned separately. If their answers
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
are not the same, then they are accused of committing the murder. Students
should use the Past Continuous and/or the Past Indefinite in their questions.
Written Activity
Your house has been robbed. Using the notes from the list below, write a report to
the police.
go – return – get out –see men –carry – jump – run after – disappear
– go into – realise – steal – clothes lie – take my wife's necklace –
find glove – drop – call police
... Last night I went to the cinema. I returned home at 10.30. While I was
getting out of the car, I saw two men wearing masks coming out of the house.
One of them was carrying a big bag ...
2.8. Open the brackets. Use either the present forms (the Present Indefinite,
the Present Continuous) or the past forms (the Past Indefinite, the Past
1) "Does he like you?" Like me? He never even (to see) me when we (to meet).
He (to look) straight through me. The other day I (to pass) him by near the
lake; he just (to stare) at the sky. I (to say) "Hello, David!" He even (not to
bother) to look my way.
2) On the 1st of September, 1939, I (to lunch) with my father. And I (to try) to
explain to him something of the work I (to do). In the middle of the meal the
telephone (to ring) and my father (to answer) it. Then he (to come) back and
(to say): "Philip (to say) the war has started."
3) Through the arch I (to see) Simon. He (to lie) on the ground. He (to have) a
cut which (to bleed) a lot. A few people (to stand) around. His friend, at the
top of his voice, (to yell): "You have hurt him!" One of the crowd (to say):
"I (not to touch) him." As I (to come) up Simon (to open) his eyes and (to
say), "What on earth has happened? Where I (to be)?"
4) It (to be) evening, Jessica (to go) to the window and (to look) out. A Siamese
cat (to walk) slowly along the top of the garden wall. A newspaper boy (to
deliver) the evening papers. A student (to polish) his old car. Two dogs who
had just met (to wag) their tails. She (to turn) away from the window and (to
go) back to her desk.
5) A knock at the door (to arouse) Martin. He (to think) about Joe and (to
wonder) where he (to be), as he (to say): "Come in." He (not to turn) toward
the door. He (to hear) it close softly. There (to be) a long silence. He (to
forget) there had been a knock at the door, and (to stare) blankly before him
when he (to hear) a woman's sob. The next instant he (to be) on his feet.
"Ruth," he said, amazed. Her face (to be) white and strained. He (to lead)
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
her to a chair and (to draw) up another one for himself. They (to talk) when
the servant (to come) in.
6) Last week I (to go) to the theatre. I (to have) a very good seat. The play (to
be) very interesting but I (not to enjoy) it. A young man and a young woman
(to sit) behind me. They (to talk) loudly. I (to get) very angry. I (to look) at
them angrily but they (not to pay) any attention. Soon I couldn't bear it. I (to
turn) round again. "I (not to hear) a single word!" I (to say) angrily. "It's
none of your business," the young man (to reply) rudely. "This is a private
2.9. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where
1) What did you do at this time last week?
2) Everyone talked but stopped the moment Mr Smith entered the room.
3) I had a bath at the time, so I wasn't hearing the doorbell.
4) Paul had a bad habit. He was always making trouble.
5) In those days, I was always using to get up early in the morning.
6) When I got to the cinema, Jack waited for me.
7) While he cleaned the car, his wife got ready for the trip.
8) He wasn't understanding what was going on. Several people shouted at him
and one waved a newspaper in front of his face.
9) It snowed heavily the whole day yesterday.
10) I was realising that someone was stealing my wallet when I was feeling
their hand in my jacket pocket.
11) It took a while for me to notice, but then I did. Everyone stared at me.
What had I done wrong?
12) I didn't recognize him at first because I didn't wear my glasses.
13) While the guests were dancing, thieves were breaking into the house and
stealing a lot of fur coats.
14) While Mr Parker fixed the oil in the car, the children played with a ball in
the yard.
15) They were arguing about something when I was walking into the room.
16) This time last year I cycled in the rain along a country road in France with
a friend of mine.
17) I was listening to the news on television at nine o'clock last night. But as it
was too noisy in the room because the children played with their toys, I
wasn't hearing a single word.
18) When she opened the window, she was happy to see it snowed lightly.
19) The car got worse all the time. One of the headlights constantly fell off,
and the engine made more and more funny noises.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
20) Nobody watched, so the little boy took the packet of sweets from the shelf
and put it in his pocket.
2.10. Translate into English. Use either the Past Continuous or Past
1) Она смотрела интересную передачу, когда кто-то постучал в дверь.
2) Я знаю точно, что в 8 часов он работал не в лаборатории, а в
читальном зале.
3) Я собирался поступить в этот институт, но мне не повезло.
4) Вчера Анна играла на пианино весь вечер.
5) Было поздно, темнело. Мы возвращались домой. Когда мы подошли к
дому, во дворе еще играли дети.
6) – Этот студент плохо отвечает. – Ничего удивительного, он постоянно
пропускал занятия в прошлом семестре.
7) Он намеревался перевести эту статью вчера, но у него совершенно не
было времени.
8) – Какую передачу вы вчера смотрели по телевизору в 9 часов вечера?
9) Когда мы вышли из дома, все еще шел сильный снег.
10) Почтальон принес телеграмму, когда я выходила из дома.
11) Во время перерыва мы ждали ее, но она не пришла.
12) Пока студенты готовились отвечать, экзаменатор просматривал их
письменные работы.
13) Я собирался позвонить тебе вчера, но забыл.
14) Вы ведь путешествовали в это время в прошлом году, не так ли?
15) – Где ты был в 11 часов? Я тебе звонил, но твоя сестра сказала, что
тебя нет дома. – Я катался на лыжах.
16) – Почему ты улыбалась, когда твоя младшая сестра вошла в комнату?
– Потому что на ней были мои туфли на высоком каблуке.
17) Вчера весь вечер они обсуждали планы на каникулы.
18) У нее был попугай, который все время говорил.
19) Когда преподаватель объяснял новое грамматическое правило, один
из студентов задал вопрос.
20) Студенты нашей группы играли в теннис на спортивной площадке,
пока вы тренировались в спортивном зале.
2.11. Read the stories and reproduce them.
Eddie was naughty, and his mother punished him. When his father came
home, Eddie was sitting in a corner of the room and crying. The anxious father
asked him, "What's the matter with you, my son?" Eddie wiped his tears and
answered, "Nothing much, daddy, I have only had a quarrel with your wife."
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
When Karl came in to breakfast, he saw that a bright greeting card was
lying on the table. The card was from his cousin. Karl's elder brother Walter
was eating. His sister Mary was in the kitchen. She was always doing
something in the kitchen. Karl looked up from the card he was reading. "Cousin
is coming to us for the summer," he said. "Oh, my!" exclaimed Mary, "We
haven't seen him for ages." She was standing in the doorway with a coffee pot
in her hands and smiling. “It will be nice to see him again”, she said.
The plane was late and detectives were waiting at the airport all morning.
They were expecting a valuable parcel of diamonds from South Africa. A few
hours earlier someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the
diamonds. When the plane arrived, some of the detectives were waiting inside
the main building while others were waiting on the airfield. Two men took the
parcel off the plane and carried it into the Customs House. While two detectives
were keeping guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. To their surprise,
the precious parcel was full of stones and sand!
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Future Continuous is formed with the Future Indefinite of the
auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle (the Infinitive + ing).
The negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliary verb to be + the
Present Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting subject and the auxiliary verb to
be + the Present Participle.
I shall/will be walking
You will be walking
He/she/it will be walking
We shall/will be walking
They will be walking
in the
at this
I shall/will not be walking
(= I shan't/won't be walking)
You will not be walking
He/she/it will not be walking
We shall/will not be walking
They will not be walking
in the
at this
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
Shall/Will I be walking
Will you be walking
Will he/she/it be walking
Shall/Will we be walking
Will they be walking
Negative Interrogative
in the
Shall/Will I not be walking
Shan't/Won't I be walking
at this
Will you not be walking
time toWill he/she/it not be walking
morrow? Shall/ Will we not be walking
Will they not be walking
in the
at this
time tomorrow?
2. U s a g e
The Future Continuous is used to denote:
1) actions in progress at a stated future time: At 10 o'clock tomorrow
Simon will be working in the garden.
2) actions which are the result of a routine (instead of the Present
Continuous): I'll be seeing John tomorrow. (We work in the same office
so we'll definitely meet.)
The following time expressions can be used with the Future
Continuous: tomorrow, tonight, next week/month, this time next week, soon,
the day after tomorrow, in some days, etc.
REMEMBER: Use the Present Continuous instead of the Future
Continuous after while: We'll be playing basketball, while they are playing
3.1. Explain the use of the Future Continuous forms. Translate into Russian.
1) At 10 o'clock tomorrow Simon will be working in the library.
2) What will you be doing at this time on Sunday?
3) At this time tomorrow she'll be flying home.
4) What do you think you'll be doing in 5 years' time?
5) Will you be working the week after Christmas? – I am thinking of visiting
6) She won't be writing letters at 3 o'clock tomorrow.
7) We'll be packing if they come at 9.
8) Do you know when you'll be taking your English exam this year?
9) Come round in the morning. I'll be painting the kitchen.
10) It's my eighteenth birthday next month so I'll be having a party.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
3.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) I'll be meeting my old friend in London soon.
2) Sam will be taking his friends out to dinner tomorrow night.
3) She'll be returning from the library at 6 o'clock.
4) Max will be playing hockey with his friends at this time on Sunday.
5) Helen will be wearing a blue dress at the party tomorrow.
6) At the beginning of September I'll be starting my college course.
7) This time next week they'll be swimming in the Black Sea.
8) In a year from now John will be settling down in the States.
9) He'll be sleeping when I arrive tonight.
10) They will be having a picnic lunch from 11 till 12 today.
3.3. Ask your fellow-student:
1) if it will be pouring tomorrow morning;
2) if he/she will be staying at his/her aunt's for another fortnight;
3) what he/she will be doing if it is raining all day long tomorrow;
4) who will be getting married in May;
5) when he/she will be writing letters to his/her friends;
6) where he/she will be skiing on Sunday;
7) if they will be going for a picnic lunch at 11 o'clock tomorrow;
8) what he/she will be wearing if he/she is caught in a thunderstorm;
9) what he/she will be doing at this time tomorrow;
10) when he/she will be returning from the South;
11) where he/she will be spending his/her summer vacations;
12) if he/she will be lying in the sun at this time next month;
13) how long he/she will be staying here;
14) if he/she will be driving them to the airport;
15) what he/she will be doing in 10 years’ time.
3.4. Say what other people will be doing at a given moment in the future.
1) I'm going to watch TV from 9 till 10 o'clock tonight. (at 9.30)
2) Freddy is going to talk to his boss about his further promotion. The
appointment is fixed for Friday, at 3.15 p.m. (at 3.20 on Friday)
3) We're going to clean the flat tomorrow. It will be from 9 till 11 o'clock. (at
10 o'clock tomorrow morning)
4) Between 2 and 4 o'clock the day after tomorrow I am going to meet our
business partners from China. (at 3 o'clock the day after tomorrow)
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
Tomorrow afternoon I'm going to play tennis from 4 o'clock till 5.30. (at 5
o'clock tomorrow)
He is going to return home from work from 6 to 7. (at 6.25 tomorrow
We're going to spend next Saturday lying on a beautiful beach. (in the
afternoon next Saturday)
George is going to tidy up his garden from 7 till 9 o'clock tomorrow
evening. (at 8 o'clock tomorrow evening)
Mike is going to travel by boat along the Severn all next week. (on
Roy is going to climb up in the Alps in a week's time. (next Wednesday)
Alan is going on business to the USA. His flight is at 9.55 tomorrow
morning. (at 11 o'clock tomorrow morning)
Bill is planning to come back home by car starting from the US eastern
coast on 10, July. Bill lives in San Francisco, so it will take him a week to
get home. (on 15, July)
He is going to visit the Browns this week. (on Friday)
Between 2 and 5 o'clock tomorrow Alex is going to participate in the talks
with Spanish businessmen. (at 3 o'clock tomorrow)
My boss is going to have lunch with his business partner from 12 to 2
o'clock the day after tomorrow. (at 12.30 the day after tomorrow)
3.5. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Continuous or Future
1) – Don't ring him up tomorrow, you won't get him on the phone. He (to
have) a wonderful time with his friends on the bank of the river.
2) – What you (to do) at this time on Sunday? – I (to walk) in the park.
3) All morning the day after tomorrow we (to discuss) the company's profits.
4) Our company (to develop) new markets in a year's time.
5) I (not to work) at 8 o'clock in the evening.
6) There's a nasty-looking cloud just coming up behind us. I think it (to rain)
heavily in about ten minutes.
7) According to the weather forecast the frost (to get) more severe the whole
8) The temperature today is 8 degrees below zero. I am sure your friends (to
ski) in the woods all afternoon.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
She (to help) her grandmother to pick fruit in the orchard all day long next
Sunday. Gardening is her hobby.
Jane and Kate (to watch) video until midnight.
Why don't you come with us? It (to be) a great trip.
Jack is sixty-five next month so he (to retire).
Uncle Dan (to wait) at the airport to meet us when we (to come) back in
four weeks' time.
At this time next week we (to fly) to Venezuela.
Don't worry about the mistake you made, nobody (to notice).
While Joan (to write) the report, Henry (to look) for more information.
Jerry (to mow) the lawn from 2 to 3 the day after tomorrow.
At 4.30 on Wednesday Bill (to have) an appointment with the manager.
Don't phone after 11.00. I already (to sleep).
You can try asking Martin for help but it (not to do) you any good.
Who will win the election? Where the best new jobs (1) (to be found) next
year? Plans to set up a colony on the moon (2) (to go ahead) and ordinary
members of the public (3) (to take) vacations on the moon? What (4) (to be
going) to be the most successful electronics products of 2020? How the Internet
(5) (to change) not only business but people's lives in 15 years' time? Famous
futurist Alvin Toffler (6) (to discuss) these and other questions about the future
when his new weekly TV programme (7) (to start) in the new year. Toffler,
whose best-seller Future Shock was published some years ago, soon (8) (to
host) a TV show which (9) (not to report) on what (10) (to happen) yesterday.
Instead it (11) (to report) what (12) (to be going) to happen tomorrow. Alvin
Toffler is sure to know everything about the future.
3.6. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where
1) If he will still be sleeping when you will come, wake him up.
2) What will you do at this time tomorrow?
3) He will understand it when he will be older.
4) While you will be watching a football game on TV, I will be cutting the
grass in the back yard.
5) He will be busy at 4 p.m. tomorrow. He will meet his friends at the airport.
6) She is sure when she will come, he will read up for his exam.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
The lift doesn't start until you'll press that button.
I don't know when he will come, but if it won't be late, I'll talk to him.
Will you still work when I come?
Will you be lonely while I'll be away?
The plane doesn't take off until the fog will lift.
Unless he will run, he won't catch the train.
I wonder whether he'll be discussing this question at the meeting next
14) He knew that she will study the whole day on Monday.
15) We send you the goods as soon as we'll receive your cheque.
16) Ask me if you'll need any help.
3.7. Translate into English. Use either the Future Continuous or Future
1) – Что вы будете делать с 6 до 8 завтра? – Я буду переводить эту
2) –Не приходите завтра в 3 часа: он будет занят. В это время у него
будет совещание.
3) – Вы легко можете себе представить, что мы будем делать, когда вы
присоединитесь к нам: я буду загорать, мой младший брат купаться, а
мой отец ловить рыбу.
4) – Какая сегодня прекрасная погода! Давай поедем за город. Я думаю,
мы чудесно проведем время.
5) На будущей неделе мы будем готовиться к экзаменам.
6) Я навещу их, если у меня будет время.
7) –Вы все еще будете работать, если я приду в 9?
8) – Интересно, когда ваш брат снова приедет к нам?
9) Вы знаете, что вы будете делать вечером?
10) Завтра я буду дома в 6, если у меня не будет собрания.
11) Он будет ждать вас у театра в 7, не так ли?
12) Если вы позвоните после 11 часов, я буду спать.
13) Летом он будет писать новую пьесу.
14) Я уверена, что буду читать этот журнал весь вечер.
15) В среду в 6 вечера Том будет на вокзале. Он будет провожать своих
16) Завтра на вечеринке на Кате будет великолепное красное платье.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
17) Я не уверена, удастся ли нам пригласить этого известного актера. Но
если удастся, встреча будет интересной.
18) – Позвони мне завтра с 10 до 11. Я буду ждать твоего звонка.
19) Если он не скажет правду, я больше никогда не буду ему верить.
20) Боюсь, завтра опять целый день будет идти снег.
Oral Activity
The teacher divides the class into two teams and chooses a leader. The teams
in turn tell the leader what they will be doing and why he/she can't call them at
6 o'clock today. Each correct sentence gets 1 point. The team with the most
points is the winner.
Can I phone you at 6 o'clock today, Peter?
Team A S1: Oh, no! I'll be doing my homework then.
Can I phone you at 6 o'clock today, Jill?
Team В S1: Oh, no! I'll be cleaning the house then.
3.8. Act out the conversation. Use the Future Continuous.
– Tomorrow I'll be flying to Rome and you'll be sorting out the
correspondence here in rainy old Birmingham. As you probably know, envy
is not very good for your stomach.
– That's very clever of you to say so, but my stomach is never out of order.
And besides, I'll be having a good time, too.
– Will you really?
– Yes, I'll be enjoying playing squash, swimming and chatting with my friends
in the pub.
– You'll probably be walking along wet streets, carrying an umbrella and
wearing a raincoat.
– Going out in such rainy weather is out of the question. By the way, when
will you be coming back?
– In a few weeks, I suppose. I'll send you a postcard from Rome, anyway.
3.9. Talk to your partner about similar things.
 What will you be doing at this time on Sunday?
– I think I'll be sliding and skating on the pond. And you?
– I'll probably be skiing in the park.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
At this time tomorrow I'll be flying home. What will you be doing, Kate?
I'll be packing my luggage and looking forward to my ten days at home.
I suppose we'll all be thinking about our home-coming all the way there.
And of course, we'll be feeling too excited to be tired after our journey.
1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense forms.
1) When Mark (to arrive), the Johnsons (to have) dinner, but they stopped in
order to greet him.
2) – What you (to make), Pamela? It (to smell) really nice. – Well, I (to try) a
recipe my mother-in-law gave me. It (to sound) really easy.
3) The river Nile (to flow) into the Mediterranean.
4) When I (to phone) Helen last night, she (to wash) her hair.
5) In twenty-four hours' time I (to relax) on my yacht.
6) Peter couldn't understand what had been decided because too many people
(to talk) at once.
7) – What you (to think) of that new girl, Ann? – Well, frankly, I (to find) her
terribly annoying. She always (to make) silly remarks and she never (to
listen) to anything you say.
8) I felt rather worried. It (to grow) darker and colder, and there was still no
sign of the rescue helicopter.
9) Tomorrow at this time I (to fly) to the South and you (to be) in the office,
looking at the rain outside and envying me.
10) I haven't decided yet about whether to buy a new car or a second-hand one.
But I (to think) about it.
11) When we (to leave) the café, we (to see) Ann and Harry. They (to laugh)
and (to walk) arm in arm.
12) Can you send me the results as soon as you (to hear) anything?
13) – What all those people (to do) in the middle of the street? And why they
(to wear) such extraordinary clothes? – They (to make) a film. Most of the
crowd are local people who (to work) as extras.
14) This time tomorrow everyone (to read) about your success, and all sorts of
people (to ring up) to congratulate you.
15) – Ann says she (not to come) if Tom is driving. She says she doesn't want
to die yet. – Well, tell her, Tom (not to drive). He's had his license
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
16) Mr Jones (to walk) along Piccadilly when he (to realize) that a man with a
beard, whom he had seen three times already that afternoon, (to follow)
17) – I (not to think) your brother (to enjoy) the party today. He (to look) at his
watch all the time. – Oh, I'm sure he (to enjoy) it. He always (to enjoy)
your parties. But I (to know) he (to want) to be home early tonight because
he (to expect) an important telephone call.
18) The dentist's waiting room was full of people. Some (to read) magazines,
others just (to turn) over the pages. A woman (to knit), a child (to play)
with a toy car. Suddenly the door (to open) and the nurse (to say), "Next,
19) The first day of the term will be horrible, for everybody (to talk) about
their holidays and (to show) photographs of marvellous foreign beaches,
and as I haven't been anywhere it (not to be) very interesting for me.
20) – Do you know why that man (to stand) in the middle of the road? – He (to
try) to get across. He (to wait) for a gap in the traffic.
21) He (to sit) on the bank fishing when he (to see) a man's hat floating down
the river. It (to seem) strangely familiar to him.
22) This time next month the snow (to melt) and skiing (to be) over.
I (1) (to buy) a new alarm clock the other day in Taylor's, the jewellers,
when I actually (2) (to see) somebody shoplifting. I'd just finished paying for
my clock and as I (3) (to turn) round, an elderly woman slowly (4) (to put) a
silver plate into a bag that she (5) (to carry). Then she (6) (to walk) over to
another part of the shop and, when she (7) (to think) that nobody (8) (to look),
she (9) (to put) an expensive-looking watch into the bag. Before I (10) (to have)
a chance to tell the staff in the shop, she (11) (to notice) that I (12) (to watch)
her and (13) (to hurry) out. Unfortunately for her, two police officers (14) (to
walk) past just at that moment and she (15) (to run) straight into them.
John (1) (not to look) well these days. Is he okay?
Apparently, he (2) (not to sleep) well just now, although he usually (3)
(to sleep) really soundly.
Sounds like something (4) (to worry) him.
Well, that's part of the problem. You (5) (to know) that he (6) (to work)
for Tardown, the engineers, don't you?
Yes, ever since he (7) (to leave) university.
That's right. Well, at the moment he (8) (to work) on a major road-
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
building scheme in Liverpool, so he (9) (to drive) up there every day,
which (10) (to take) a couple of hours each way. And on top of that, he
(11) (to suffer) from a cold and (12) (to have) difficulty in breathing.
Pat left the house and (1) (to go) along a sandy path leading to the vegetable
garden. Soon she (2) (to see) that somebody (3) (to move) among the tomato
plants. Coming closer she (4) (to recognize) Humphrey Bell. "Hello," Pat (5) (to
call) out. "You (6) (to get) tomatoes, eh?" He (7) (to straighten) himself. "Yes,
and I (8) (not to be) the thief I (9) (to look). Your uncle (10) (to tell) me to help
myself." He (11) (to show) her the basket half full of tomatoes.
"I (12) (to help) you," said Pat and without waiting for his reply she (13) (to
begin) to gather the tomatoes.
"You (14) (to look) unusually elegant," he said.
"We (15) (to have) a family dinner party. But they'll not miss me. As a
matter of fact, the party is really scattered. The young people have paired off
and (16) (to stroll) about."
"Then I (17) (to consider) myself lucky that you have paired off with me –
in the vegetable garden."
"It (18) (not to sound) very romantic," she said. "How you (19) (to get) on
with your writing? You yourself (20) (to like) what you (21) (to write)?"
"Yes, I do." He (22) (to speak) with conviction.
Meanwhile it (1) (to get) on to the time for the family's usual fortnight at the
seaside. They always (2) (to go) to Herne Bay and for years they had taken the
same lodgings. One evening Herbert (3) (to say) to his mother as casually as he
could: "By the way, Mum, you'd better write and tell them I (4) (not to want)
my room this year. Betty and I (5) (to get married) soon and we (6) (to go) to
Scotland for the honeymoon."
His mother (7) (not to say) a word. She (8) (to go) deathly pale. "Oh, Mum,
don't take it so hard. I'm sure you (9) (to like) Betty when you (10) (to get) to
know her. Everything (11) (to be) all right if you only (12) (to be) reasonable."
"That's what you think. Well, let me tell you that this woman never (13) (to
set) foot in this house, only over my dead body."
2. Translate into English.
1) Да, моя фамилия Смит, но я не тот Смит, которого вы ищете. Он здесь
больше не работает.
2) – Вы ожидали кого-нибудь вчера к обеду? – Да. Мою сестру с семьей.
Мы ждали их к трем.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
– Как ты думаешь, что ты будешь делать в это время через год? –
Пока я еще не знаю, что я буду делать через год, но надеюсь, что буду
работать. А если мне повезет, то буду работать в банке.
Она порезала палец, когда резала хлеб.
Сегодня вечером Джонсоны принимают гостей. Сейчас Элен
накрывает на стол.
Я еще буду работать, когда вы вернетесь.
Том очень невнимательный. Он постоянно делает много ошибок в
контрольных работах.
Вчера он возвращался домой довольно поздно. Темнело, и шел дождь.
Он шел быстро, так как боялся промокнуть.
– Не выходите на улицу. Посмотрите на эту тучу. Думаю, что через
пять минут будет лить как из ведра. Если вы решите переждать здесь,
я приготовлю вам кофе.
В этом году наша компания хорошо работает, поэтому постоянно
растут и наши доходы.
Вчера весь день я пытался связаться с тобой. Где ты был?
Пока я буду убирать в квартире, ты будешь готовить обед.
– Ты была вчера дома в 3 часа? – Нет, я была в университете. В это
время я сдавала экзамен.
Стюардесса попросила пассажиров пристегнуть ремни, так как
самолет шел на посадку.
Мужчина так пристально смотрит на вас. Вы его знаете?
Моя сестра очень рассеянная. Она постоянно теряет свои вещи.
– Ты не знаешь, когда он вернется? – Когда он вернется, я скажу тебе.
Неделю назад я потерял свои очки, но два дня спустя я нашел их.
– Где ты обычно проводишь отпуск? – У своих родителей. Они живут
за городом. – Там есть река или озеро? – Там есть большое и красивое
Когда Ник пришел в офис, машинистка все еще печатала документы.
Поезд отправляется без четверти два. Если мы сейчас же не
отправимся на вокзал, мы опоздаем.
– Я получил большое удовольствие от спектакля. Почему ты не
пошел с нами?
– Что означает это слово? – Я точно не знаю, но сейчас найду его в
Она положила письма на стол и начала просматривать их.
– Ты помнишь Джеймса? Он теперь работает на этой фирме, и дела у
него идут неплохо.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
26) Он заводит друзей удивительно легко, хотя и не любит шумных
27) Женщина что-то сказала мальчику, который шел рядом с ней, и они
28) – Если ты не слушаешь радио, почему ты его не выключишь?
29) Когда он проснулся, на столике возле его кровати звонил телефон.
30) Она сидела в глубине комнаты, лицом к двери. На ней было вечернее
платье, и она смотрела на трех мужчин, которые стояли у двери.
Когда Джек подошел к ней, она улыбнулась ему. Он знал, что трое
мужчин наблюдают за ним.
31) – Могу я видеть мистера Смита? – К сожалению, нет. Он занят. Он
ведет переговоры с представителями зарубежных компаний.
32) Вчера весь день они обсуждали вопросы сотрудничества и взаимной
поддержки с представителями дочерних предприятий.
33) Они возьмут ее на работу после того, как она окончит университет.
34) На днях наша фирма заключила выгодную сделку с этой
процветающей компанией, занимающейся производством мебели.
35) Из-за нехватки денежных средств его фирма обанкротилась в
прошлом месяце, и сейчас он ищет работу.
36) Сейчас они пытаются выйти на новые рынки сбыта, чтобы увеличить
прибыль компании.
37) Сейчас уставный капитал компании составляет $15.000, а в момент ее
образования десять лет назад он был лишь $5.000.
38) Компания по производству товаров народного потребления не
выдержала конкуренции и ушла с рынка.
39) Завтра на собрании Совет директоров будет обсуждать бюджет
компании на предстоящий год.
40) Если дела фирмы пойдут хорошо, в следующем году она откроет свои
филиалы по всей стране.
41) В понедельник в это время представитель нашей компании будет
подписывать контракт с новыми поставщиками сырья.
42) Предприятию будет грозить длительная забастовка, пока руководство
не примет необходимые меры, чтобы улучшить обстановку.
43) В это время послезавтра он будет проходить собеседование. Если ему
повезет, он получит эту работу.
44) В настоящее время Совет директоров планирует расширение
компании. Это приведет к набору дополнительного штата
45) Этой фирме удалось избежать банкротства благодаря слиянию с более
крупной компанией, и через месяц ее прибыль удвоилась.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
46) В этом году затраты компании на рекламу превышают их ежегодную
сумму на 20%.
47) Члены правления выдвинули много конструктивных предложений,
когда обсуждали вопрос о переоборудовании завода.
48) В прошлом году крупный автомобильный концерн аннулировал
контракт со своими партнерами из-за постоянных задержек в
поставках запчастей и сейчас он ищет новых поставщиков.
49) Если он будет справляться со своими обязанностями, через год он
получит повышение по службе.
50) Компания несет серьезные убытки, так как товар, который она
производит, пару месяцев назад перестал пользоваться спросом.
51) Полиция разыскивает этого молодого человека по подозрению в
52) На днях несколько вооруженных людей ограбили банк. Преступникам
удалось скрыться.
53) Если присяжные признают ее виновной, суд приговорит ее к
длительному сроку тюремного заключения.
54) Вчера в 9 утра полицейский допрашивал этого мужчину, который
оказался свидетелем преступления.
55) Подростка поймали с поличным, когда он пытался украсть в магазине
несколько видеокассет.
56) Так как свидетельские показания были сомнительными, присяжные
не приняли их во внимание и признали обвиняемого невиновным.
57) Если улик будет недостаточно, суд его оправдает.
58) На прошлой неделе таможенники арестовали груз, так как документы
оказались поддельными.
59) Газеты сообщают, что число преступлений, совершенных
подростками, стремительно растет.
60) Из-за недостатка прямых улик подозреваемый был на днях
61) Управляющего отделом продаж обвинили во взяточничестве и
злоупотреблении властью и освободили от занимаемой должности.
Через месяц он предстанет перед судом.
62) Этот человек – знаменитый детектив. В настоящее время он
расследует дело о краже драгоценных камней.
63) – Пожалуйста, ни к чему не прикасайтесь в этой комнате, пока не
приедет полиция.
64) Пока детектив будет допрашивать свидетелей, полицейские будут
обыскивать квартиру.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
65) Когда мы подошли ближе, мы заметили, как двое грабителей
пытались проникнуть через окно в соседний дом.
66) Если водитель нарушит правила дорожного движения, полиция его
67) На днях террористы захватили автобус с заложниками. Пока власти
вели с ними переговоры, полицейские готовились к штурму. Через
несколько часов полиция арестовала террористов и освободила
68) – Не входите в зал суда! Судья зачитывает приговор.
69) – В чем полиция его обвиняет? – Говорят, в прошлом месяце он
совершил несколько краж со взломом.
70) Таможенники задержали двух молодых людей, когда те пытались
провезти через границу контрабандный товар.
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) Everyone ..... to the teacher very attentively at the moment.
A) are listening
C) is listening
B) listening
D) is listen
2) While you ..... dinner, I’ll be tidying up the flat.
A) will be cooking
C) will cooking
B) are cooking
D) will are cooking
3) When she saw them, they ..... the street.
A) are crossing
C) were be crossing
B) was crossing
D) were crossing
4) You are always talking on the phone. Who ..... to now, John?
A) you are talking
C) are you talking
B) is talking you
D) is talking
5) I think it ..... all day long tomorrow.
A) will be snowing
C) will be snow
B) shall be snowing
D) will being snow
6) Can you remember what ..... ten years ago today?
A) you doing
C) were you doing
B) was you doing
D) you were doing
7) While I am writing a composition, my elder sister ..... on the phone with
her friend.
A) is talking
C) talks
B) be talking
D) was talking
8) While the children ..... hockey the snow began to fall.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
A) played
C) were playing
B) be playing
D) are playing
Don't call him at 4 o'clock tomorrow. He ..... dinner at that time.
A) will have
C) will being have
B) shall be having
D) will be having
He ..... much money at present.
A) shan't be making
C) doesn't making
B) is not making
D) isn't make
She ..... to her manager at this time next Monday.
A) will be speak
C) will be speaking
B) will speak
D) shall be speaking
Where .....? – To the post-office.
A) are you go
C) do you go
B) are you going
D) you were going
While he was painting her portrait, she ..... at the window.
A) was setting
C) is sitting
B) was seating
D) was sitting
They ..... in the river at present.
A) are not swimming
C) be not swimming
B) do not swim
D) not swimming
Hurry up! Our bus ..... in ten minutes!
A) leaving
C) is leaving
B) leave
D) be leaving
She still ..... a letter when I came home.
A) is writing
C) were writing
B) was writing
D) wrote
..... heavily the whole day yesterday?
A) Did it raining
C) Were it raining
B) Was the rain going
D) Was it raining
We'll be cleaning the windows while she ..... the dishes.
A) is washing
C) was washing
B) will be washing
D) shall be washing
You ..... a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter?
A) make
C) are make
B) was making
D) are making
..... a cake the whole morning tomorrow?
A) Will be she making
C) Will she making
B) Will she be making
D) Will she is making
Peter ..... the latest news when the phone rang.
A) will be listening to
C) was listening to
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
B) was listening
D) was being listen
I ..... you. Speak louder, please.
A) am not hear
C) wasn't hearing
B) am not hearing
D) don’t hear
It ..... dark. Shall I turn on the light?
A) is getting
C) gets
B) getting
D) is being getting
Kate ..... on the phone with her friend while her husband was watching TV.
A) is talking
C) will be talking
B) was talking
D) talked
We haven't seen Kate for a month. She ..... to us tonight.
A) is coming
C) was coming
B) will be coming
D) coming
She said she still ..... dinner when they came.
A) will be cooking
C) would is cooking
B) will is cooking
D) would be cooking
Max is reading a text while Jack ..... an exercise.
A) is doing
C) was doing
B) will be doing
D) does
What ..... at 5 o'clock last Sunday?
A) was you doing
C) are you doing
B) will you be doing
D) were you doing
Eliza has made good progress in her English. Her teacher ..... with her
work now.
A) is being pleased
C) is pleased
B) is pleasing
D) are pleased
She ..... the guitar when somebody knocked at the door.
A) is playing
C) would be playing
B) was playing
D) were playing
Why .....? What has happened?
A) Kate is crying
C) does Kate cry
B) does Kate crying
D) is Kate crying
I wonder if Mr Smith ..... his business partners at the airport at this time the
day after tomorrow.
A) shall be meet
C) will is meeting
B) will be meeting
D) would be meeting
Mark hurt his leg when he ..... football.
A) played
C) is playing
B) will be playing
D) was playing
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
34) She is so absent-minded. She always ..... her things.
A) is losing
C) were losing
B) will losing
D) would be losing
35) Mary ..... dinner at 3 o'clock tomorrow.
A) would be having
C) will be having
B) will be hasing
D) is having
36) While Tommy ....., his grandmother was knitting.
A) is sleeping
C) will be sleeping
B) was sleeping
D) would be sleeping
37) Don't enter the room! The doctor ..... a patient.
A) are examining
C) is examing
B) shall be examining
D) is examining
38) Who ..... with when I saw you the other day?
A) were you talking
C) are you talking
B) you were talking
D) did you talk
39) While Peter's parents are abroad, his aunt ..... after him.
A) would be looking
C) will is looking
B) was looking
D) will be looking
40) As I ..... down the street, Mr Brown, our neighbour, went by.
A) am walking
C) was walking
B) walked
D) was being walk
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) What they (to do)? – They (to plan) their next holiday.
42) Nick (to work) all day yesterday that's why he couldn't go to the cinema
with us.
43) When you next see me I (to wear) my new dress.
44) What you (to do) when Mr Smith arrived? – I (to type) a contract.
45) At the moment Kate (to learn) new words and I (to look) through a
magazine now.
46) While her friends (to swim) in the river, she (to sunbathe) at this time next
47) He bought his car five years ago and he still (to drive) it.
48) The boy jumped off the bus while it (to move).
49) Mr Brown lives in Washington though he (to stay) in London at the
50) What do you think the children (to do) when you get home? – I expect they
(to have) their supper.
51) It (not to rain) when she got up.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
52) Call her later. I don't think she (to sleep).
53) Linda is away on holiday so Janet (to handle) her work.
54) The students of our group (to discuss) a very important question the whole
lesson yesterday.
55) Open the door, please. Somebody (to knock) at it.
56) He still (to work) when she comes?
57) Can I borrow your pen or you (to use) it at the moment?
58) Mary (to stand) at the bus stop when I saw her. I asked her what bus she
(to wait) for.
59) This time the day after tomorrow he (to write) a test.
60) Tom has a bad habit. He always (to put off) some difficult work to the very
last moment.
61) What Ann (to do) in the library? – She (to prepare) a report.
62) The house was in great disorder because he (to redecorate) it.
63) She'll be cooking dinner while her husband (to pack) their things.
64) Why is it so cold in the room? – We (to air) it.
65) It (to rain) when you left the office? – Yes, it (to rain) heavily.
66) Has she typed all the documents yet? – No, she (to type) them the whole
day tomorrow.
67) Our friend is in hospital. I wonder, how she (to get) on.
68) We had a terrible time looking after your dog. It constantly (to chase) the
cat next door.
69) Mary won't be able to join us. She (to look) after her younger sister at the
70) I (to taste) the tea to see if it is sweet enough.
71) While the workers (to repair) the roof, they broke the bathroom window.
72) Mr Nutton (to investigate) a new case at present.
73) The secretary (to type) the contract the whole morning tomorrow.
74) Why she (to cry) when I entered the room?
75) Our father (to fish) while we (to swim) in the river next Sunday.
76) They (to talk) so loudly that we can't really hear your words.
77) Kate still (to do) the flat when her parents come home.
78) We (to wait) for him during the break but he didn't come.
79) Nick (to wear) a nice suit when I saw him at the party.
80) The children are in the sitting room now. While Tom (to draw) a picture,
his brother (to play) with his toys.
3. Translate into English.
81) Пока студенты будут составлять диалоги, преподаватель будет
проверять их контрольные работы.
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses
82) Он пришел, когда мы все еще обсуждали план поездки.
83) Здесь очень шумно. Я не слышу, о чем они говорят.
84) Завтра после шести его не будет дома. Он будет играть с друзьями в
85) Сегодня вечером Том уезжает в Лондон на конференцию. Его поезд
отправляется в 9 часов.
86) Когда мы гуляли в парке, начался дождь. Мы поспешили домой, так
как у нас не было зонтика.
87) Я уверена, что когда мы придем, он будет все еще готовиться к
88) – Ты не знаешь, почему она плачет?
89) Послезавтра в это время они будут возвращаться домой с юга.
90) Секретарь печатала документы, когда вошел посетитель.
91) Я не знаю, с кем она разговаривает. Может быть, это одна из ее
92) Мы собирались провести прошлые выходные за городом, но пошел
дождь, и мы остались дома.
93) Завтра после обеда Марк будет работать над своим новым сценарием.
Он хочет закончить его через неделю.
94) – Почему здесь так холодно? – Я проветриваю комнату.
95) Они катались на лодках, когда разразился шторм.
96) Пока мы будем кататься на коньках, они будут играть в снежки.
97) – Ты меня не слушаешь. О чем ты думаешь?
98) Завтра утром мы уезжаем в Крым. Мы собираемся пробыть там две
99) Пока идет дождь, дети играют дома. Как только он закончится, они
пойдут гулять во двор.
100) Мы обедали, когда почтальон принес нам телеграмму.
Total: 100/______
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) I ..... cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with flour.
A) have been making
C) will have made
B) have make
D) make
2) He ..... since he returned from his business trip. That is why he looks so
A) has been overworking
C) overworks
B) overworked
D) will have overworked
3) She ..... the children for 2 hours by the time their parents come home.
A) will have been caring for
C) had been caring for
B) has been caring for
D) cared for
4) I ..... over the phone for 20 minutes when they brought me the letter.
A) has been talking
C) will have been talking
B) had been talking
D) have been talking
5) They ..... in that room since morning when the taxi arrived.
A) have been sitting
C) had been sitting
B) sat
D) will have been sitting
6) He ..... in the south the whole week by the time his friends come to visit
A) will have been resting
C) had been resting
B) has been resting
D) rested
7) In an hour we ..... at this report for 5 hours.
A) will have been working
C) had been working
B) have been working
D) will work
8) He ..... Russian for 2 years and doesn’t even known the alphabet yet.
A) is studying
C) studied
B) has been studying
D) studies
9) He quickly forgot everything he ..... at school for more than 5 years.
A) had learnt
C) has been learning
B) had been learning
D) learnt
10) I ..... at the hotel for a fortnight when I received your letter.
A) had been staying
C) had stayed
B) was staying
D) have been staying
11) By next week my friends ..... in this flat for 22 weeks.
A) will live
C) will be living
B) will have been living
D) are living
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
12) By 6 p.m. she ..... in the garden for 4 hours.
A) will have been standing
C) will be standing
B) will stand
D) are standing
13) I ..... at the hotel library for an hour when I got your message.
A) had been staying
C) will have been staying
B) have been staying
D) had stayed
14) The musicians ..... the piano for an hour when we came in.
A) played
C) had been playing
B) had played
D) had being playing
15) By the beginning of the year they ..... English for 1 year.
A) will learn
C) will have been learning
B) will be learning
D) are learning
16) We ..... along a forest road for 3 hours when we saw a house.
A) had walked
C) had been walking
B) were walking
D) walked
17) They ..... in the garden for 2 hours by the time we come to their house.
A) will be working
C) will work
B) will have been working
D) work
18) I ..... over the phone the whole hour when the porter knocked at the door.
A) had talked
C) talked
B) had been talking
D) had being talked
19) In half an hour we ..... since morning.
A) will sunbathe
C) will have been sunbathing
B) are sunbathing
D) will be sunbathing
20) Alice closed the magazine and rose from the sofa on which she ..... for
more than 2 hours.
A) had been lying
C) had lain
B) had lied
D) was lying
21) By 5.00 p.m. they ..... TV for 4 hours running!
A) will watch
C) will have been watching
B) will be watching
D) are watching
22) She looked tired. She ..... letters all the morning.
A) typed
C) has been typing
B) had been typing
D) is typing
23) The trial ..... on for a long time. I wonder, what the verdict will be.
A) has been going
C) is going
B) went
D) has gone
24) It ..... for 3 days now. The roads will be blocked if it doesn’t stop soon.
A) has being snowing
C) is snowing
B) has been snowing
D) snows
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
25) I ..... you to mend that window for 6 weeks. When are you going to do it?
A) have been asking
C) am asking
B) ask
D) asked
26) He ..... since 10 o’clock. It is time he woke up.
A) has been sleeping
C) had been sleeping
B) will have been sleeping
D) slept
27) Jane’s clothes were wet. She ..... her dog.
A) had been washing
C) will have been washing
B) has been washing
D) washed
28) By tomorrow we ..... to Poland for 10 days.
A) will have been walking
C) will be walking
B) will walk
D) had been walking
29) He ..... to work for half an hour when suddenly the car broke down.
A) had been driving
C) will have been driving
B) has been driving
D) drove
30) By next April he ..... Russian for 2 years.
A) will have been learning
C) is learning
B) will learn
D) had been learning
31) He ..... the car since 1 o’clock when the phone rang.
A) will have been cleaning
C) had been cleaning
B) was cleaning
D) cleans
32) In a month they ..... this building for about 5 months.
A) will have been decorating
C) decorated
B) will decorate
D) have been decorating
33) By tomorrow she ..... her car for a week.
A) will have been driving
C) drives
B) has been driving
D) had been driving
34) He ..... football for an hour when the ball hit his head.
A) had been playing
C) was playing
B) has been playing
D) plays
35) The students ..... very well this term.
A) have been working
C) had been working
B) are working
D) work
36) I ..... the table all the morning.
A) has been polishing
C) will have been polishing
B) have been polishing
D) polish
37) He ..... at this school for 5 years.
A) has been teaching
C) will have been teaching
B) have been teaching
D) teaches
38) In an hour she ..... her shopping since morning.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
A) has been doing
C) had been doing
B) will have been doing
D) does
39) By June my friends ..... in the south for a fortnight.
A) will have been resting
C) will rest
B) will be resting
D) have been resting
40) Yesterday afternoon it ..... since 5 a.m. when I got home.
A) had been raining
C) rained
B) has been raining
D) was raining
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) He (to read) this book for some hours by the time we come.
42) That old radio (to work) for many years before I dropped it.
43) Mary took a hot bath after she (to work) in the garden all the afternoon.
44) He (to use) this machine for 12 years.
45) He (to stand) there for nearly half an hour when I realized I was at the
wrong bus stop.
46) By Friday she (to prepare) for her exams for a month.
47) It (to rain) for 2 hours and the ground is wet to play on.
48) Tom (to dig) in the garden the whole afternoon and I am helping him.
49) He (to smoke) for 20 years before he finally gave it up last year.
50) Ever since he came to us that man (to try) to make trouble.
51) I (to watch) the hockey match for 2 hours.
52) Kate (to dance) for some time, but when she saw a newcomer she stopped.
53) By 6.00 p.m. he (to deal) with their complaints for 2 hours.
54) They were very angry. They (to try) to see us for 2 or 3 hours.
55) The driver of that car (to sound) his horn for the last 10 minutes.
56) By the end of this week Mike (to repair) his car for a week.
57) I was tired because I (to dig) all day long.
58) By tomorrow she (to drive) her car for a week.
59) They (to live) in France since 1970.
60) By Wednesday they (to lie) in the sun for a week.
61) Mr. Brown (to work) for 50 years when he finally retired in 1985.
62) By 4.00 p.m. when I get home, they (to clean) the flat for several hours.
63) Tom (to try) to get a new job for 6 months before he finally found a position
at a local college.
64) Your fingers are very brown. You (to smoke) too much.
65) I am sorry for keeping you waiting. I (to try) to make a phone call to Rome
since morning.
66) The car (to make) a very curious noise ever since it ran out of oil.
67) When Sarah got off the bus, it (to rain) for 2 hours already.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
68) In a couple of months he (to work) at this plant for a year.
69) Her phone (to ring) for 10 minutes. I wonder, why she doesn’t answer it.
70) Have you seen my bag anywhere? I (to look) for it for ages.
71) The helicopter (to fly) round the house for the last hour; do you think it is
taking photographs?
72) By the time we make a decision, they (to wait) for us for about an hour.
73) By the time we come to their house, they (to celebrate) for 3 hours.
74) I know that he (to study) at the University for 4 years already.
75) You (to drive) the whole day. Let me drive now.
76) By the time he makes a decision to visit us in Moscow, we (to live) there for
some years.
77) Everybody knew that he lost his job because he (to cheat) the company for
many years.
78) When I got there, I could see that they (to wait) for me since morning.
79) By June my friends (to rest) in the south for a fortnight.
80) He (to live) in London for 8 years before he decided to move to Manchester.
3. Translate into English.
81) Преподаватель читает эту лекцию уже полчаса с тех пор, как вошел в
82) Она пыталась перевести статью уже 3 часа, когда пришла Кэтрин и
помогла ей.
83) Когда я проснулся, я посмотрел на часы: я спал 3 часа.
84) К нашему приходу с работы Мария будет ждать нас дома уже почти
два часа.
85) Джон чинил машину уже час, когда Мэри позвала его обедать.
86) К сентябрю я буду готовиться к сдаче экзамена уже несколько
87) Они сдают экзамены уже несколько дней, но до сих пор не сдали ни
88) Мы смотрели телевизор уже несколько часов, когда дождь
89) Когда я вернулся домой, мать сказала мне, что дети спят с 9 часов.
90) Она бродила по лесу около часа, когда поняла, что заблудилась.
91) Послезавтра исполнится год, как мой друг учит немецкий.
92) К тому времени, как я приготовлю обед, мои друзья будут отдыхать
несколько часов.
93) Он учил французский уже 6 лет, когда поступал в колледж.
94) Студенты выполняют эти упражнения уже в течение часа.
95) Брайан ждал минут 15, когда пришла Кейт.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
96) Она спала уже час или полтора, когда вернулся ее брат.
97) К пяти часам вечера Стив будет ремонтировать свою машину три часа.
98) Через полмесяца будет год, как Джон изучает биологию.
99) Как долго вы учитесь в этом институте? – С тех пор, как переехал в
этот город.
100) Интересно, как долго мои друзья живут в Петербурге?
Total: 100/______
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Present Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary to be in
the Present Perfect + the Present Participle: I have been working for
two hour already.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to be in the
Present Perfect + the Present Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to be in the Present
Perfect and the subject + the Present Participle.
I have been working
(= I've been working)
You have been working
He/she/it has been
We have been working
They have been working
at school
for five
Have I been working
Have you been working
Has he/she/it been
I have not been working
(= I haven't been working)
You have not been working
He/she/it has not been
We have not been working
They have not been working
for five
Negative Interrogative
at school
for five
Have I not been working
(= Haven't I been working)
Have you not been working
for five
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
Have we been working
Have they been working
Has he/she/it not been
Have we not been working
Have they not been working
2. U s a g e
The Present Perfect Continuous is used to indicate an action which
has begun before the present moment of speech and has continued up
to this moment.
The Present Perfect Continuous is used to denote:
1) an action which began in the past and is still going on at the
moment of speaking: I have been waiting for an hour and he hasn't
turned up yet.
2) an action which began in the past and has recently stopped or
just stopped: You are out of breath. Have you been running? Ann's
hands are dirty. She has been watering the flowers.
The following time expressions can be used with the Present
Perfect Continuous: how long, for and since: They have been waiting
here for an hour. I have been watching TV since 2 o'clock. How long have you
been learning English?
1.1. Explain the use of the Present Perfect Continuous forms. Translate into
1) They have been learning English for a long time.
2) It has been raining heavily since I got up this morning.
3) How long have you been smoking?
4) I have been waiting here since 5 p.m.
5) Ann has been writing letters the whole day.
6) John hasn’t been feeling well recently.
7) Have you been working hard today?
8) We have been collecting stamps since we were children.
9) Has she been working for this company since she graduated from the
10) She has been waiting for them since she came home.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) He has been living in London since March.
2) She has been playing tennis for 2 hours.
3) They have been painting the whole day.
4) I have been working here since I moved to Minsk.
5) Diana has been teaching English in Germany for a long time.
6) It has been snowing since I got up.
7) He has been studying languages at the University for 2 years.
8) They have been waiting for us for a long time.
9) Jack has been living here since he was born.
10) They have been looking for a flat since they arrived in Minsk.
1.3. Transform into an interrogative form according to the model:
Model: He has been studying maths for 3 years (since 1985).
How long has he been studying maths?
Since when (what time) has he been studying maths?
1) My brothers have been working in London since February.
2) They have been waiting for us for half an hour.
3) Jack has been smoking since he was 17.
4) She has been living in Glasgow for a year.
5) It has been raining heavily since 6 a.m.
6) They have been learning German since the beginning of the 1st term.
7) Ann has been writing letters for a long time.
8) He has been ill since Monday.
9) The workers have been painting the walls since they started working here.
10) They have been making films since they left college.
1.4. Combine the given phrases. Translate what is given in the right-hand
1) They have been waiting
A) с 6 утра
for us
B) на протяжении 2,5 часов
C) с тех пор, как мы проснулись
D) уже неделю
2) He has been wearing
A) с детства
B) с тех пор, как пошел в школу
C) на протяжении 10 лет
D) всю жизнь
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
A) уже десяток лет
living here
B) с тех пор, как переехали в этот город
C) с начала года
D) вечность
She has been painting the A) с самого утра
B) 2 часа
C) с понедельника
D) с тех пор, как купила эту квартиру
My friend has been
A) с 1993 года
working in the bank
B) с тех пор, как закончил институт
C) уже 15 лет
D) всю жизнь
She has been learning
A) с самого утра
this poem
B) с 3 часов
C) с тех пор, как вернулась со школы
D) 2 часа
He has been staying at
A) уже неделю
this nice hotel
B) с вечера
C) с тех пор, как приехал туда
D) 3 дня
The musician has been
A) уже целый час
playing the piano
B) с тех пор, как все собрались
C) с 6 часов вечера
D) целую вечность
3) My friends have been
1.5. Open the brackets. Use the Present Perfect Continuous.
1) What are you doing? – I am repairing my son’s bicycle. I (to do) it for 2
2) I’ll call for an ambulance. She (to get) weaker and weaker since she had
3) Who is that man standing there? He (to stand) there for the last half an hour.
4) Where is John? I (to wait) for him since 6 p.m. We are going to be late to
the concert.
5) I cannot stand it any more. Those people (to quarrel) since breakfast.
6) Jim works as a sales manager. He (to sell) washing machines for 3 months.
7) Dora is playing the piano. She (to play) it since I came.
8) Aren’t you going to tell me what (you/ to do) in my absence?
9) How long you (to sit) here?
10) Mike, I (to try) to get you all this day!
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
11) Hurry up! I am waiting for you. You (to have) a bath for an hour.
12) I’ll go and wash my eyes. I don’t want them to see I (to cry).
13) The amount of crimes (to increase) for the last 10 years and we can’t stop
this process.
14) The children are playing. They (to play) since they came home.
15) You (to write) a composition for 2 hours and can’t complete it.
1.6. Put in: since or for.
1) I have been trying to open this box ….. last 40 minutes, but in vain.
2) It is the best book I have been reading …. January.
3) I have been listening to you ….. the past half an hour, but I can’t understand
what you are speaking about.
4) Hey! Somebody has been drinking my coffee ….. a week! My cup is
constantly empty.
5) I have been sitting here in the park ….. an hour.
6) How much money have you been saving for the holidays ….. a year?
7) I have been waiting for you ….. 2 o’clock. I have something urgent to tell
you. Where have you been spending ..... the last three hours?
8) She has been taking guitar lessons ..... a year. She is very patient and hardworking.
9) Last year our team didn’t win many games, but this year we have been
playing without losing any game ..... June.
10) Who has broken the window? – Jack has. He has been playing football with
his friends .... morning.
1.7. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of either the Present Perfect
Continuous or Present Perfect.
1) We (to walk) along a forest road for some hours, but (not to reach) the lake
2) She (to talk) over the phone for an hour. What she (to discuss) all this time?
3) She (to lie) on the sofa for more than 2 hours already. Anything (to
4) He (to work) in the garden for a week. He (to plant) 8 trees and a lot of
5) He (to stand) near that shop since I returned home an hour ago. Whom he
(to wait for) for such a long time?
6) He (to knock) at the door for half an hour already, but nobody (to open) it.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
7) It (to rain) cats and dogs since I began to work in Nigeria. The weather (to
be) very bad lately.
8) They (to sit) by the window for an hour or so. They (to notice) anything
9) She (to study) at the University for 2 years.
10) I (to try) to open this door since I returned home from work, but I (not to
succeed) yet.
Oral Activity
You've arranged to go to the cinema with an English-speaking friend.
Complete the conversation. Notice how your friend replies in this example and
change the numbered verbs in the same way:
You look hot.
Friend: I (to run).
I've been running.
Friend: Am I late?
I (to wait) for you for the last half an hour.
Friend: You are wet through.
Yes, it (to rain).
Friend: You look tired.
I (not to sleep/well).
Friend: Why's that?
I (to worry) about my exams.
Friend: Well, tonight you can forget about them. It's funny, but in this light
your face looks green.
I (to paint) the bedroom ceiling.
Friend: But apart from the green spots, your face has a really funny colour.
Are you feeling all right?
Actually, I (to feel) dreadful all day long.
Friend: If you are feeling so awful, why don't you go home?
I (to look forward to) this film for a month.
Friend: That's a pity.
Friend: While we (to talk) they'd sold all the tickets.
1.8. Translate into English. Use the Present Perfect Continuous where
1) Мы все ждем его уже целый час.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
2) Последнее время очень холодно. А сегодня? – Идет дождь с утра.
3) Что вы делаете тут все утро?
4) Бабушка болеет уже больше месяца.
5) Они играют в теннис с тех пор, как пришли из школы.
6) Она путешествует по Европе уже более 2 недель.
7) Они знакомы уже более 10 лет.
8) Эта семья живет здесь с тех пор, как они купили этот дом.
9) Она ждет этого письма с тех пор, как вернулась.
10) Они уже поужинали? – Нет. Они ужинают уже 2 часа.
1.9. Translate into English. Use either the Present Perfect Continuous or
Present Perfect.
1) Как долго ты пытаешься до него дозвониться? – С 10 часов, но еще не
2) Я пытаюсь найти тебя целое утро. Где ты был? Чем ты занимался?
3) Она сидит и ждет здесь кого-то с самого утра.
4) Они пытаются найти решение этой проблемы с тех пор, как я
познакомился с ними.
5) С какого времени он учит немецкий? – С тех пор, как поступил в
6) Она выглядит усталой, так как работает без перерыва с самого утра. –
Но она еще не закончила перевод.
7) Они ремонтируют дорогу всю неделю, но еще не закончили ремонт.
8) Он живет в Лондоне всю свою жизнь, и никогда не уезжал оттуда.
9) Дэвид, я ищу тебя уже 2 часа. Что ты делал с тех пор, как я позвонила
тебе? Ты забыл о своем обещании?
10) Вы выглядите обеспокоенным. Что-нибудь случилось? – Я бежал всю
1) О чем ты мечтаешь? Телефон звонит целую минуту, а ты его не
2) Посмотри, он опять стоит под нашими окнами. По-моему, он стоит там
со вчерашнего вечера.
3) Ты уже целый час выбираешь, что надеть. Тебя ждут друзья.
4) С тех пор, как они купили новый дом за городом, они живут там.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
5) Она занимается физикой вот уже более 2 лет с тех пор, как закончила
6) Вот уже более 2 месяцев я живу в общежитии с любителем шахмат.
Мне кажется, мы сыграли более 100 партий.
7) Что ты ищешь? – С самого обеда я ищу здесь свои ключи. Я потеряла
их по дороге на работу.
8) Мы ждем ее уже целый час. Я думаю, она забыла о встрече.
9) Последнее время он очень занят. Вот уже 2 месяца он работает над
новым проектом.
10) Уже долгое время я рассматриваю твои фотографии. Мне они очень
нравятся, но ни на одной из них я не нашла тебя.
1) Вы давно ждете автобус? – Я жду уже минут 20, но ни один автобус
еще не появился.
2) Интересно, что сейчас делает Анна? – Она просматривает почту. –
Сколько времени она уже этим занимается? – По-моему, с 9 часов. Она
уже прочитала все телеграммы и сейчас просматривает письма.
3) Я почти два часа ищу свой учебник, а вы мне сейчас звоните и
говорите, что обнаружили его в своем портфеле.
4) Моя жена сейчас на работе. С 9 утра она печатает какие-то важные
5) Когда отправляется твой поезд? Я уже упаковала твои вещи.
Интересно, а билет ты купил?
6) Всю эту неделю он готовится к экзамену по английскому языку. Мы не
выделись с тех пор, как он сдал первый экзамен.
7) Он работает в Индии уже 2 недели. Это деловая поездка в страну,
которую он всегда мечтал посетить.
8) Анна уже 2 года живет в Японии и учит японский. Она была несколько
раз в Франции, поэтому хорошо говорит по-французски. Но у нее еще
не было возможности посетить Италию.
9) Она работает в больнице уже 5 лет с тех пор, как закончила институт,
и она не собирается менять свою работу.
10) Последнее время у него много работы. Вот уже полгода, с тех пор как
он стал Генеральным директором, он возвращается домой поздно, а
уходит рано.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Past Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary to be in the
Past Perfect + the Present Participle. It is therefore the same for all
persons: I had been working for two hours when my friends came to see us.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to be in the Past
Perfect + the Present Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to be in the Past
Perfect and the subject + the Present Participle.
I had been working
(= I'd been working)
You had been working
He/she/it had been
We had been working
They had been working
at school
for five
Had I been working
Had you been working
Had he/she/it been
Had we been working
Had they been working
I had not been working
(= I hadn't been working)
You had not been working
He/she/it had not been
We had not been working
They had not been working
for five
Negative Interrogative
at school
for five
Had I not been working
(= Hadn't I been working)
Had you not been working
Had he/she/it not been
Had we not been working
Had they not been working
for five
2. U s a g e
The Past Perfect Continuous is used to indicate an action which
began before a definite moment of the past time and continued up to
that past moment.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
The Past Perfect Continuous is used to denote:
1) an action which began in the past and continued for a period of
time up to another action in the past: When I came home, my mother
had been cooking dinner for more than two hours.
2) an action which began in the past and was completed before
another past action, but the effect was still apparent: When the
boys came into the house, one had a black eye. They had been fighting.
The following time expressions can be used with the Past Perfect
Continuous – for, since: I had been translating the article for an hour
since morning before you came.
2.1. Explain the use of the Past Perfect Continuous forms. Translate into
1) They had been living in this city for 3 years when their son came back to the
2) We felt tired when we came home because we had been walking in the rain
for a long time.
3) It had been raining for 2 hours when we left home.
4) Angela rose from the arm-chair in which she had been sitting since
5) David saw that Margie had been weeping, but didn’t say anything.
6) I thought that he had come to talk about the problem which we had been
already discussing for hours.
7) She had been learning French for 5 years before she could speak fluently.
8) How long had you been waiting before he came?
9) When the test was over, the students found out that they had been writing it
for 2 hours.
10) Mark tried to stop his friend who had been talking for the last 10 minutes.
2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) Ben felt frustrated, because he had been trying to open his door for an hour.
2) When Betty came home from the beach, her eyes were red, because she had
been lying in the sun too much.
3) When he came into the room, no one was smoking, but somebody had been
smoking in this room.
4) When the test was over, the students looked tired, because they had been
writing it for 4 hours.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
5) When he got up from the table, he had been reading up for an hour for the
6) When Jane opened her eyes, she saw snow everywhere. It had been snowing
the whole night.
7) Jim came home with dirty hands, because he had been working in the
garden since morning.
8) They had been watching TV for half an hour when their parents came.
9) The orchestra had been playing for 10 minutes when a man ran into the hall.
10) Mother had been cooking dinner for 10 minutes when Hazel came to help
2.3. Use the Past Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitive in brackets.
1) He looked at her. He knew she (to cry).
2) She told him about her plan, which she (to think of) the whole morning.
3) Molly closed the book which she (to read) and looked at her friends.
4) Paul (to think) for some time before he dared to answer.
5) How long Tony (to read) when this terrible accident happened?
6) When the lesson was over, the teacher asked the students to hand in the tests
they (to write) since its beginning.
7) How long they (to wait) for a taxi before it came?
8) How long this man (to stand) there and (to watch) you before you noticed
9) “What are you thinking of?” he asked after he (to look at) her a few
seconds. But she didn’t answer.
10) Who (to sit) here before I came?
2.4. Join the following sentences. Use the Past Perfect Continuous in the
main clause according to the model:
Model: They began watching TV. After half an hour their parents came.
They had been watching TV for half an hour when their parents came.
1) We had arranged to meet in the cafe. I came and began waiting. After 15
minutes I realized that I had come to the wrong cafe.
2) Mr. and Mrs. Thompson went to live to Sussex. Six months later their son
joined them.
3) We started to play football at about 3. Somewhere about half past 3 it
began to rain.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
4) Bernard couldn’t calm the baby down. It was crying. After 15 minutes his
wife came.
5) Brian was trying to fix his car. After several hours he gave up the idea.
6) Faith sat down and began to write her report. After half an hour her sister
called her.
7) She worked for this company. After 25 years she retired.
8) The family began watching an interesting film. After half an hour the TV
broke down.
9) We sat down to dinner. After 5 minutes the door-bell rang.
10) Margo went to the park. After 10 minutes she realised that she had
forgotten to close the door.
2.5. Express the same idea. Use the Past Perfect Continuous according to the
Model: We knew he had begun to play hockey years before and he was still
playing it.
We knew he had been playing hockey for years.
1) Marsha said that she had started jogging 2 months before and she enjoyed
jogging a lot.
2) Tom looked tired when I came to see him at 5. He had started working early
in the morning and was still working.
3) When Jack telephoned Marion, she was still busy with cleaning the flat
though she had begun cleaning it 3 hours before.
4) Ann’s mother said that her daughter had started looking for a job 6 months
before and she was still looking for it.
5) The assistant said that Roger had begun to copy the report half and hour
before and was still copying it.
6) Carol remarked that she had started to explore the problem when she was a
student and she was still interested in it.
7) The boss got angry because his secretary had begun to type a letter an hour
before and she was still doing it.
8) We learnt that Jeremy had begun working as a librarian 3 years before and
he was still working there.
9) She knew that John and his brothers had started training to climb the
mountains 6 months before and they were still training.
10) Everybody knew that they had started building a house and they were still
doing it.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
2.6. Answer these questions. Give your reasons according to the model.
Model: How long had Kate been waiting when the bus came?
As far as I know, Kate was late for work that day. So she had been
waiting for the bus too long.
1) How long had Jack been talking over the phone when he realized that it was
a wrong number?
2) What had they been discussing for a few minutes before they started off?
3) How long had she been working for this company before she gave up this
4) What had Fred been living on for 3 months before his uncle left him
5) How long had your father been working for the previous 5 years before he
reached a middle-management position?
2.7. Ask questions about the starting point of the actions according to the
Model: Roger began watching a football match at 7 p.m. When Jack phoned
him, Roger was still watching it.
Since when had he been watching a football match, I wonder?
1) I promised Mary to come at 5. When I arrived, Mary was waiting for me but
she was very annoyed as I was 30 minutes late.
2) They started boating at 10 a.m. When their friends came up to the beach 2
hours later, they were getting ashore.
3) They went to live in the south of France in 1983. When Phil visited the
country 10 years later, they were still living there.
4) On the 1st of January my friend decided to change his way of living and
started working out a plan what and how to change. When a fortnight later I
visited him, he was still busy with working the plan out.
5) Last Monday the German team started climbing up the mountains. When on
Thursday I flew to Nepal, it was still climbing up.
2.8. Translate into English. Use the Past Perfect Continuous.
1) В своем последнем письме подруга написала, что с сентября она
занимается теннисом.
2) Том подумал, как тяжело бросить курить, так как он сам курил уже 15
3) Вчера Джон вернулся домой очень усталый, так как он работал весь
день без отдыха.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
4) Сколько лет твой друг работал в этой фирме до того, как он сменил
5) Когда ты меня вчера встретил, я разговаривал со своим приятелем. Мы
говорили уже минут 15, когда ты нас увидел.
6) Он жил в Лондоне 10 лет до того, как он решил переехать в Рим.
7) Она курила лет 5 до того, как решила оставить эту привычку.
8) Она пыталась перевести статью уже около часа, прежде чем пришла
Кейт и помогла ей.
9) Она размышляла о происшествии целый час, а когда наступило время
давать свидетельские показания, она не знала, что сказать.
10) После того, как Тони отдохнул несколько часов, он позвонил Майклу.
2.9. Translate into English. Be sure to use either the Past Indefinite or Past
Continuous, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous.
1) Дорога была пустой. Он ехал уже полчаса, когда увидел тот дом, о
котором ему говорила Лиз.
2) Пит был очень недоволен. Он занимался этим делом с января,
поговорил со многими людей, но так и не продвинулся в его
3) Джоан рассматривала альбом с фотографиями. Она рассматривала их
уже около часа, когда сестра напомнила ей, что пора уходить.
4) После того, как Кэрол проработала в саду несколько минут, она
задремала. Она спала уже час или полтора, когда пришел ее брат.
5) Брайан читал письмо. Он читал его уже целых 15 минут, но почерк
был очень неразборчивый, и читать его было очень тяжело.
6) Когда она вошла в дом, то поняла, что в нем побывали взломщики, так
как сейф, в котором она хранила свои драгоценности, был открыт.
7) Люди, с которыми она работала, знали о том, что она несколько лет
жила в Германии.
8) Она видела по выражению его лица, что что-то случилось.
9) Когда он вернулся, мы постарались сделать вид, что мы говорили не о
10) Я знал имена всех в деревне. Я жил там всю жизнь.
1) Они сказали нам, что стояли под дождем целый час в ожидании
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
2) Я вернулся домой в 5 часов вечера. Моя жена уже 2 часа укладывала
вещи, мы вызвали такси по телефону и вскоре были в аэропорту.
3) Когда я проснулся, уже стемнело. Я посмотрел на часы, я спал 3 часа.
4) Когда Джейн проснулась, она подошла к окну. Земля была покрыта
снегом. Снег шел всю ночь.
5) В течение многих лет мои родственники жили за городом, а в прошлом
году переехали к нам в город.
6) Когда вы вошли в зал, я как раз рассказывала Джулии, что наши
друзья уже 2 недели прекрасно проводят отпуск на юге.
7) Вся семья работала в саду. Только Анна осталась дома и отдыхала в
гостиной с самого утра.
8) До того, как Анна села в машину и поехала домой, она некоторое
время внимательно изучала папку с документами.
9) Когда занятие закончилось, преподаватель попросил студентов сдать
ему все работы, которые студенты писали 3 часа.
10) Когда мы вернулись с юга, наши родственники жили в нашем доме
уже несколько месяцев.
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Future Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary to be in
the Future Perfect + the Present Participle: I will have been working
for two hours when my friends come to see me.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to be in the Future
Perfect + the Present Participle.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to be in the Future
Perfect and the subject + the Present Participle.
I shall have been
(= I'll have been
You will have been
at school
for five
years by
the time
I shall not have been
(= I shan't have been
You will not have been
at school
for five
years by
the time
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
He/she/it will have
been working
We shall have been
They will have been
Shall I have been
Will you have been
Will he/she/it have been
Shall we have been
Will they have been
He/she/it will not have
been working
We shall not have been
They will not have been
Negative Interrogative
at school
for five
years by
the time
Shall I not have been
(= Shan't I have been
Will you not have been
Will he/she/it not have
been working
Shall we not have been
Will they not have been
at school
for five
years by
the time
2. U s a g e
The Future Perfect Continuous is used to indicate an action which will
begin before a definite moment of the future time and will continue up to
this moment.
The Future Perfect Continuous is used to denote a continuous
action which will begin before a certain moment in the future and
which will have been in progress for some time in the future
including this certain moment. This certain moment in the future is
usually indicated with the preposition by: You will have been discussing the
plan for half an hour by the time I get there.
The following time expressions can be used with the Future Perfect
Continuous – for, since: He will have been working at the plant for 20
years since his graduation from the University by the 1st of May.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
3.1. Explain the use of the Future Perfect Continuous forms. Translate into
1) We will have been working for 5 hours already when we come and join
2) By the first of June he will have been working here for 14 years.
3) They will have been trying to solve this problem for 2 years by 2009.
4) She will have been writing an essay since 8 when her friends come.
5) The students will have been answering the whole hour already by 12.
6) She’ll have been talking for 2 hours already by 4.
7) Someone will have been playing the piano for 3 hours by midnight.
8) He will have been studying English for 10 months by the time he goes back
to Syria in October.
9) They’ll have been sitting here quite a while by the time we return.
10) He is never going to stop talking. In 15 minutes we’ll have been listening to
his lecture for 3 hours!
3.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms.
1) This is a long trip! By the time we get to NY, we’ll have been riding on this
bus for over 15 hours.
2) I have been sitting at this desk for an hour. By 11.00 I’ll have been sitting
here for 2 hours.
3) By the end of next year I’ll have been working for him for 40 years.
4) I’ll go to bed at 10 p.m. He’ll get home at midnight. I’ll have been sleeping
for 2 hours by the time he gets home.
5) By the time they reach the finish line, they’ll have been running steadily
for more than 2 hours.
6) I’ll have been reading this book for 2 hours by the time you come back.
7) My aunt’ll have been working at this plant for 10 years by the end of
8) By the time we get to the party, they’ll have been eating for 2 hours.
9) By the 3rd of January they’ll have been passing their exams for 2 weeks.
10) In 10 minutes the phone’ll have been ringing for 20 minutes already.
3.3. Open the brackets. Use the Future Perfect Continuous.
1) He (to write) a letter for 3 hours when you come.
2) He (to learn) French for 6 years already when he enters the college.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
She (to watch) this film for an hour already when you ring her up.
You (to have) dinner for half an hour tomorrow when he calls for us.
By July he (to live) here for 5 years.
When you enter the University, you (to study) languages for more than 10
7) The painter (to work) on this landscape for almost a year by Christmas.
8) They (to quarrel) for more than an hour when the police come.
9) The students (to read) up for their exams for more than 3 hours already by
the time we come to the library and join them.
10) They (to travel) for almost a year by Christmas, but they don’t want to
3.4. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of the Future Perfect Continuous.
1) They ..... this film for 5 hours by the time we come.
2) My parents ..... in the USA for 20 years by Christmas.
3) She ..... the cleaning for half an hour by 5.
4) John ..... to the radio for almost an hour when we come to visit him.
5) By the time we return home, the children ..... football for 2 hours.
6) They ..... me silly questions for an hour by 12.
7) The students ..... to the teacher with interest for half an hour by the time the
lesson comes to an end.
8) He ..... at the door for 20 minutes by the time they open it to him.
9) The doctors ..... him for a month by the time he recovers.
10) She ..... them English at school for 40 years by the time she retires.
3.5. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Perfect, Future Indefinite or
Future Perfect Continuous.
1) He (to sleep) for an hour when you (to come) back tonight.
2) I think, by the time I come, they (to go) away. But if they don’t we (to go)
to the restaurant.
3) It is snowing heavily. Have you listened to the weather forecast for
tomorrow? – I hope it (to stop) snowing by tomorrow morning.
4) My sister (to learn) the results of her exam on economy in 3 days.
5) Let’s meet at the station at 5. – OK. By that time I (to finish) my work.
6) She (to have lunch) for half an hour by the time we arrive.
7) They are going to buy a car. By the end of next month they (to save) money
for it.
8) The workers say that they (to build up) a district by 2007.
9) By 7.00 p.m. they (to play) cricket for 8 hours.
10) By the end of next month I (to live) in London for exactly 3 years.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
3.6. Translate into English. Mind the use of tenses.
1) В будущем году исполнится 10 лет, как он живет в Лондоне.
2) Завтра будет 2 недели, как я лежу на берегу моря.
3) К 1 сентября Анна будет искать работу уже в течение 6 месяцев.
4) К вечеру он будет играть в теннис в течение 5 часов подряд.
5) Когда мы вернемся в Москву, он будет работать в этой фирме уже 10
6) К понедельнику я буду сдавать экзамены уже 2 недели.
7) К четвергу они будут работать над новым проектом уже 3 недели.
8) Мои друзья будут смотреть телевизор почти полдня, когда я вернусь
9) К тому времени, когда я приеду, она проведет с вами несколько дней.
10) Она будет готовить обед для нас в течение часа, когда мы, наконец,
доберемся домой.
1) Вы будете обсуждать этот вопрос уже полчаса к тому времени, когда я
приду сюда?
2) Сильный снег будет идти уже очень долго, и занесет уже все дороги,
когда мы выйдем из дома.
3) Я будут искать все свои документы около часа, когда мне позвонит
мой друг и скажет, что обнаружил их в своем портфеле.
4) В июне будет уже полгода, как она учит немецкий язык.
5) К тому времени, когда рабочие снесут все старые дома в этом районе,
они будут заниматься строительством новых домов уже 2 года.
6) Поезд будет направляться в Москву уже часа 3, когда мы вернемся
домой и сядем ужинать.
7) К тому времени, когда директор вернется из командировки, Анна
будет просматривать утреннюю почту несколько часов.
8) К тому времени, когда вы вернетесь из Милана, ваши друзья уже
откроют новое предприятие.
9) Основные вопросы собрания будут обсуждаться несколько часов,
когда мы доберемся до предприятия.
10) Сейчас у меня каникулы. Я работаю продавцом. К окончанию лета я
буду работать в магазине около двух месяцев.
1) Том понимает, как тяжело бросить курить, так как он сам к концу года
будет курить уже лет 10.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
2) Когда Боб прилетит в Непал, его команда уже целую неделю будет
подниматься по западному склону Эвереста.
3) Завтра к концу дня Ричард он будет работать весь день без отдыха.
4) К тому времени, как мой отец уйдет в отставку, он будет работать
советником много лет.
5) К тому времени, как он, наконец, появится в приемной, мы будем
ждать его уже полчаса.
6) Я думаю, что Сэма не сократят, так как к моменту сокращения он
будет повышать свой профессиональный уровень в течение трех
7) К тому времени, как мы получим новое задание, мы будем усердно
трудиться над старым уже несколько месяцев.
8) К зиме наши друзья будут жить в этом городе уже год.
9) К маю, когда моя сестра поедет на конференцию в Германию, она
будет серьезно заниматься химией уже более 5 лет.
10) К моменту окончания школы он будет учить французский уже 2 года.
1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
1) They (1) (to discuss) this matter for 2 hours already when the teacher
suddenly entered the classroom.
2) She (2) (to read) this book for 3 days and (3) (to read) 300 pages already.
3) She (4) (to learn) French since she (5) (to be) 4. Her parents (6) (to talk)
French to her since she (7) (to be) born.
4) Barry (8) (to do) this room since morning and he (9) (not to finish) it yet.
5) Since when you (10) (to sit) here? How long you (11) (to wait)?
6) By noon we (12) (to watch) this film for an hour when our friends phone us.
7) He (13) (to study) English for 2 years before he came to work here.
8) His friend (14) (to wait) here for half an hour before his friends called him.
9) He (15) (to solve) this puzzle at last! He (16) (to solve) it since breakfast.
10) They (17) (to work) in the garden for some time when we come to help
11) By the beginning of the year she (18) (to deal) with this affair for 3 months
12) By next week my brother (19) (to study) English for a year.
13) Don't tell me any more lies. I (20) (to listen to) you too long!
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
14) I hear Jerry's footsteps. I'm going away. I don't want him to see I (21) (to
cry) for some hours.
15) They (22) (to speak on) that topic for half an hour when the professor came.
16) My friends (23) (to play) chess for an hour when I came to visit them.
17) I (24) (to look for) my notebook the whole morning before I finally
discovered it under the newspaper.
18) She (25) (to wait for) us there for a long time when she decided to go home.
19) I (26) (to rain) for ages before we left home.
20) By midday John (27) (to work) at the project for 2 hours.
21) In a month Kate (28) (to live) in her friends' house for 2 weeks.
22) We (29) (to show) the new engineer round the factory for 3 hours before
other engineers joined us.
23) He (30) (to prepare) for the conference the whole week by the time we visit
24) My friend (31) (to serve) in the army for 10 years before he went to work at
the factory.
25) In an hour they (32) (to attend) the lecture for 4 hours.
26) By the end of the year Tom and Mike (33) (to live) in Moscow for 2 years.
27) She (34) (to walk) in the park since morning. It is time to have dinner, but
she (35) (not to come).
28) In 2 hours she (36) (to fly) to Italy for 3 hours.
29) He (37) (to drive) to London for 6 hours. How many miles he (38) (to
cover) by now?
30) I (39) (not to be) through with this test yet. – Not through! How long you
(40) (to write) it? – For an hour.
31) We (41) (to play) football for 2 hours by the time they join us.
32) By yesterday my friends (42) (to write) 5 letters. They (43) (to write) them
for 2 days.
33) In 3 hours we (44) (to go) to Miami for 5 hours.
34) How long you (45) (to prepare) for the exam? – I (46) (to prepare) for it for
a week.
35) She (47) (to work) at school for 5 years before she gave it up and decided to
look for another job.
1) Shop
Could you give me some proof of your identity, madam?
But I (48) (to shop) here for 15 years!
I know, madam, but apparently the company (49) (to lose) a lot of
money lately and (50) (to make) new regulations which we have
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
been told to apply to all customers no matter how long we (51) (to
know) them.
2) Mother:
I (52) (to intend) to call you all the week, but your father (53) (to
have) such a terrible cold!
Peter (54) (to have) a cold, as well, and he (55) (to feel) pretty
awful with it.
... (56) (to try) giving him hot lemon drinks with honey?
The doctor (57) (to prescribe) him some tablets and cough
medicine. He (58) (to tell) Peter to stay indoors for a few days;
the doctor hopes that he (59) (to recover) by the 1st of May.
Hmm! Tablets and medicine! No good! Nothing from the doctor
(60) (to do) ever your father any good! I (61) (to wrap) his head
up in hot damp towels all the week! He (62) (to have) vapour rubs
and I (63) (to feed) him on thick porridge and spinach! Anyway,
in view of Peter's cold, I (64) (to decide) just to come and visit
you for the weekend! Tell Peter I'll have him cured in no time!
3) Mr Brown: Do come in, Mr Ben. I am sorry to have kept you waiting, but I
was held up. You (65) (to wait) long?
Mr Ben:
Not too long, and I (66) (to look) through the material which your
secretary handed me.
Mr Brown: Oh, that's OK then. And the secretary already (67) (to show) you
around our department?
Mr Ben:
No, not yet.
Mr Brown: Well, that can be arranged afterwards. Do sit down. Now tell me,
how long you (68) (to work) for your present firm?
Mr Ben:
Oh, let's see, almost 5 years now.
Mr Brown: And you ever (69) (to work) for television before?
Mr Ben:
Not, not directly.
Mr Brown: But I'm right in thinking that you (70) (to do) similar work before.
Mr Ben:
Yes, you'll find the details in my application.
Mr Brown: Oh, yes, of course. And how long you (71) (to work) as a graphic
designer altogether?
Mr Ben:
For about 10 years.
Mr Brown: Fine! So you (72) (to have) plenty of experience in the field
already. Now tell me, you ever (73) (to travel) abroad for your
present firm?
Mr Ben:
Yes, frequently, but mainly inside Europe.
Mr Brown: You ever (74) (to visit) America to study advertising techniques
over there?
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
Mr Ben:
Mr Brown:
Mr Ben:
Mr Brown:
No, not yet.
Perhaps you (75) (to bring along) some speciments of your work?
Yes, here are some ideas from the project (76) (to work on) for
the past 6 months.
Excellent! Well, we (77) (to have) a long chat and you (78) (to
give) me a full picture of your experience and ability. You'll be
hearing from us within a week or so.
Dear Pierre,
I am glad that you are my new pen-friend. Let me tell you something
about myself and my hobbies!
I am 12 years old and I (79) (to attend) our local comprehensive school
for almost 2 years. I don't like school too much! I prefer riding my bicycle and
playing football. I (80) (to ride) a bicycle since I was 7 and (81) (to play)
football for the school team since last January. It is a great fun! But I (82) (not
to play) with the team for the last weeks, because the weather's been too wet. I
haven't got any favourite school subjects – apart from sports. I (83) (to learn)
French at school for a year now, but I don't really enjoy it. I have some
interesting hobbies. I often go to football matches and for 2 years now I (84) (to
build) a model railway with my father.
I also have a favourite uncle in France. He (85) (to work) in Paris since
the summer before last. He often writes to us, but I (86) (not to write) to him
since his birthday.
I (87) (to lie) in bed ill for over a week now! I (88) (to have) a bad cold
and a high temperature since last Saturday, so I haven't been able to go to
school for a week! Isn't that a great pity? I (89) (not to do) my homework for
over a week, either! Please write to me soon!
With best wishes,
Sue Dale is not happy about the slow progress that the workmen are
making with the repairs to the old house. Peter is trying to cheer her up.
The repairs are taking so much time and are costing so much money!
Not even half of the work has been completed! When the workmen
(90) (to finish) putting the house right?
Don't worry, dear. One can't rush these things. The builder is
definitely coming this morning at 9.30, so by lunch-time he (91) (to
finish) replastering the bedroom walls.
Well, let's hope he really does turn up at 9.30! And what is about the
plumber? He still (92) (not to make) a start on the installations in the
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
Well, he promises that he will come tomorrow morning, and his work
will take him about a week, so by this time next week he (93) (to
install) the new bath and shower.
And I am not at all happy with the electrician! He (94) (to work) on
the rewiring now for 10 days! His bill will be enormous, but
whenever I see him, he always (95) (to have) a tea-break.
Ten days! Yes, that is rather a long time, I suppose. But you'll see, in
some days all the rewiring will be completed.
At least the holes in the roof are almost repaired! The men (96) (to
finish) replacing the slates by 5 o'clock this afternoon at least, as they
told me yesterday!
Yes, it will be nice not to have the rain coming through the bedrooms'
won't it?
And the joiner still (97) (not to show up)! When did he say he would
He can't come until most of the other work has been done. By this
time next week he (98) (to make) a start, just you wait and see!
You really are a comfort, Peter! Just imagine, if all goes well, by
Christmas we (99) (to live) in the house for almost 2 months!
... or, if all doesn't go well and we can't move into the house, we
(100) (to stay) for almost 2 months in our new tent!
2. Translate into English.
1) Он учил японский язык 5 лет до того, как поехал в Японию.
2) К приезду гостей она сидела в саду в течении часа и ждала кого-то.
3) Вы слышали новости? Петр работает в Англии уже 2 месяца.
4) Он выглядел очень уставшим. Уже 3 часа он писал статью.
5) Мне было интересно, сколько времени он подслушивал и что он успел
6) Джон был очень взволнован, так как с самого вечера пытался найти
своего друга.
7) Мы были рады, что ваши друзья хорошо ухаживали за вами все это
8) Они спорили уже минут 20, когда учитель вернулся в класс.
9) Они работают за городом уже несколько дней и забыли о своем
обещании позвонить нам.
10) Джон работает в банке уже 6 лет с тех пор, как закончил институт.
11) Они обсуждают этот вопрос с тех пор, как директор вернулся из
12) Я не встречал его последнее время.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
13) Я опоздал на поезд и жду следующего уже целый час.
14) Он курит в течение 4 лет. Он давно мечтает покончить с этой вредной
привычкой. – А я последний раз курил 20 лет назад. И с тех пор я не
выкурил ни одной сигареты.
15) Дождь идет со вчерашнего дня, с тех пор, как мы встретили их в
16) Рабочие ремонтируют дорогу уже 3 дня? – Нет, они ремонтируют ее с
прошлого понедельника.
17) Он был очень рад, что встретил друга, которого ждал в своей
библиотеке с 9 утра.
18) К тому времени, как снег прекратился, мы находились в доме
несколько часов.
19) Он звонил своим друзьям целый день, но никто так и не ответил ему.
20) К моменту нашего возвращения с работы Мария будет убирать и
готовить уже долгое время.
21) К тому времени, как друзья вернутся в Минск, мы будем отдыхать уже
22) Через неделю исполнится месяц, как мы отдыхаем в Сочи.
23) К вечеру Майкл будет работать в отделе маркетинга уже 8 часов. Это
его первый рабочий день здесь.
24) В выходные будет полгода, как мы путешествуем по Европе.
25) К нашему приезду они будут жить в этом доме уже два месяца.
26) Мы знали, что он жил в городе всего 2 месяца.
27) К ноябрю она будет работать в фирме уже несколько месяцев.
28) Когда мы приехали в город, эта семья жила там уже с весны.
29) Во вторник будет уже неделя, как они строят этот дом.
30) Он пишет сочинение уже час. Он еще не написал его.
31) Суд приговорил преступников к различным срокам наказания.
32) Следствие
квалифицированно: они изъяли все необходимые документы и
допросили нужных свидетелей.
33) Недавно убийца напал на нескольких человек, пытался скрыться, но
сотрудники милиции задержали его.
34) После того, как
полицейские тщательно осмотрели место
происшествия, они допросили свидетелей.
35) Полицейские не раз сталкивались со случаями групповых
преступлений с участием несовершеннолетних.
36) Суд только что постановил, что преступник действовал не один, ему
помогали сообщники. Полиция уже обнаружила и опознала
украденные драгоценности.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
37) К
следующему году количество преступлений, совершенных
несовершеннолетними правонарушителями, уменьшится в несколько
38) После того, как рабочие обнаружили вещественные доказательства,
они сообщили об этом в милицию, а на место происшествия выехала
следственно-оперативная группа.
39) За год эти несовершеннолетние правонарушители совершили четыре
умышленных убийства, шесть случаев злостного хулиганства с
нанесением телесных повреждений.
40) Суд приговорил осужденного к смертной казни.
41) Этот бизнесмен недавно взял кредит под низкий процент и вернет его к
следующему году.
42) После того, как рабочие повредили груз при транспортировке, его
владелец предоставил в компанию необходимые документы для
возмещения убытков.
43) Прежде чем покупатель купил товар, он получил гарантию его
высокого качества.
44) Не успел управляющий по сбыту позвонить в офис, как получил
о том, что генеральный директор срочно отбыл в
45) Компания уже застраховала очередную поставку "от всех рисков".
Расходы по страхованию согласился нести поставщик.
46) После того, как фирма пережила период финансового краха и жесткой
экономии, она вновь завоевала доверие акционеров.
47) За первую половину декабря цены на потребительские товары выросли
на 2%. К июню, по данным Министерства статистики и анализа,
товары и услуги подорожают на треть.
48) Не успела компания объявить конкурс на должность менеджера по
сбыту, как она получила огромное количество писем от желающих
принять в нем участие.
49) Директор компании был потрясен, когда узнал, что для того, чтобы
реализовать проект, к июлю компания увеличит производственную
мощность на 25%.
50) После того, как Кейт проработала в компании в должности секретаря
пять лет, она приобрела необходимый опыт и заняла одну из ключевых
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
1. Choose the correct tense form.
1) He said he ..... in New York for 5 years.
A) had been living
C) has been living
B) will have lived
D) was living
2) He ..... spaghetti for an hour by the time we get hungry.
A) will cook
C) will has cooked
B) will have been cooking
D) has been cooking
3) I ..... on the beach the whole week by the time my friends come.
A) will lie
C) will have been lying
B) will be lying
D) have been lying
4) The students ..... the text since the lesson began.
A) have been translating
C) translate
B) are translating
D) have been translated
5) You ..... for almost an hour without stopping.
A) talked
C) is talking
B) have been talking
D) have being talking
6) The professor ..... the material for an hour before he gave it to the class.
A) explained
C) has been explaining
B) had been explaining
D) was explaining
7) Their son ..... with his sisters since breakfast.
A) has been fighting
C) have been fighting
B) is fighting
D) fought
8) She ..... TV for some hours by the time her friends come to visit her.
A) will watch
C) watch
B) will be watching
D) will have been watching
9) She looks fit and tanned. She ..... outdoors a lot recently.
A) has been working
C) is working
B) has being working
D) had been working
10) The students ..... their papers for 2 hours before they went home.
A) had been correcting
C) corrected
B) were correcting
D) had being correcting
11) By the end of the year they ..... an exhibition in Paris for a month.
A) will open
C) will have been opening
B) will be opening
D) open
12) In a month we ..... Estonia for a fortnight.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
A) will visit
C) are visiting
B) will be visiting
D) will have been visiting
13) Their cat ..... to catch a mouse since breakfast.
A) is trying
C) has being trying
B) has been trying
D) will have been trying
14) John ..... in an old house for 20 years before he sold it.
A) was living
C) has being living
B) had been living
D) lived
15) George ..... at the University for 45 years before he retired.
A) had been working
C) has been working
B) will have been working
D) worked
16) Ed ..... with his dog in the park since morning.
A) is playing
C) has being playing
B) has been playing
D) played
17) After Henry ..... in Puerto Rico for some time, he went to St. Thomas.
A) had been staying
C) was staying
B) has been staying
D) will have been staying
18) They ..... to a new flat for a week by tomorrow.
A) will have moved
C) will have been moving
B) are moving
D) move
19) By tomorrow it ..... since Friday.
A) will snow
C) will have been snowing
B) will be snowing
D) will have snowed
20) The policeman ..... the suspect his rights for about 20 minutes before he
arrested him.
A) had been reading
C) has been reading
B) read
D) was reading
21) I ..... food here since I came to this town.
A) have been buying
C) buy
B) will have been buying
D) bought
22) The doctor ..... the patient for an hour before he prescribed the medication.
A) has been examining
C) had been examining
B) had being examining
D) was examining
23) In 15 minutes they ..... the house since morning.
A) will clean
C) will have been cleaning
B) will be cleaning
D) clean
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
24) Mary ..... her clothes for an hour before she began to study.
A) had been washing
C) has been washing
B)was washing
D) will have been washing
25) They ..... for a new house for the last few months.
A) have been looking
C) has been looking
B) are looking
D) look
26) In 15 minutes they ..... the bike for exactly 2 hours.
A) will be repairing
C) will have repaired
B) will repair
D) will have been repairing
27) The tourists ..... for the guide since 4 o’clock.
A) have been waiting
C) has been waiting
B) are waiting
D) waited
28) By 11.00 he ..... his exam on math for 2 hours!
A) will take
C) will have been taking
B) have been taking
D) will have taken
29) The committee ..... the consequences for some time before they voted on
the proposal.
A) had been considering
C) has being considering
B) had being considered
D) was considering
30) Who ..... with the remote control? It won’t work!
A) have been playing
C) played
B) has been playing
D) is playing
31) Customers ..... up all the morning complaining about getting incorrect bills.
A) have been ringing
C) will have been ringing
B) had been ringing
D) are ringing
32) Mary ..... in Japan for 2 years. She is working there and likes it a lot.
A) had been staying
C) is staying
B) has been staying
D) stays
33) By July she ..... lectures at the Institute for 5 years.
A) will have been giving
C) had being given
B) has given
D) is giving
34) They ..... a barbecue in the garden since morning when I found them.
A) had been building
C) built
B) have been building
D) will have been building
35) By tomorrow Ann ..... for her birthday for a week.
A) will have been preparing
C) is preparing
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
B) has been preparing
D) had been preparing
36) I ..... in this queue for ages. I’d better return home.
A) has been standing
C) am standing
B) have been standing
D) will have been standing
37) He ..... looking at her for some time, wondering why her face was familiar
to him.
A) has been keeping
C) will have been keeping
B) had been keeping
D) kept
38) By July my friend ..... his driving test for a year. I hope that this time he’ll
A) will have been passing
C) had been passing
B) has been passing
D) is passing
39) By 5 he ..... at the library for 6 hours.
A) will have been working
C) works
B) has been working
D) is working
40) Peter ..... next door for quite a long time but he never said more than “good
morning” to me.
A) had been living
C) lived
B) has been living
D) will have been living
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form.
41) The stewardesses (to serve) lunch to the passengers for about an hour before
they sat down.
42) Tom (to search) for gold in these hills for 3 months but there is no sign of it.
43) John (to learn) French for 4 years by the time of his going to Paris.
44) She (to practise) for a month and I think she will pass her driving test.
45) George (to collect) matchboxes before he left school.
46) It is 6 p.m. now and Jack is tired because he (to work) hard all day.
47) He looked angry. ..... he (to argue)?
48) They (to look) through the old photograph album when a woman came and
asked everybody for tea.
49) By 6 I (to wait) here nearly for half an hour for Mary. Do you think she has
forgotten to come?
50) Are you sunbathing? – Don’t be ridiculous. It (to rain) the whole day.
51) She (to look) through her old photograph album for an hour.
52) By March these disasters (to continue) for a long time already.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
53) Mrs. Brown (to live) next door for quite a long time before I went away.
54) I (to wait) for the prices to come down for 2 weeks already, but in vain.
55) By June he (to look for) a new car for about some months already.
56) You must wake her! She (to sleep) soundly for 5 hours running when her
friends come.
57) Peter (to look) for a better post for a week before he found something
58) Someone (to use) my umbrella. It was wet.
59) I (to watch) the birds from my window since last week.
60) George (to wait) for an hour before the bus came.
61) In 15 minutes she (to look for) her books for an hour.
62) He (to paint) for 5 years but he hasn’t painted a single picture yet.
63) He (to read) books on history for some time when his Dad came.
64) By tomorrow I (to work) for Jones and Company for 2 years already.
65) I (to grow) strawberries for years but I haven’t had such a good crop before.
66) John (to live) in Miami for one year when his parents came to visit him.
67) She (to paint) for 5 years but didn’t sell a single picture.
68) The car (to flip) for 10 minutes before it landed on its roof.
69) He (to mend) sheets all the morning but he only did 3.
70) In 5 minutes he (to ring) the bell for half an hour.
71) By tomorrow he (to wait) for her here for a week.
72) My friend says that he (to try) to repair his car for a week by the beginning
of the next year.
73) By May he (to try) to learn English for years.
74) He (to look) for a better post for a week but so far he hasn’t found it.
75) In 20 minutes she (to sit) for her portrait for a year.
76) I wonder, if something has happened to Tom. I (to wait) for him for an hour
77) He (to work) for Crow Brothers for 40 years.
78) In a month she (to have) English lessons for a week.
79) They (to have) an enjoyable time in the South for some time when we come
to see them.
80) I (to do) housework all the morning and it isn't finished yet.
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses
3. Translate into English.
81) Он работает над книгой уже 3 часа. Он никогда не трудился так
82) К тому времени, когда я закончу перевод, мои друзья будут ждать
меня уже около часа.
83) Они проговорили около двух часов, когда вдруг он сказал, что хочет
повидать кого-то, и уехал.
84) Я пытаюсь найти тебя целое утро. Чем ты занимался?
85) Завтра исполнится месяц, как я готовлюсь к тесту.
86) Наконец-то вы пришли. Мы только что говорили о вас.
87) К тому времени, когда я приду, собрание будет длиться уже около
88) Их фирма работала над новым проектом несколько месяцев, когда об
этом узнали их конкуренты.
89) Он учит французский с 3 лет, но до сих пор не выучил.
90) К июню, когда его друзья приедут навестить его, мой друг будет
сдавать экзамены уже две недели.
91) Он готовится к экзамену всю неделю, и уже прочитал много книг по
92) Через месяц будет год, как он работает директором предприятия.
93) Джон собирает марки с 6 лет. Он собрал уже 1000 марок.
94) Они долго сидели рядом. Джек первым нарушил молчание.
95) Где ты была? Я жду тебя в библиотеке с 9 часов утра.
96) К концу дня Анна будет работать над докладом уже очень долгое
97) Телефон звонил уже несколько минут, когда он, наконец, проснулся.
98) Она читает эту книгу 3 дня, и уже прочитала 130 страниц.
99) К понедельнику полиция будет заниматься поисками грабителей уже
несколько недель.
100) К приходу директора мистер Браун будет работать в офисе с утра.
Total: 100/_______
1. Choose the correct variant.
1) How long ..... here?
A) you live
C) have you lived
B) do you live
D) are you living
2) We ..... since we left school.
A) hadn’t met
C) haven’t met
B) didn’t meet
D) not met
3) He denied he .... the money.
A) takes
C) took
B) has taken
D) had taken
4) She ..... for 12 hours before she finished everything.
A) had been working
C) is working
B) has been working
D) has worked
5) When I was a child I ..... running every day.
A) have gone
C) was going
B) used to go
D) had gone
6) What ..... at 10 o'clock last night?
A) have you done
C) have you been doing
B) were you doing
D) had you done
7) He hasn't left the office ..... .
A) yet
C) just
B) before
D) already
8) They will have finished the work ..... 8 o'clock.
A) until
C) since
B) by the time
D) by
9) He always ..... about his difficulties.
A) complained
C) is complaining
B) will complain
D) had complained
10) We went into town and ..... some new clothes.
A) bought
C) have bought
B) will buy
D) had bought
11) If you ..... at 7, we’ll leave.
A) not come
C) won’t come
B) don’t come
D) doesn’t come
12) What ..... about? – About my son.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) you think
C) you will think
B) are you thinking
D) do you think
13) You look slimmer. – Yes, I ..... 12 kilos.
A) had lost
C) have been losing
B) lost
D) have lost
14) I’m having trouble with this exercise. – Don’t worry. I ..... you.
A) have helped
C) helped
B) am going to help
D) ‘ll help
15) Have you ever been to China? – Yes, I ..... there in 1990.
A) have gone
C) have been going
B) went
D) have been
16) How long have you worked here? – By the end of the month I ..... here for
three years.
A) ‘ll work
C) ‘ll have been working
B) ‘m going to work
D) ‘ll be working
17) We’ll need some Coke for the party. – I ..... some.
A) buy
C) ‘ve already bought
B) will have bought
D) had bought
18) I need to give a message to Susan. – I ..... her at the office this afternoon.
A) see
C) ‘ll have seen
B) had seen
D) ‘ll be seeing
19) Have you ever met a famous person? – Yes, I ..... Maria Callas once.
A) have met
C) meet
B) met
D) have been meeting
20) These shoes aren’t at all comfortable. – When ..... them?
A) have you bought
C) you bought
B) did you buy
D) had you bought
21) What’s wrong with Lynda? – She ..... problems at work lately.
A) has been having
C) was having
B) will have
D) ‘ll be having
22) What’s Pam doing? – She ..... .
A) is working
C) has worked
B) works
D) has been working
23) How long have you been working here? – ..... 6 months.
A) Since
C) From
B) For
D) Ago
24) I can’t stand this noise any longer! – Calm down. They ..... the work by 6.
A) will finish
C) have finished
B) will have finished
D) are being finishing
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
25) How long does it take you to write a novel? – By December I ..... on this
one for 3 years.
A) will work
C) will be working
B) will have been working
D) am going to work
26) When I saw him he ..... asleep in a chair.
A) sat
C) had sat
B) was sitting
D) has been sitting
27) My wife ..... home yet. She never comes home before midnight.
A) hasn’t come
C) hadn’t come
B) doesn’t come
D) not come
28) My brother ..... the air force when he was 17.
A) joins
C) had joined
B) has joined
D) joined
29) The town ..... its appearance completely since 1968.
A) is changing
C) has changed
B) had changed
D) changed
30) We never ..... before.
A) met
C) had met
B) have met
D) will meet
31) Hello, who have you brought with you? ..... supper yet?
A) Has he
C) Did he have
B) Does he have
D) Has he had
32) ..... chess? – Yes, but I haven’t played for many years.
A) Have you like
C) Do you like
B) Did you like
D) Are you liking
33) ..... my name, or have you forgotten it?
A) Are you remembering
C) Did you remember
B) Have you been remembering D) Do you remember
34) Does she always arrive late, or do you think ..... to her?
A) something has happened
C) something will happen
B) something have happened
D) something will have happened
35) We have been waiting for half an hour now, so I don’t think she ..... .
A) comes
C) will come
B) has come
D) shall come
36) We won't go out until the rain ..... .
A) stops
C) doesn't stop
B) will stop
D)won't stop
37) I’ll come to see you before I ..... for England.
A) was leaving
C) leave
B) will have left
D) had left
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
38) When you come back he ..... the house.
A) will have bought
C) buys
B) bought
D) is buying
39) By next June he ..... his second novel.
A) has written
C) will have written
B) would write
D) will write
40) He ..... nothing before he saw me.
A) had done
C) did
B) has done
D) has been done
41) He had already learnt English before he ..... England.
A) had left
C) had been leaving
B) left
D) was leaving
42) She ..... the piano when our guests arrived.
A) played
C) has played
B) was playing
D) has been playing
43) As soon as he ..... I’ll let you know.
A) will phone
C) had phoned
B) phones
D) phoned
44) For three days we ..... the living room, but haven’t finished yet.
A) paint
C) have been painting
B) are painting
D) were painting
45) If he ..... mayor he will save the park.
A) will become
C) became
B) is becoming
D) becomes
46) She was making supper when he ..... home.
A) was coming
C) has come
B) came
D) comes
47) I was doing the shopping while you ..... tennis.
A) played
C) were playing
B) have played
D) have been playing
48) They took a short rest only after they ..... the yard.
A) had cleaned
C) have cleaned
B) were leaning
D) would clean
49) She ..... off the bus before the accident took place.
A) has got
C) got
B) had got
D) would got
50) He is very tired. He ..... hard today.
A) was working
C) has been working
B) is working
D) will have been working
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
2. Use the proper tense changing the underlined adverb (make use of the
adverbs, adverbial phrases and subordinate clauses given in the right-hand
1. He left yesterday
51) unless he feels bad.
52) in a week.
53) as soon as his wife returns.
54) just now.
55) by 5 a.m.
2. I haven't seen him lately
56) for ages.
57) since he left for London.
58) after he had moved to his country house.
59) if I don't take a taxi.
60) until he returns.
61) before.
3. Translate the sentences in the left-hand column using the phrases given in
the right-hand column.
Он сделал доклад
62) at the meeting yesterday.
63) before we came.
64) so now we want to listen to you.
65) took his things and left the hall.
Этот фильм пользуется
66) and I advise you to see it.
67) since it appeared in 1998.
(to enjoy popularity)
68) for almost 5 years.
Дети очень устали
69) when we got to the camp at last.
(to get tired)
70) let’s have a rest.
71) and fell asleep at once.
72) When shall we have a rest?
Мы отправимся в путь
73) after we have packed all our things.
(to set off)
74) by the time the sun rises.
75) if it doesn’t rain.
76) before they return.
Он поехал в аэропорт
77) and I don’t know when he’ll be back.
78) when I called on him in the morning.
79) after he had seen his father off.
80) before you phoned him.
4. Complete the sentences using the proper tense.
81) He never talks while he ...
82) Don’t switch on the light, please. The children...
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
While Dad was watching TV, Mum...
I am thinking of what you just...
If you help me, I ...
I’ll wait until she ...
The clock had struck 10 when I ...
When ... you ... him last?
Since she arrived, she ...
He ... for this company for 10 years by next May.
5. Translate into English.
91) Интересно, дождь еще идет? – Да, он идет с самого утра.
92) Не успели мы открыть дверь, как зазвонил телефон и Джон сказал,
что он уже приехал.
93) Он работает здесь с тех пор, как закончил университет. – Когда это
было? – 10 лет назад.
94) Последнее время мой муж очень занят. Если завтра он будет
свободен, мы пойдем в театр. Я уже купила билеты.
95) Он пошел домой только после того, как поговорил с директором.
96) Ты переводишь эту статью уже 3 часа, но еще не закончила. Ты
закончишь к 7 часам?
97) Ты пишешь письмо своим родителям? Ты часто пишешь им? Я
подожду, пока ты закончишь.
98) Где ты была вчера вечером? – Почему ты спрашиваешь? Ты звонил
99) Завтра бабушка приезжает навестить нас.
100) Ты уже пообедала? – Нет еще. Через полчаса я пойду в кафе.
Total: 100/_______
So far in the previous chapters, we have dealt with the commonest
and simplest uses of English tenses.
However, the system of tenses in English, being different from
Russian, causes a lot of difficulties for foreign language learners.
The Units below regard tenses in comparison. That will help you to
get a better knowledge of the English system of tenses.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
There are several ways of expressing the present in English:
1) the Present Indefinite,
2) the Present Perfect,
3) the Present Continuous,
4) the Present Perfect Continuous.
Compare: Dad usually reads detective stories after supper. (всегда читает)
He has known her since childhood. (знает с детства)
Where is Dad? – He is reading a detective story. (сейчас читает)
Has your Dad read my book? – No, he hasn't. – But he has been reading it
for a year. (уже год читает)
1.1. The Present Indefinite – the Present Continuous
1. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Indefinite or Present
1) What he (1) (to do)? – He (2) (to be) an accountant. – He (3) (to like) his
2) Why are you so gloomy? – I (4) (to think) about my mother’s illness.
3) What he (5) (to do)? – He (6) (to sleep). He always (7) (to sleep) after
4) Don’t phone him now. I (8) (to think) he (9) (to have) supper.
5) Let’s go home. It (10) (to get) dark. If we (11) (not to return) home at 9
Mother will get nervous.
6) I’ll discuss the plan with the manager before he (12) (to go) on a business
trip. – And when he (13) (to leave)? – Tomorrow.
7) She (14) (to have) exams in June. As soon as she (15) (to pass) them she’ll
go to the Crimea.
8) He (16) (to be) back in a moment. Wait, please.
9) Why you (17) (to look) at me in such a strange way? You (18) (to
understand) me?
10) They (19) (to give) a party next Saturday. I won’t go if they (20) (to invite)
11) Look! Ted (21) (to play) football. He (22) (to seem) to like it a lot.
12) Why you (23) (not to believe) me? I (24) (to tell) the truth.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
13) You (25) (to know) Mr Green? Where he (26) (to work)?
14) The old lady always (27) (to complain) of her illness. I (28) (to be) awfully
tired of it.
15) Who (29) (to wash up) in your family? – My sister does. But she (30) (not
to like) it.
16) They’ll join us unless they (31) (to be) busy.
17) My aunt (32) (to come) to Minsk next week and she (33) (to want) me to
meet her at the airport.
18) Once a week I (34) (to go) to see my grandfather. Whenever I (35) (to
come) he always plays the violin.
19) Don’t make noise! The children (36) (to sleep). If you (37) (to switch on)
the TV-set they’ll wake.
20) When you (38) (to plan) to leave? – Tomorrow. – When your train (39) (to
leave)? – At 7.15. – You always (40) (to travel) by train?
2. Translate using either the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous.
41) Сегодня замечательная погода. Солнце светит, птицы поют. Ты
любишь весну?
42) В это время года здесь всегда тепло. Я приезжаю сюда каждую
43) Почему ты меня не слушаешь? О чем ты думаешь? Ты меня
44) Как правило, мы встречаемся дважды в месяц по воскресеньям.
Сегодня воскресенье. Мы сидим в саду и разговариваем.
45) Мой сын не любит молоко, он предпочитает чай.
46) Как ты обычно добираешься до работы? – Как правило, на машине.
Это занимает у меня полчаса.
47) Почему она выглядит такой усталой? – Она всегда много работает.
48) Что ты ищешь? – Я ищу ключи. Я всегда теряю их.
49) Хороший учитель никогда не кричит на своих учеников.
50) Почему ты всегда кричишь на своего маленького брата?
Total: 50/_____
The Present Indefinite – the Present Continuous
The main use of the Present Indefinite is to express habitual
actions: His father smokes. Cats drink milk.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
The Present Indefinite does not tell us whether or not the action is
being performed at the moment of speaking. If we want to make it clear
we must use a verb in the Present Continuous.
Compare: He usually wears a scarf, but he is not wearing it now (the first verb
refers to a habit, the second to a present action). They are playing tennis
now, they usually play it after supper.
The Present Continuous is used to express a definite future
arrangement. The time is nearly always given and is usually in the near
future: We are leaving at the end of the week.
The Present Indefinite is often used for a planned future action or
series of actions, particularly when these refer to a journey: We leave
Paris at 9 a.m. next Monday and arrive in London at 10 o’clock.
1.1.1. The verbs in the following sentences are either in the Present
Indefinite or Present Continuous. Mark the Indefinite (Simple) ones S
and the Continuous ones C:
1) I'm getting used to it.
2) How long does it take to deliver to Manchester?
3) What other languages do you speak, Sven?
4) We provide catering and cleaning for big companies.
5) I'm trying to get through to Rashid Aziz in Accounts.
6) I go abroad at least once a month.
7) What are you planning to do during your holiday, Tom?
8) I'm still waiting for a call from the head office.
1.1.2. Now use the sentences from exercise 1.1.1. to complete the
conversations. Reproduce them:
1) – So you travel quite often in your job, Maria?
–Yes, that's right. ..... .
2) – ..... .
– Russian and Japanese. And I also know a bit of Spanish.
3) – How are you finding the new data base programme, Karen?
– It was quite difficult at first, but now ..... .
4) – Are you coming for lunch, Roula?
– I'll join you in about ten minutes. ..... .
– What? They haven't rung you yet?
5) – And what does your company produce?
– Actually, we're a service company. ..... .
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
6) – ...... .
– I'm not sure yet. We might go to Italy or even France. What about you?
7) – Velex Supplies. Can I help you?
– ..... .
– I'm afraid he's having the day off. Can I take a message?
8) – ...... .
– Normally two or three days. But I can send it "express" if you like.
– Yes. I think that would be a good idea.
1.1.3. Use the following verbs in the Present Indefinite or Present
Continuous to complete the text. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular).
study, enjoy, work(2), live, manufacture, employ
Hello, my name's Maria Lascaratou. I was born on Skopelos, a Greek
island and now I (1) ..... in Athens. No, not Athens, Greece, but Athens,
Georgia, in the United States. My company, Scantech, (2) ..... components for
the electronics industry. The company (3) ..... 340 people at its two production
plants and another 50 at the head office. I normally (4) ..... in the production
department, but at the moment I (5) ..... in R+D, helping them to develop new
products. I (6) ..... my job because it gives me a chance to travel. At the
moment I (7) ..... French and German because I have to travel to Europe a lot.
(B) Now find suitable verbs (from exercise A) in the Present Indefinite or
Present Continuous to complete the text. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular).
Let me introduce myself. My name's Jane Slater and I (1) ..... for Forest
White, a medium sized company which (2) ..... paper and packaging materials.
I (3) ..... my job because it's very varied and I (4) ...... lots of opportunities to
meet new people.
I (5) ...... abroad at least once a month, sometimes more. I'm a sales
executive but at the moment I (6) ..... in the marketing department. We (7) .....
to develop a new marketing policy for southern European markets.
1.1.4. Use these auxiliaries to complete the conversation. Reproduce it.
'm are(3) is do don't(3) doesn't
Hi, Karen (1) ..... you busy?
Karen: No, not particularly. I (2) ..... just working on last month's accounts.
Oh, (3) ..... you have to do the accounts every month?
Karen: Well it's not my job really. But Osman (4) ..... visiting the Manila
branch this week and Paul and I (5) ..... filling in for him.
I see. So you (6) ..... get much chance to travel?
Karen: Unfortunately, not. I'd like to get away a bit more, though.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Well, why (7) ..... you have a word with your boss?
Karen: I did! She (8) ..... think I've got enough experience yet.
That's a pity. Still, I suppose you (9) ..... getting lots of experience
doing the accounts?
Karen: Yes, but it's the kind of experience I (10) ..... want!
1.1.5. Use each verb twice, once in the Present Indefinite and once in the
Present Continuous.
1) have
He ... four cars, all of them Rolls-Royces.
I ... lunch with my mother tomorrow.
2) think
What ... you ... of Stephen Spielberg's latest film?
You're day-dreaming. What ... you ... about?
3) expect
I ... an important phone call from America.
I ... you're hungry after so much hard work.
4) smell
Something ... good in the kitchen. What's cooking?
Why ... you ... the meat? Do you think it's gone off?
5) see
I ... what you mean but I don't agree.
She ... a solicitor about her aunt's will.
6) look
It ... as if it's going to rain.
... you ... for something?
7) think
What ... you ... of doing when you leave here?
How much ... you ... it would cost to fly to London?
1.1.6. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Indefinite or Present
Continuous. Reproduce the conversations from part A.
want, need, prefer, like, love, hate, forget, seem, have (possess), think
(believe), belong, see, hear, know, realize, believe, suppose, mean,
understand, remember
1) Mary (to see) Peter standing at the bus stop.
Mary: Hello, Peter. What bus you (to wait) for?
Peter: Hello, Mary. I (to wait) for a 9 or a 14.
Mary: You usually (to go) to work by car, don't you?
Peter: Yes, but the car (to belong) to my mother and she sometimes (to
want) it. She (to use) it today to take Tom to the dentist.
Mary: I usually (to go) by car too. Jack (to take) me because he (to pass)
my office on his way to the factory. But this week he (to work) in a
factory in the opposite direction: so I (to queue) like you.
Peter: Here's a 9 now. You (to come) on it or you (to wait) for a 14?
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Mary: I (to think) I'll take the 9. If I (to wait) for a 14 I may be late, and if
you (to be) late at my office everyone (to look) at you.
2) Mary and Ann (to wait) outside a telephone box. Inside the box a boy (to
dial) a number.
Mary: You (to know) that boy?
Ann: Yes, he's a friend of my brother's. He (to phone) his girl friend every
day from this box.
Mary: Where he (to come) from?
Ann: He (to come) from Japan. He's a very clever boy, he (to speak) four
3) It's 8.30. Tom and Ann (to have) breakfast. They both (to open) their letters.
Tom: No one ever (to write) to me. All I (to get) is bills! You (to have)
anything interesting?
Ann: I've got a letter from Hugh. He (to say) he (to come) to London next
week and (to want) us to meet him for lunch.
4) Tom: You (to see) that man at the corner? He (to keep) stopping people
and asking them questions.
Jack: You (to think) he (to ask) for directions?
Tom: No, I (to expect) he (to make) a survey.
Jack: And how you (to make) a survey?
Tom: I (to stop) people and (to ask) them questions and (to write) the
answers on a report sheet.
5) Mrs Jones: My daughter never (to write) to me so I never (to know) what
she (to do). Your son (to write) to you often?
Mrs Smith: Yes. I (to hear) from him every week. He (to seem) to like
writing letters.
6) Tom: We (to move) into our new house tomorrow.
But why you (to leave) your present house? It (to suit) you all.
Tom: Yes, I (to know) it (to do): but the Council (to pull down) all the
houses on this side. They (to widen) the road. They (to say) it's a
7) Tom: I (to smell) something burning!
Jack: So (to do) I. I (to think) it (to come) from the kitchen. Ann probably
(to iron). She usually (to iron) and (to watch) TV at the same time
and if she (to get) very interested in the programme she (to forget)
that she (to press) a hot iron on somebody's shirt.
8) Mrs Jones: What you (to look) for, Tom?
Mr Jones:
I (to look) for the garage key. I always (to look) for the garage
key, because nobody ever (to put) it back on its hook.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
1) Why that man (to stand) in the middle of the road? – He (to try) to get
across. He (to wait) for a gap in the traffic. – Why he (not to use) the
subway? – Lots of people (not to bother) to use the subway. They (to
prefer) to risk their lives crossing here.
2) You (to wear) a new coat, aren't you? – Yes. You (to like) it? – The colour
(to suit) you but it (not to fit) you very well. It's much too big.
3) Englishmen very seldom (to talk) on the Underground. They (to prefer) to
read their newspapers. Those two men in the corner (to talk). But they (not
to talk) English.
4) Ann (to act) in the film? – She has a small part. She (not to act) very well. I
(to imagine) she got the part because she (to know) the director.
5) If you (to want) a candid opinion you'd better ask my sister. She never (to
tell) white lies: she always (to say) exactly what she (to think).
6) I (to hear) that you have bought a new house. – Yes, but I (not to live) in it.
They still (to work) on it, and the work (to take) longer than I expected.
7) How much she (to owe) you now? – I (not to know). I (not to keep) an
account. Anyway she (to leave) next week: she (to get) married. I (to try) to
think of a suitable wedding present.
1.1.7. Translate using either the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous.
1) Дождь все еще идет. Я вижу дождевые капли на стекле.
2) Почему ты так странно смотришь на меня? Что ты хочешь мне
3) Куда вы спешите? Проходите, мы как раз пьем чай. Вы любите чай?
4) Мы приближаемся к морю. Ты чувствуешь запах моря?
5) Позвони на вокзал и узнай, когда приходит поезд из Киева.
6) Не входи в комнату, дети спят.
7) Что ты делаешь? – Я завтракаю. – Ты всегда завтракаешь так поздно?
8) Я не люблю этого человека. Он часто обманывает.
9) Чем занимается твой брат? – Он студент. – Где он учится? – В
10) Мои друзья приезжают навестить нас в субботу. – Они всегда
навещают тебя летом?
11) О чем ты думаешь? – Моя бабушка больна, а у меня сегодня совсем
нет времени зайти к ней.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
12) Что ты думаешь о последнем романе этого писателя?
13) Почему ты не слушаешь меня? – Прости, у меня ужасно болит голова.
14) Почему ты не хочешь присоединиться к нам? – Я плохо себя чувствую.
15) Ты собираешься встретить их в аэропорту?
16) Мы опоздаем на поезд, если не поторопимся.
17) Я объясню тебе все, когда вернусь домой.
18) Прежде чем он примет окончательно решение, он обдумает все детали.
19) Не звони ему. Он занят. Он просматривает почту.
20) Он ненадежный человек. – Что ты имеешь в виду? – Он никогда не
держит слова.
1.2. The Present Indefinite – the Present Perfect.
While the Present Indefinite is used to say that something
happens all the time or repeatedly the Present Perfect denotes an
action which has a definite connection with the present.
Compare: Every summer he goes to Canada.
He has gone to Canada. = He is in Canada or on his way there now.
1.3. The Present Perfect – the Present Perfect Continuous.
1. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect
1) You (1) (to read) the book for 5 months and (2) (not to finish) yet.
2) My brother (3) (to play) tennis since he was 6. He is the best tennis player
at school.
3) Her sister is keen on English. She (4) (to learn) it for 15 years already. She
(5) (to be) to the USA and Great Britain several times.
4) You look tired! – Yes, I (6) (to play) football since morning and I (7) (not
to play) for years.
5) How long you (8) (to know) Ann? – Since childhood. We always (9) (to
be) good friends. She never (10) (to let) me down.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
He (11) (to look) for a job for six months but (12) (not to succeed). He (13)
(to work) for a big company for 12 years. But last year the company went
Nobody (14) (to live) in this house since October. So, it (15) (to be) empty
for half a year.
At last he (16) (to buy) a car. He (17) (to dream) of it for years and only
yesterday his dream came true.
What you (18) (to do) here for such a long time? – I (19) (to repair) my
son's bike, but I (20) (not to repair) it yet.
You (21) (to find) me in the photos?
He (22) (to go) already. He (23) (to wait) here for an hour.
It (24) (to rain) for 3 days. If it doesn't stop tomorrow we won't go to the
country to see our grandparents.
Your eyes are red because you (25) (to read) for more than 6 hours.
I (26) (not to eat) anything since morning. You (27) (to have) dinner yet? –
Not yet. Ann (28) (to cook) a wonderful Italian dish and in a minute we'll
have dinner.
He (29) (not to talk) to the manager yet. The manager (30) (to be) busy
since morning. He (31) (to discuss) delivery problems with our business
partners already for 3 hours.
Look! Ann (32) (to come). Who she (33) (to bring) with her? Is it Jane?
I must phone my doctor, but I can't. My sister (34) (to talk) on the phone
for 2 hours. When will she stop?
For how long he (35) (to work) for this company? – For 17 years. He likes
his job and isn't going to quit it.
For how long he (36) (to be) married? – For 20 years. His wife is a
wonderful woman. She (37) (to travel) all over the world and (38) (to
write) several books about different countries.
We (39) (not to discuss) this problem since he returned. He (40) (to be)
away for half a year.
2. Translate using either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous.
41) Вот уже час мама разговаривает по телефону.
42) Мама, ты уже приготовила обед? – Нет еще. – Но ты готовишь его
уже 4 часа.
43) Я не видела ее сегодня. Последнее время мы не встречались, она
много работает.
44) Где ты был все это время? Я ищу тебя с утра. Ты принес мою книгу?
45) Я только что вспомнила, что я еще не отправила телеграмму
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
46) Он работает в этой компании уже 8 лет. С какого времени он там
работает? – С тех пор как закончил Университет.
47) Он проработал в этой компании 8 лет. Он всегда был хорошим
48) Я знаю ее с детства. Мы дружим уже более 30 лет. Она всегда была
мне верной подругой.
49) Гости сидят за столом более 3 часов. А дети уже поужинали.
50) Мама моей подруги проработала учителем 50 лет и моя подруга вот
уже 10 лет учит детей.
Total: 50/_____
The Present Perfect – the Present Prefect Continuous.
The Present Perfect often expresses a recently completed action:
He has just left. = He left a few minutes ago.
The Present Perfect Continuous is used for an action which
began in the past and is still continuing (Type 1), or has just finished
(Type 2).
Type 1: I have been waiting for her for an hour. I don’t think she will come.
Type 2: I’m sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long?
The Present Perfect can also express an action which began in
the past and still continues, or has only just finished. When used in this
way it is very like the Present Perfect Continuous, and often either
form can be used:
He has lived here for 3 years. – He has been living here for 5 years.
How long have you learnt English? – How long have you been learning
I have dreamed to visit Italy for a long time. – I have been dreaming to
visit Italy for a long time.
This is not possible with verbs which are not used in the
Continuous forms. Thus, the Present Perfect Continuous cannot
replace the Present Perfect in the following examples: I have known
him for ages. She has been away since Monday.
The Present Perfect Continuous can be used with or without a
time phrase. In this way it differs from the Present Perfect, which can
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
only express this type of action by adding a time phrase such as since
June, never, for a month. When the Present Perfect Indefinite is
used without a time expression of this kind, it refers to a single
completed action.
I have been knocking (this is how I have spent the last five minutes). I
think nobody is in.
I have knocked six times (this is what I have done – six completed
actions). But there’s no answer.
I have knocked (it is a single completed action). Wait, please. I’m sure,
she is in.
1.3.1. Complete the sentences. Use either the Present Perfect or Present
Perfect Continuous. In some sentences, either form is possible.
1) The zoo isn't far from here. I (to walk) there many times.
2) I'm tired. We (to walk) for over an hour. Let's stop and rest for a while.
3) Mr Curtis (to work) for the power company for fifteen years. He likes his
4) I (to read) this chapter in my chemistry text-book three times, and I still
don't understand it!
5) My eyes are getting tired. I (to read) for two hours. I think I'll take a break.
6) Mrs Jackson (to teach) kindergarten for twenty years. She's one of the best
teachers at the elementary school.
7) Marge is writing a letter to her boyfriend. She (to write) it since she got
home from class.
8) I (to write) my folks at least a dozen letters since I left home and came here.
9) A new bridge (to appear) here recently. They (to build) it for four years.
10) Lately she (to be) very angry with me. She (not to speak) with me since
1.3.2. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect
Continuous, the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous. Reproduce the
 What are you doing?
 I ... (to write) a letter.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
 You ... (to sit) at the desk for hours. Is it a difficult letter?
 Yes. I ... (to decide) to resign from my job.
 But how do you know you don't like it? You ... only... (to do) it for a
 I do like it. But Mr Brown already ... (to offer) me a better one, and
I'm going to accept it. It's in Brazil, and I ... always ... (to want) to go
to Brazil. I ... (not to like) living in cold climate.
 But how ... you ... (to know) if you'll like it there? You ... (never, to
be) out of England before.
 That doesn't matter. Some friends of mine ... (to live) there at the
moment. They'll look after me.
 You're very lucky, really. I ... (to try) to find a job for months. I ... (to
be) to endless interviews, and they ... (to turn down) me.
 Well, obviously you ... (to apply) for the wrong kinds of job. Don't
worry. You'll find one soon.
 I ... (to hope) so.
1.3.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: the Present Indefinite
or Present Continuous, the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous.
1) I (to do) housework all morning and I (not to finish) yet. – I (to do) mine
already. I always (to start) at 6 a.m.
2) She just (to sell) two of her own paintings. She's lucky. I (to paint) for 5
years and I (not to sell) a single picture yet.
3) It was lovely at 11 o'clock but since then the sky (to get) steadily darker
and the wind (to rise). I'm afraid the fine spell (to come) to an end.
4) Someone (to use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and
the day before! – Well, it wasn't me. I (not to be) out of the house for a
5) You look exhausted! – Yes, I (to play) tennis and I (not to play) for years.
6) I wonder if anything (to happen) to Tom. I (to wait) for an hour now. He
often (to keep) me waiting but he never (to be) so late as this.
7) What you (to do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. – Tom just
(to go) off with it.
8) He (to collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. Now he (to collect) so
many that he doesn't know where to put them.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
I (to look) through my old album. It's full of photos of people whose names
I completely (to forget). I wonder what (to happen) to them all.
Peter (to be) a junior clerk for three years. Lately he (to look) for a better
post but so far he (not to find) anything.
Tom is sure that there is gold in these hills but we (to search) for six
months but (not to see) any sign of it.
We (to mend) sheets all morning but we only (to do) three. But now the
sewing machine (to break) down.
I (to stand) in this queue for ages. It (not to move) at all in the last five
minutes. I think the man in the ticket office just (to shut) his windows and
(to go) off for lunch.
That man (to stand) at the bus stop for the last half an hour. Shall I tell him
that the last bus already (to go)? – I (not to think) he (to wait) for a bus.
I just (to remember) that I (not to pay) the rent yet. I am surprised that the
landlord (not to ring) me up to remind me. – It's the first time you (to be)
late with the rent for 25 years. He probably thinks that you (to pay) and he
(to lose) the cheque.
Mark (not to study) right now. He (to watch) TV. He (to watch) TV since
seven o'clock. He always (to watch) TV after supper.
Carol (to stand) at the corner. She (to wait) for the bus. She (to wait) for
the bus for twenty minutes.
Right now we're in class. We (to do) an exercise. We (to do) this exercise
for a couple of minutes.
John and Mary (to talk) on the phone right now. They (to talk) on the
phone for over an hour.
I (to sit) in class right now. I (to sit) here since 10 o'clock.
1.3.4. Translate using either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect
1) Я еще не закончила переводить этот текст, хотя перевожу его уже 4
2) Что случилось с Анной? Почему она еще не пришла? Я жду ее с
самого утра.
3) Мой друг учит итальянский язык уже 5 лет, но все еще не выучил. А
как давно вы учите его? – С прошлого года.
4) Я ухожу. Я прождала ее полтора часа. – Ты ждешь ее с 9 утра, не так
ли? – Именно.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
5) Ты рассматриваешь эти фотографии уже целый час. Ты узнала коголибо? – Нет, я никогда ранее не встречала этих людей.
6) Мы знакомы уже 20 лет. Но мы не встречались с тех пор, как он уехал
из Минска.
7) Ты уже отремонтировал свою машину? – Еще нет. – Но ты
ремонтируешь ее уже целый год.
8) Вот уже месяц я пытаюсь убедить ее поменять свое решение, но мне
не удалось еще сделать этого.
9) Ты когда-либо бывала в Италии? – Нет. – А моя подруга живет там
уже 5 лет, и я дважды навещала ее.
10) Как давно ты гуляешь здесь? – С утра. Каждое утро я прихожу в этот
парк со своей собакой.
There are several ways of expressing the past in English:
1) the Past Indefinite,
2) the Present Perfect,
3) the Past Perfect,
4) the Past Continuous,
5) the Past Perfect Continuous,
Compare: They lived in the Ukraine two years ago. (жили два года назад)
I have read the instructions but I don't understand them. (прочитал, …
но не понимаю…)
After they had lived in the Ukraine for ten years they moved to Russia.
(после того как прожили)
When they were living in the Ukraine I often visited them. (когда жили)
I knew they had been living in Russia for ten years. (я знал, они жили)
2.1. The Past Indefinite – the Past Continuous
1. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.
1) I (1) (to sit) in my garden when I (2) (to understand) somebody (3) (to look)
at me.
2) When you (4) (to be) in London? – A year ago. – You (5) (to like) it? – It
(6) (to be) magnificent.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
3) When my Dad (7) (to study) at school he always (8) (to have) a lot of
4) When I (9) (to come) home Mother (10) (to fix) supper.
5) I was at home yesterday evening. From 7 to 9 I (11) (to watch) a comedy
on TV.
6) My cousin (12) (to leave) school a year ago.
7) Where you (13) (to be) yesterday from 2 to 6? – I was at the library. – What
you (14) (to do) there? – I (15) (to get ready) for my English examination.
8) A week ago at this time we (16) (to lie) on the beach.
9) In 1999 his family (17) (to live) in Poland.
10) We (18) (to go) to the theatre yesterday. – You (19) (to enjoy) the play?
11) When I (20) (to phone) Ann her mother (21) (to say) she (22) (to have) a
12) Hardly had I entered the room when somebody (23) (to knock) at the door. I
wondered who it (24) (to be) at such a late hour.
13) She (25) (to speak) to him just now. He said he (26) (not to know) their
14) When you (27) (to see) him last?
15) While the guests (28) (to drink) tea the girl (29) (to play) the piano.
16) When Mother (30) (to come) the children (31) (to watch) a cartoon. They
(32) (not to notice) her.
17) When you (33) (to take out) your dog for a walk yesterday evening? – At 9.
– It (34) (to rain)?
18) When she (35) (to be) 5 she (36) (to like) oranges a lot.
19) – Did you go to Spain by plane? – I (37) (not to go) to Spain last summer. –
Really? Where you (38) (to be)?
20) He asked me if I (39)(to know) German. I (40) (to say) I studied it at
2. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.
41) Почему ты вчера не позвонил мне? Что ты делал? – Я писал статью.
42) Ты был в театре в прошлое воскресенье, не так ли? – Да, и мне очень
понравилось представление.
43) Он начал работать в этой компании несколько лет тому назад.
44) Вчера после обеда у нас было важное совещание. С 12 до 2 часов мы
обсуждали новый контракт.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
45) Где ты был после школы? – Я был в компьютерном клубе. – Что ты
там делал? – Играл в компьютерные игры.
46) Он закончил университет в прошлом месяце. Неделю спустя он нашел
хорошую работу.
47) Я видела ее на днях. А когда ты видела ее последний раз?
48) Когда поезд прибыл на вокзал, была полночь. – Кто встретил тебя? –
Мой брат.
49) Интересно, что ты делала вчера после ужина. Я хотел пригласить тебя
на прогулку, но тебя не было дома.
50) Вы хорошо провели время в Италии? – Да.
Total: 50/_____
The Past Indefinite – the Past Continuous
The Past Continuous is mainly used for past actions which
continued for some time but whose exact limits are not known and not
important: The wind was rising and it was getting colder and colder.
But in the sentence: When I returned she was sleeping we convey the
idea that the action in the Past Continuous started before the action in
the Past Indefinite and probably continued after it.
The combination of two Past Indefinite tenses indicates
successive actions: When she saw us she smiled.
The Continuous Tense is used in descriptions: A man was sitting at
the fire place, and a cat was sleeping on his lap. Suddenly somebody knocked
at the door. The man moved. The cat woke up. Here comes the combination
of description (the Past Continuous) and narration (the Past
2.1.1. Use the Past Indefinite of these irregular verbs to complete the
1) do
In the past we ..... more business with the Japanese than now.
2) grow
The company ..... very rapidly in its first 12 years.
3) become We ...... a public company in 1985.
4) cut
We ..... our advertising budget because of the recession.
5) lend
The bank ..... us $45,000 to fund our expansion.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
6) get
7) take
8) lose
9) run
10) win
11) meet
12) make
13) sell
14) rise
15) spend
16) fall
17) lead
18) think
We ...... a big surprise when they made their offer.
They ...... a long time to make up their minds.
We ...... the contract with the Polish oil-refinery plant.
Paula ...... the company from her home.
Last month we ...... an important order from the Government.
I first ...... Roberto when we were working in Budapest.
Last year our Japanese branch ..... a small profit for the first
Greenham Products ..... its old headquarters for $46 million.
Profits ..... due to an improved management strategy.
We ..... all of our advertising budget in the first six months.
Our profits ..... last year, but things look much healthier now.
TransWare, our main competitors, ..... the market throughout the
Our competitors ..... that we were going to increase our prices.
2.1.2. Complete these sentences with the following verbs in the Past
get, join, increase, study, phone, be, meet, start
1) The weather ...... terrible on Sunday.
2) I ..... her at the trade fair in Rotterdam.
3) I ..... work at seven o'clock this morning.
4) She ..... marketing at business school.
5) I ..... the company as a junior manager last December.
6) I ..... the 7-o'clock train from London.
7) They ...... their prices by over 20% last year.
8) Tina from Sales ..... when you were out.
2.1.3. Now use the sentences from exercise 2.1.2. to complete the
conversations. Reproduce them.
1) So you know Esther? –Yes, ..... .
2) Did you do anything interesting this weekend? – Not really......, so we didn't
go out.
3) Who do you recommend for the new job? – I think Julia would be ideal. .....,
and she's had a lot of experience.
4) How long have you worked for Lawton's, Maria? – Only for a few
months...... .
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
You look exhausted, Karen? – lt's not surprising ..... .
Are there any messages for me, Christina? – Yes,..... .
You're here early, Bill. – ..... . It only takes an hour and a half.
So you don't do much business with Silbert Systems now? – No. ..... . We
find the competition much cheaper.
In most of these examples the verb makes a strong word partnership with a
following noun, e.g. do business, cut the budget. Can you underline
the others?
2.1.4. Complete this article from a trade magazine using the Past Indefinite
of the following verbs. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular).
visit, join, help, spend, begin, decide, study, become, leave, complete
We are pleased to announce the appointment of Mrs Maria Teicher as head of
quality control. Maria...... chemical engineering at the University of Utrecht and
then..... an MBA at Claremont College. After graduating she ..... work with
ChemTech Supplies in Belgium. She ..... assistant production manager in 1989 and
she ..... to develop ChemTech's Multivit pharmaceutical range. Maria ...... the
company in 1991 and ...... Volcker Foods of California as head of research and
development. She ..... two years in the United States. Last year she briefly ..... our
Milan plant and was so impressed that she ...... to return to Europe.
2.1.5. Think of a suitable verb in the Past Indefinite to complete each gap.
Retell it (in the 3rd person singular).
This morning I (1) ..... work at a quarter to eight. I (2) ...... a meeting with
my boss at nine o'clock and then I (3) ..... to the production plant to sort out an
assembly line problem. When I (4) ..... back to my office I (5) ..... a fax from
Sanjay on my desk. He (6) ..... me to phone him with details of the Lyon
conference. After that I (7) ..... half an hour writing the production report. Then
it (8) ..... time for lunch. I (9) ...... Christina in the canteen and she (10) ...... me
that there (11) ..... a lot of problems in her department. She (12) ..... me if I
could come to a meeting in her office to discuss the situation.
2.1.6. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.
Retell the story.
I (to walk) along Piccadilly when I (to realize) that a man with a ginger
beard (to follow) me. To make sure, I (to walk) on quickly, (to turn) right, then
left and (to stop) suddenly at a shop window. In a few minutes the man with
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
the beard (to appear) and (to stop) at another shop window. I (to go) on.
Whenever I (to stop) he (to stop). I (to decide) to try to shake him off. A 74
bus (to stand) at the bus stop just beside me. Just as it (to move) off, I (to
jump) on it. The man (to miss) the bus, but he (to get) into another 74 which
(to follow) the first. At Gloucester Road Underground I (to leave) the bus and
(to buy) a ticket at a ticket machine. As I (to stand) on the platform waiting for
a Circle Line train, my pursuer (to come) down the stairs. He (to carry) a
newspaper. We (to get) into the same compartment. At every station he (to
look) over the top of his newspaper to see if I (to get) off. I (to become) tired
of being shadowed like this, so finally I (to sit) beside the man and (to ask)
him why he (to follow) me. At first he (to say) he (not to follow) me at all but
when I (to threaten) to knock him down, he (to admit) that he was. Then he
(to tell) me that he (to be) a writer of detective stories and (to try) to see if it
was difficult to follow someone unseen. I (to advise) him to shave off his
ginger beard if he (not to want) his victims to know he (to follow) them.
2.1.7. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.
1) Поезд медленно приближался к станции; я стоял у окна и смотрел на
2) Я так и не увидел тот мост. Когда поезд проходил по нему, была ночь.
3) Пока управляющий беседовал с представителями иностранной
компании, секретарь сортировала утреннюю почту.
4) В то время, когда менеджер говорил по телефону с поставщиками,
вошла секретарь и сказала, что генеральный директор хочет срочно
видеть его.
5) Телефон зазвонил в тот момент, когда я принимал душ.
6) Что ты делала вчера с 5 до 7 вечера? Я звонила тебе, но никто не
7) Я почувствовала, что кто-то смотрит на меня. Я повернула голову и
посмотрела вокруг. В комнате никого не было. Только большой
черный кот лежал на кресле и спал.
8) Пока я завтракал, мама готовила мне кофе.
9) Мы сидели на террасе и пили чай, когда открылась дверь, и вошел наш
10) Он не сказал ни слова, взял свои вещи, взглянул на нас и вышел. Что
он пытался скрыть от нас?
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
2.2. The Past Indefinite – the Present Perfect
1. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect.
1) I just (1) (to return) from Moscow. – You (2) (to go) there by plane?
2) What language you (3) (to learn) at school? – English. – You ever (4) (to
be) to England? – Yes, I (5) (to be) there last spring.
3) Lately I (6) (not to see) much of her. But a week ago I (7) (to come) across
her in a shop.
4) You (8) (to have) dinner? – Not yet. I (9) (to have) breakfast very late
today, at about 11.
5) We (10) (not to meet) since we (11) (to leave) school. I (12) (not to hear)
anything about them since then.
6) Do you know this man? – Yes, I (13) (to know) him since childhood. – For
how long you (14) (to know) him? – For almost 20 years.
7) The director (15) (to go) to New York today. – But I (16) (to see) him just
now. – Yes, he (17) (to go) to the airport half an hour ago. – He ever (18)
(to be) to the USA before?
8) I'm very pleased you (19) (to accept) my invitation. I (20) (to be) to this
restaurant recently. And I (21) (to like) it.
9) Is it raining? – No, the rain (22) (to stop) an hour ago. – It (23) (to rain)
since yesterday evening.
10) I wonder, what (24) (to happen) to him. Why is he late?
11) She always (25) (to be) a good doctor. Lately she (26) (to return) from
Germany. She (27) (to work) there for 2 years.
12) When you (28) (to see) Ann last time? –We (29) (not to meet) lately.
13) She (30) (to be) to London twice.
14) You (31) (to find) your key? – Unfortunately, no. But I remember I (32) (to
put) it on my desk yesterday evening.
15) When they (33) (to buy) their new house? – Last autumn. But they (34) (not
to repair) it yet.
16) Your face seems familiar to me. I'm sure we (35) (to meet) before.
17) The weather (36) (to change) greatly since morning. – Yes, it (37) (to
change) yesterday at this time too.
18) His parents (38) (to die) when he was 5.
19) She (39) (to learn) to play the guitar at school.
20) When the wedding ceremony (40) (to take place)? – Last Friday.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
2. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect.
41) Ты когда-либо бывал за границей? – Да. – Когда это было в первый
раз? – Я побывал в Польше 3 года тому назад.
42) Я уже закончил работу. Я закончил ее в прошлый понедельник.
43) Я никогда ранее не встречала такой красивой женщины.
44) Я знаю его с тех пор, как он начал работать в нашей фирме.
45) Последнее время он не звонил мне. Последний раз он звонил пару
месяцев назад.
46) Что-нибудь случилось? – Заболела моя собака.
47) Наконец-то ты пришел. Где ты был все это время? Ник прождал тебя 3
часа. Он ушел полчаса назад.
48) Вот уже 4 года как умер мой дедушка. Он умер в возрасте 82 лет.
49) Он не бывал в своем родном городе с тех пор, как поступил в
50) С какого времени вы живете здесь? – С тех пор, как мы поженились.
Total: 50/____
The Past Indefinite – the Present Perfect
The Past Indefinite is used for an action whose time is not given
but which (Type 1) occupied a period of time now terminated, or (Type
2) occurred in a period of time now terminated.
Type 1: She worked for this company for five years (now she doesn’t work
They lived in Russia for a long time (now they aren’t living there).
Type 2: I met him in Rome.
Did you ever watch Ulanova dance? – Yes, I did.
The Present Perfect is a sort of mixture of present and past. It
implies a strong connection with the present and is chiefly used in
conversations, letters, newspapers, and radio reports.
It is used for a past action whose time is not definite. But if there is
a clear idea of when it happened we use the Past Indefinite.
Compare: I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.
I read the instructions last night.
Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t had it yet.
Did you have breakfast at the hotel?
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A conversation about a past action often begins with a question
and an answer in the Present Perfect, but normally continues in the
Past Indefinite, even when no time is given. This is because the action
first mentioned has now become definite in the minds of the speakers.
Compare: Where have you been? – I’ve been at the theatre. – What was the
play?– Othelo.– Did you enjoy it?
The Present Perfect is often used in newspapers and broadcasts
to introduce an action which will then be described in the Past
Indefinite: Two prisoners have escaped from the court. They killed two
policemen and got away in a car which someone had parked at the back door.
2.2.1. Complete the sentences using these verbs:
use, study, meet, see, go, finish, work, be
1) Have you ..... Mr Aziz? He's our Head of Sales.
2) How long have you ..... for Truman Industrial?
3) So, you've ..... to Milan before, Toyo?
4) I can't find my diary. Has anyone ..... it?
5) Have you ..... this program before, Julia?
6) Elena, have you ..... the sales report yet?
7) I think Henry's just ..... out for a few minutes.
8) Have you ever ..... Japanese?
2.2.2. Now match up these responses to the sentences in 2.2.1. Reproduce
these conversations.
Yes, I was here last year for the Electronics Fair.
No, I haven't. I hope it's not too difficult to learn.
I think Kristina borrowed it a couple of hours ago.
Well, I started to study it but I found it very difficult.
No, I don't think we've been introduced.
That's OK. I don't mind waiting for him.
Yes, I have. Just let me print out a copy for you.
Just over ten years. Since I left school.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
2.2.3. Use these phrases to complete the conversation. Reproduce it.
have you heard from Tom; I've been so busy today; I haven't
finished it yet; have you had a chance to read it yet; he's left
RTX Services; you've received the Mexico file
Can I speak to Martina, please?
Morning, Martina. This is Rashid from Sales. I'm phoning to check
if..... .
Yes, it's here on my desk. It arrived this morning.
Good. ...... ?
I'm afraid not......
Of course. You're still working on the market survey, aren't you?
That's right, but ..... It's taking much longer than expected.
Talking about marketing, ..... recently?
Yes. He phoned me last week. ..... you know. He's working for
Collinson Investment now.
Really? Why did he change the job?
I think he just wanted a change.
2.2.4. The following adverbs of time are common with the Present Perfect.
Use them in these conversations:
since, for, yet(3), ever, just, already, never
1) Is Jack here? – You've ..... missed him. He went out a few minutes ago.
2) Tom borrowed my lap-top last week and he hasn't ….. returned it. – I'm not
surprised. He's had my calculator for a month!
3) Have you got those market projections, Daniela? – No, I haven't finished
them ..... . They'll be ready tomorrow.
4) Here's a copy of the agenda for the planning meeting. – Thanks, but I've .....
got one. Julia faxed me a copy this morning.
5) So you've been working here ..... six months, Kate? – That's right. I joined
the company in March.
6) Have you ..... eaten avocado? – No, I don't think so. What is it?
7) We've been talking ...... ten o'clock this morning and we haven't decided
….. . – You're right. It's time we had a break.
8) So you've ...... been to Canada? – No, but I've been to the States a couple of
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
2.2.5. Put the verbs in brackets either into the Past Indefinite or Present
Dear Tom,
Thank you for your letter. It (to arrive) yesterday and I (to decide) to
write back immediately. You see, my agent (to find) me a part in a new film
and I'm going to Hollywood next week! I (to speak) to Robert Redford on the
phone about the part and I'm meeting him as soon as I arrive. The film is a remake of a 1956 thriller which I (to see) hundreds of times. It starred Marilyn
Monroe who, as you know, I (to meet) when I was a little girl. Yesterday I (to
buy) lots of new clothes and I already (to start) packing. Well, I must rush now.
There's so much to do!
1) – You (to be) on holiday this year? – No, I (can not) go, because I (to
break) my leg in August and (to have) to stay in hospital.
2) – You (to visit) the National Museum yet? – Yes, I (to be) there three times,
but I (not to see) everything yet.
3) – I'm ever so sorry, Jim, but I (to burn) your dinner. Maria (to phone) and I
(to forget) about the food. – That's okay. I already (to eat).
4) – I (to buy) a new dress yesterday, but when I (to arrive) home, I (to find) a
hole in the seam. – What you (to do)? You (to take) it back to the shop? –
No, I (not to be) to town yet. I'll do it this afternoon.
5) – Your hair (to grow) a lot since I last (to see) you. – Yes, I (to want) to get
it cut yesterday but I (to be) too busy.
6) I never (to fly) before and I'm very nervous about it. – I (to feel) like that the
first time I (to fly), but I thoroughly (to enjoy) it.
7) I (to lose) my glasses. You (to see) them anywhere? – No, where you (to
put) them? – I (to put) them on the table a minute ago, but they're not there
8) You ever (to meet) anyone famous? – Yes, I (to speak) to Paul McCartney
and I (to see) John Lennon.
2.2.6. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect.
1) I hear that Mr Jones (to leave). – Yes, he (to leave) last week. The board of
directors (to appoint) Mr Brown to take his place.
2) You (to book) your hotel room yet? – Well, I (to write) to the hotel last
week but they (not to answer) yet.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
3) Peter (meeting Paul unexpectedly in London): Hello, Paul! I (not to know)
you (to be) here.
Oh, I (to be) here nearly for two months. I (to arrive) on the 6th of
Peter: When we last (to meet) you (to say) that nothing would induce
you to come to England. What (to make) you change your mind?
I (to find) that I (to need) English for my work and this (to seem)
the quickest way of learning it.
Peter: You (to know) English when you first (to arrive) here?
No, I (not to know) a word.
4) Paul: I (to play) football since I (to be) five.
Tom: You (to play) since you (to come) to England?
Oh, yes, I (to play) quite a lot. I (to join) a club two years ago.
Tom: I (to play) football when I (to be) at school but when I (to leave)
school I (to drop) it and (to take) up golf.
5) My son (not to start) work yet. He's still at the High School. – How long
he (to be) at school? – He (to be) at the High School for six years; before
that he (to spend) five years at the Primary School in Windmill Street.
6) I just (to hear) Peter is in Australia. – Oh, you (not to know)? He (to fly)
out at the beginning of the month. – You (to hear) from him? – Yes, I (to
get) a letter last week. He (to tell) me about his job. But he (not to say) if
he (to like) the life or not. Perhaps it is too soon to say. He only (to be)
there for three weeks.
7) I (not to know) you (to be) left-handed. – I'm not left-handed: but my oilheater (to explode) yesterday and I ( to burn) my right hand.
8) I just (to have) my first driving lesson. – How it (to go)? You (to enjoy) it?
– Well, I actually (not to hit) anything but I (to make) every other possible
9) Ann:
You (to be) to Wales?
Yes, I (not to be) to Wales, but (not be) to Scotland.
And I (to be) there last year, I (to like) it very much.
10) Peter: You (to see) any good films lately?
Yes, I (to go) to the cinema last week and (to see) a Japanese
Peter: You (to like) it?
Yes, I (to love) it, but of course I (not to understand) a word.
11) I (to buy) a new house last year, but I (not to sell) my old house yet, so at
the moment I have two houses.
12) When Ann (to be) on her way to the station it (to begin) to rain. Ann (to
run) back to her flat for her umbrella.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
13) At 7 a.m. I (to ring) Peter and (to say), "I'm going fishing. Would you like
to come?" – "But it's so early", (to say) Peter. "I (not to have) breakfast yet.
Why you (not to tell) me last night?"
14) I can't find my gloves. You (to see) them? – Yes, you (to leave) them in the
car yesterday. I (to put) them back into your drawer.
15) When I (to be) sixteen I (to start) my university course. – When you (to get)
your degree? – Oh, I (not to get) my degree yet. I'm still at the University. I
(to be) there only for two years.
16) How long you (to work) for Jones and Company? – I (to work) for them for
two years.
17) Mr Speed (to dictate) three letters and (to tell) Ann to type them as soon as
possible. Half an hour later he (to phone) Ann's office. "You (to finish) the
letters yet?" he (to ask). "Well, (to say) Ann, I (to do) the letter to Mr Jones,
but I (not to start) the two letters to Mr Smith yet".
18) Carol and I are old friends. I (to know) her since I (to be) a freshman in high
19) Maria (to have) a lot of problems since she (to change) her job.
20) I (not to get) any letters since I (to move) to a new flat.
21) Since the semester (to begin) we (to have) four tests.
22) Mike (to be) in school since he (to be) six years old.
23) My mother (not to be) in school since she (to graduate) from college in
24) Since we (to start) doing this exercise, we (to complete) six sentences.
25) My name is Surasuk. I'm from Thailand. Right now I'm studying English at
this school. I (to be) at this school since the beginning of January. I (to
arrive) here January 2, and my classes (to begin) January 6. Since I (to
come) here, I (to do) many things, and I (to meet) many people. I (to go) to
several parties. Last Saturday I (to go) to a party at my friend's house. I (to
meet) some of the other students from Thailand at the party. Of course, we
(to speak) Thai, so I (not to practise) my English that night. There (to be)
only people from Thailand at the party. However, since I (to come) here, I
(to meet) a lot of other people. I (to meet) students from Latin America,
Africa, the Middle East and Asia. I enjoy meeting people from other
26) Lately I (to see) very little of her. She (not to phone) me since I last (to see)
27) When you (to see) this film? – In May. And since then I (not to be) to the
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
2.2.7. Translate into English. Use either the Present Indefinite or Past
Indefinite, the Present Continuous or Present Perfect.
1) Вы перебили меня, и теперь я не помню, на чем я остановился.
2) Он никогда не вмешивался в мои дела, и я ему за это очень
3) Я только что звонил на вокзал и узнал, что поезд еще не пришел.
4) Я очень рада, что вы приняли наше приглашение. Мы недавно
ужинали в этом ресторане. Нам там понравилось.
5) Я узнал ваш номер телефона в справочном бюро и звонил вам
несколько раз, но никто не отвечал.
6) Преподаватели пришли полчаса тому назад и пригласили трех
7) Преподаватели уже пришли. Три студента вошли в аудиторию
четверть часа тому назад. Сейчас они готовятся отвечать.
8) Когда мы учились в школе, мы всегда помогали друг другу.
9) Мы не виделись с тех пор, как закончили школу. И я не знаю, чем в
данное время занимаются мои друзья.
10) Дождь все еще идет? – Нет, он прекратился полчаса тому назад. Он
шел с самого утра. В прошлом году в это время была сухая и теплая
11) Когда ты в последний раз его видела? – Неделю тому назад. А почему
ты спрашиваешь? – Он заболел. – Как давно он болеет? – Почти
12) Где ты купила этот словарь? – Он у меня с тех пор, как я поступила в
13) Я знаю ее много лет, она всегда была мне хорошей подругой. Недавно
она вернулась из Германии. Она проработала там два года.
14) Дождь уже прекратился, светит солнце, люди сняли плащи и убрали
15) Этот человек всегда был очень добр ко мне. Я потерял родителей,
когда мне было 5 лет. С тех пор я жил в его семье. А когда мне
исполнилось двадцать лет, я уехал в Москву, где поступил в институт.
16) Ты когда-либо бывал в Третьяковской галерее? – Конечно. Я был там
дважды. Первый раз я был там, когда мне исполнилось 10 лет. А
второй раз я был там 3 года тому назад. С тех пор я не бывал там.
17) Я всегда провожу отпуск на море. Этим летом я был в Испании. –
Когда это было, в июне или в августе?
18) Дети только что вернулись из деревни. – Как долго они там были? –
Все лето.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
19) У вас есть какие-либо планы на выходные дни? – Мы еще не решили.
А ты хочешь предложить что-либо? – Мы собираемся провести
выходные за городом. Не хотите ли присоединиться к нам?
20) Могу я поговорить с Ником? – Боюсь, что нет. Он занят. Он
проявляет пленку. – Разве он еще не закончил? –Еще нет.
2.3. The Past Indefinite – the Past Perfect
1. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Prefect.
1) I was disappointed because when I (1) (to arrive) at the station the train
already (2) (to leave).
2) I (3) (not to see) Paul yesterday. When I (4) (to come) to the office he
already (5) (to go).
3) He retired after he (6) (to work) in the bank for 15 years.
4) I was sure the bus (7) (to leave) at 3.15. But I was mistaken.
5) She said she never (8) (to be) to the USA and (9) (to want) to go there in
6) He thought he (10) (to meet) the woman before, but he (11) (not to
remember) when and where.
7) When I returned home the guests already (12) (to go).
8) I (13) (to see) the manager just now.
9) He (14) (to be) very upset because he had missed a good opportunity to
talk to the director in private.
10) She said she already (15) (to invite) all her friends to the housewarming
11) He said that lately he (16) (to work) hard and needed a good rest.
12) When I (17) (to be) in Riga I stayed at a nice small hotel.
13) Hardly I (18) (to open) the door when the phone (19) (to ring).
14) Everybody already (20) (to have) supper when we (21) (to get) home last
15) A woman (22) (to enter) the room and (23) (to say) she (24) (to be) Mrs
16) She looked at the man and wondered if she ever (25) (to see) him before.
17) When you (26) (to get) his last letter? – A week ago. He (27) (to write) he
just (28) (to return) from Germany and (29) (to want) to see us.
18) I (30) (not to recognize) my old teacher because we (31) (not to meet) for
more than 40 years. He (32) (to change) a lot. But his smile was the same.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
19) My sister (33) (to eat) all the sweets before we (34) (to get) home. She (35)
(to say) she (36) (to like) them a lot.
20) He (37) (to begin) to smoke when he was young. But he (38) (to give up) it
35 years ago. He said that since then he (39) (not to smoke) a single
2. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect.
41) Я был уверен, что никогда раньше не встречал этого человека.
42) Не успел я зайти в дом, как начался дождь.
43) Я не видел ее вчера и она не звонила мне. Когда я пришел в офис, она
уже ушла. Ее подруга сказала мне, что она заболела.
44) Когда он прочел ее последнее письмо, он понял, что навсегда потерял
45) Она сказала, что никогда не была в Греции и хочет посетить эту
46) Он выпил чашку чая, включил телевизор и уселся в свое кресло.
47) Я знал, что она не пришла, потому что она не хотела встречаться с
48) Он был голоден, так как не ел ничего с утра.
49) Джейн вчера ходила с вами в театр? – Нет. Она сказала, что уже
видела этот балет.
50) Когда час спустя он вернулся домой, его жена уже пришла с работы.
Total: 50/_____
The Past Indefinite – the Past Perfect
The Past Perfect is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect.
Present: Your room is dirty. You haven't cleaned it for ages.
Past: Your room was dirty. You hadn't cleaned it for ages. .
The Past Perfect is also the past equivalent of the Past Indefinite,
and is used when from a certain point in the past the narrator looks back
on earlier actions:
Compare: We met in 2000. I had seen her last ten years before. Her hair had
been black then; now it was white.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Compare the difference of meaning in the following examples:
I heard voices and realized that there were four people in the kitchen:
three men and a woman.
I saw empty cups and realized that there had been four people in the
kitchen (they were no longer there).
Compare the use of the Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect in time
1) Two past actions can be combined with when:
When I opened the window the bird flew out (two Past Indefinite
Tenses give the idea that the first action led to the second and the
second followed the first very closely).
When he had seen all the photos he said he was ready to leave (when he
had finished looking at them).
2) Two past actions can also be combined with till/until, as soon as,
before. Generally Past Indefinite tenses are used here:
I waited till she returned.
As soon as the rain started the children ran outdoors.
But when it is necessary to emphasize that the first action was
completely finished before the second one started, the Past Perfect is
As soon as his guests had eaten everything they went home.
Before he had known her for a month he made a proposal.
3) After is normally followed by a Perfect Tense: He felt better after he
had talked to his father.
The Past Perfect – the Past Perfect Continuous
The Past Perfect is the past of the Present Prefect.
Present: I am not hungry. I have just had dinner.
Past: I was not hungry. I had just had dinner.
The Past Perfect Continuous is the past of the Present Perfect
Present: How long have you been waiting?
Past: How long had you been waiting when she finally came?
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
By six o’clock she had typed all the documents and was ready to leave (it
is a single action in the past).
I knew she had been typing the documents since morning (the action
began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued up to that
time or stopped just before it).
2.3.1. Fill in with either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect. State which action
happened first.
1) When I (to leave) the house, I (to realise) that I (to First Action: had
forget) my keys.
2) After I (to finish) digging the garden I (to decide) to First Action: ...
go for a walk.
3) I (to lend) Fiona some money only after she (to First Action: ...
promise) to give it back the next day.
4) They kept arguing about the money their father (to First Action: ...
leave) them in his will when he (to die).
5) Kate (to start) cooking after John (to leave).
First Action: ...
6) I (to present) Beckie with flowers yesterday because First Action: ...
she (to sing) so well in the concert the night before.
7) When I (to see) Julie, I (to realise) that I (to meet) her First Action: ...
2.3.2. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect.
1) I (not to recognize) my old teacher because we (not to see) each other for
15 years.
2) After they (to finish) their work, they (to go) for a drink.
3) When I (to arrive) at her house, I found she (to go) out.
4) My brother (to eat) all the cakes before we (to get) home.
5) I was surprised to hear that she (to get) an honour degree when she (to be)
only sixteen.
6) After the burglary, they (not to touch) anything until the police (to find)
any finger-prints.
7) I (to write) to the shop to ask why my books (not to arrive) yet.
8) He (to refuse) to admit that the accident (to be) his fault.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Henry (to come) home from holiday to find that someone (to break) into
his house.
10) When Elizabeth I (to die) in 1603, she (to reign) for over 40 years.
2.3.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: the Past Indefinite, Past
Continuous or Past Perfect.
1) When I left for school this morning, it (to rain), so I used my umbrella.
2) By the time the class was over this morning, the rain (to stop), so I (not to
need) my umbrella any more.
3) Last night I (to start) to study at 7.30. Dick came at 7.35. So I (to study)
when Dick (to come).
4) Last night I started to study at 7.30. I (to finish) studying at 9.00. Dick
came at 9.30. By the time Dick (to come), I (to finish) my homework.
5) When I (to walk) into the kitchen after dinner last night, my wife (to wash)
the dishes, so I picked up a dish towel to help her.
6) By the time I walked into the kitchen after dinner, my husband already (to
wash) the dishes and (to put) them away.
7) I went to bed only after I (to pack) all my things. But I (to be) so tired that I
couldn't sleep. For a long time I (to lie) in bed sleepless and I (to think)
about my future.
8) They (to build) that supermarket when I was here last year. They haven't
finished it yet.
9) While I (to wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else came
and (to buy) it.
10) When I came Peter (to have) supper. He said Ann (to leave) just.
2.3.4. Open the brackets. Use the correct past form. Retell the text (in the 3 rd
person singular).
I remember when I (1) (to go) on holiday abroad for the first time. I (2)
just (to leave) school. I (3) (to study) very hard for my final exams and I (4) (to
feel) that I needed a holiday. A friend of mine (5) (to want) to come as well so
we (6) (to look) at some brochures from the travel agency. We (7) (to read) for
about an hour when my friend (8) (to find) the perfect holiday – two weeks in
Hawaii. We (9) (to be) very excited about it. Finally the day of our holiday (10)
(to arrive). We (11) just(to leave) the house when the phone (12) (to ring). I
(13) (to run) back into the house, but the phone (14) (to stop) by the time I (15)
(to reach) it. When we (16) (to arrive) at the airport we (17) (to sit) in the
cafeteria. The airline (18) just (to make) an announcement. Our flight was
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
delayed for eight hours. We were very disappointed because we (19) (to get up)
very early and (20) (to rush) to the airport, all for nothing.
1) He (to give) me back the book, (to thank) me for lending it to him and (to
say) that he (to enjoy) it very much; but I (to know) that he (not to read) it.
2) When the old lady (to return) to her flat she (to see) at once that burglars
(to break) in during her absence, because the front door (to be) open and
everything in the flat (to be) upside down.
3) I (to think) my train (to leave) at 14.33, and (to be) very disappointed when
I (to arrive) at 14.30 and (to learn) that it just (to leave). Later I (to find)
that I (to use) an out-of-date timetable.
4) He (to park) his car under a No Parking sign and (to rush) into the shop.
When he (to come) out of the shop 10 minutes later the car (to be) no
longer there. He (to wonder) if someone (to steal) it or if the police (to
drive) it away.
5) It (to be) 6 p.m.; and Jack (to be) tired because he (to work) hard all day.
He (to be) hungry as he (to have) nothing to eat since breakfast.
6) He (to keep on) looking at her, wondering where he (to see) her before.
7) When I (to get up) the following morning he was still there, and I (to
wonder) if he (to stay) there all night or if he (to go) away and (to come)
8) A woman (to come) in with a baby, who she (to say) just (to swallow) a
safety pin.
9) I (to put) a $5 banknote into one of my books, but the next day it (to take)
me ages to find it because I (to forget) which book I (to put) it into.
10) When he (to search) all his pockets and (to find) no key he (to remember)
where it was. He (to leave) it in his overcoat pocket.
11) I (to arrive) in England in the middle of July. I (to be) quite surprised to
find no fog there. I (to ask) a passenger, an Englishman, about the fog and
he (to say) that there (to be) no fog since the previous February. However,
he (to tell) me that I could buy tinned fog at a shop in Shaftesbury Avenue.
I suppose he (to joke).
12) They (to complete) all the preparations for the fancy-dress ball by 5
o'clock. It was 7 o'clock when the first guests (to arrive).
13) During my last visit to the picture gallery I (to find) that I no longer (to
like) the pictures which (to impress) me when I first (to see) them.
14) Hardly he (to touch) the pillow when he (to fall) asleep.
15) Everybody (to be) at the airport, but the guide (not to come) yet.
16) They (to be) friends for some ten years before I (to meet) them.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
17) In the morning I (to feel) good after the night I (to spend) in the
comfortable sleeper.
18) No sooner she (to open) the drawer than she (to find) the photo which she
(to think) she (to lose) long before.
19) When she (to finish) reading the letter she (to understand) that she (to lose)
him for ever.
20) She guessed why he (not to come) the previous evening. She (to know) he
(to stay) away because he (to be) afraid.
2.3.5. Translate using the Past Indefinite, Past Perfect or Past Perfect
1) Она дала мне письмо только после того, как я назвал свое имя.
2) Никто не говорил ей, как тяжело она была больна до тех пор, пока она
не выздоровела.
3) Когда он пришел утром в офис, он с удовольствием заметил, что
секретарь ничего не трогала на его столе.
4) Едва эта женщина появилась в их доме, как жизнь изменилась к
5) Не успела я произнести и несколько слов, как все засмеялись.
6) К тому времени, как я пришел, они обсуждали его доклад уже два часа.
7) Все было готово к отъезду, но машина еще не пришла.
8) Солнце еще не встало, когда они отправились в путь.
9) Он спросил, что мы сделали с тех пор, как начали работать над этой
10) Вопрос оказался гораздо проще, чем мы думали.
11) Поезд уже ушел к тому времени, когда они, наконец, добрались до
12) Когда я вернулся домой, гости уже разошлись, а мама уже час мыла
13) К тому времени, когда директор пришел в свой кабинет, секретарь
просматривала корреспонденцию с 9 часов.
14) Я видел много репродукций этой картины до того, как увидел
оригинал, и должен сказать, что я нашел в ней много такого, чего не
замечал в репродукциях.
15) Он вошел в комнату и сказал, что он только что узнал удивительную
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
There are several ways of expressing the future in English:
the Present Indefinite (not very important use);
the Present Continuous;
the going to form;
the Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive);
the Future Continuous;
the Future Perfect.
Each is used in a slightly different way.
Compare: The train leaves at 6.15. (отправляется в значении
They are leaving tomorrow. (уезжают в значении 'уедут')
They are going to buy tickets in advance. (собираются купить, купят)
They will buy tickets in advance. (купят)
They will be flying to Italy at this time tomorrow. (будут лететь)
They will have left by the time you come. (уедут)
We have already compared the use of the Present Indefinite and
the Present Continuous for expressing the future (See Unit 6, § 1: 1.1).
3.1. The Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive) – the going to form.
1. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Continuous or Future Indefinite.
1) He (1) (to leave) tomorrow at 7.25. And in 2 hours he (2) (to be) in Sofia.
He (3) (to spend) there a week. As soon as he comes back we (4) (to meet).
2) Last summer they were in Spain. They (5) (to plan) to go there again. –
They (6) (to go) by plane or by train? – I think, by plane.
3) On Monday I (7) (to have) my last exam. As soon as I pass it I (8) (to go)
to the country to see my grandparents. I haven't visited them since autumn.
They (9) (to wait) for me now.
4) My aunt (10) (to come) to see us next Saturday. She (11) (to stay) with us
for a fortnight. Then she (12) (to fly) to Brest to see her brother.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Next year she (13) (to be) 20. – How she (14) (to celebrate) it? – I think,
she (15) (to go) on a tour.
What the children (16) (to do) now? – They (17) (to play) in the garden.
And in an hour I (18) (to take) them to the Zoo.
When we (19) (to have) supper? – In half an hour. Mother (20) (to cook) it
She (21) (to phone) us soon and we (22) (to decide) where we (23) (to
spend) our holidays.
Jack (24) (to come) tomorrow. I (25) (to ask) him for help but I expect he
(26) (to refuse).
They (27) (to play) cards now. When they finish they (28) (to go) for a
The weather (29) (to be) fine if it isn't windy tomorrow.
She asks me if I (30) (to join) them the day after tomorrow.
When you (31) (to send) them a telegram? – Next Sunday.
She always (32) (to find) fault with the boy. – Why she always (33) (to
complain) to his parents about his bad behaviour?
I'm sorry, but she cannot talk to you now. She (34) (to have) a shower.
Why the girl (35) (to cry)? – She is afraid of the dog.
Before he leaves he (36) (to sign) all the documents.
What's up? Why you (37) (to sit) here alone? – I (38) (to wait) for Mother.
I've left my key in the office.
As soon as I get a letter from them I (39) (to let) you know about it.
When he comes he (40) (to explain) to you why he has done it.
2. Translate using either the Present Continuous or Future Indefinite.
41) Почему ты сидишь здесь в темноте? – Дети спят.
42) Мы уезжаем завтра. Мы планируем провести неделю у наших друзей
в деревне.
43) Через год ей будет 20. Она выйдет замуж за Ника, и они будут очень
44) Что вы собираетесь делать завтра вечером? – Ничего особенного. Я
буду очень рад, если вы придете повидать нас.
45) Если завтра будет хорошая погода, я поведу детей в парк. Я уверена,
им понравится.
46) Ты занята? – Да, я перевожу статью. – Ты переводишь ее для Ника?
Ты всегда переводишь для него. Когда же он сам будет делать
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
47) Ты плачешь? – Нет, я не плачу. Я смеюсь. Когда ты прочтешь эту
книгу, ты тоже будешь смеяться.
48) Ты будешь присутствовать на собрании завтра? – Конечно. Директор
очень рассердится, если я не приду.
49) Завтра у нас собрание. У нас всегда собрания по понедельникам. Ты
придешь? – Да.
50) Прежде чем я уеду, я позвоню тебе.
Total: 50/______
The Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive) – the going to form.
The going to form expresses the subject’s intention to perform a
certain future action. This intention is always premeditated and there is
usually also the idea that some preparation for the action has already
been made. Actions expressed by the going to form are usually
considered very likely to be performed, though there is not the same
idea of definite future arrangement that we get from the Present
I am going to meet Ann at the theatre at 6.30 (intention to perform the
I am meeting Ann at the theatre at 6.30 (definite future arrangement).
He is going to buy a new car (he has already made this decision and he
will do it soon).
He’ll buy a new car (this is the speaker’s opinion, it gives no idea when
it will be done).
3.1.1. Underline will and (be) going to in these sentences:
1) I'll finish them.
2) There are going to be some big changes.
3) I'm going to do a course in business studies.
4) I'll put you through.
5) I'll be there on time.
6) We're going to stay at home this year.
7) We're going to send Ronald. He's an expert on the area.
8) I'm going to be a bit late.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
3.1.2. Now use the sentences from the previous exercise to complete these
conversations. Reproduce them.
1) – Steel Engineering. Can I help you? – Yes, I'd like to speak to Ms
Johanssen? – One moment, please, .......
2) – Don't forget Thursday's project meeting. – lt's at ten o'clock, isn't it? –
Don't worry, ...... .
3) – Sales. Lisa Pavic speaking. – Hi, Lisa. This is Alexandra. I'm still at the
head office. I'm afraid, ........ .
4) – So you're going back to college, Mario? – Yes, ...… .
5) – I need those figures as soon as possible. – Don't worry, ...... after I've
done this report.
6) – Have you seen the consultants' report ? – No, but I hear, ...... at the head
7) – Have you come to any decision about the Dehli Fair? – Yes, ...... .
8) – Have you made any plans for the holidays? – Yes, we've made up our
minds at last. .....
3.1.3. Complete the gaps using will/(be) going to and the verb in brackets:
1) – What time's the meeting, Karen? – Half past nine. We'd better go or we
...... late. (to be)
2) – I think we've run out of copying paper. – Don't worry. I ..... you some
when I go out. (to get)
3) – So you want to use the computer, Julia? – Yes, I ..... the quality control
report. I only did the first two pages yesterday. (to finish)
4) – Have you decided who's getting the sales job? – Not yet. We ...... the
decision at this afternoon's meeting. (to make)
5) – Are you ready to order yet, sir? – Yes, I think so. I ...... the pate followed
by the baked salmon. (to have)
6) – Can I borrow your calculator, Louise? – I've stopped lending it. I never get
it back! – Don't worry. I ...... it back to you as soon as I've finished.
7) – Who are we sending to the Berlin Conference this year? – I think Carol
should go. – Good idea. I think she ...... a great job. (to do)
8) – Have you got those sales figures, Bill? – Don't worry. I ...... them to you
this afternoon. (to fax)
3.1.4. Match the situations with what is "going to" happen:
1) Tina is stuck in a traffic jam.
A) Don't worry, it's going to be
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Elena is looking for a new job.
B) Right, we're going to have an
emergency meeting.
Bill's been late once too often.
C) You're going to have to start
learning Japanese.
The new computer keeps breaking D) He's going to have a breakdown.
You're being transferred to the E) He's going to be sacked if he isn't
Osaka branch.
more careful.
Westgate Construction Pie is F) Then, she's going to be late for her
losing money.
Rashid works till ten o'clock G) I suppose she's going to resign,
every night.
Your main competitors have just H) I know the Board is going to call in
cut their prices by 15%.
a firm of consultants.
3.1.5. Open the brackets. Use either will or (be) going to.
1) Tom:
Where you (to go) for your next holiday?
I don't know yet, but we probably (to go) to Spain.
2) I (to see) my bank manager tomorrow. I'm going to ask him for a loan but I
expect he (to refuse).
3) I (to know) the result tomorrow. As soon as I hear I (to tell) you.
4) Peter:
We'd better leave a message for Jack. Otherwise he (not to
know) where we've gone.
George: All right. I (to leave) a note on his table.
5) Jack:
I don't want to get married. I never (to get) married.
Mother: You think that now. But one day you (to meet) a girl and you (to
fall) in love.
6) Tom:
I (to go) to York tomorrow.
You (to come) back the same day?
No, I probably (to have) to spend the night there.
7) What you (to do) next weekend? – It depends on the weather. If it's fine
we (to go) somewhere in the car, if it's wet we (to stay) at home.
8) I (to wait) for you? – No, don't bother. This (to take) a long time.
9) Jack: I (to give) you a lift to work tomorrow if you (to like).
Tom: Have you borrowed a car?
No, I've just bought one. I (to collect) it this afternoon.
10) Mary: Jack and I (to go) out tonight. We (to have) dinner at the Festival
Hall and (to go) to a concert afterwards.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
And what about the children? I (to come) and baby-sit if you
Oh, my neighbour (to come) and sit with them. I (to ask) you
next time.
3.1.6. Translate using either the Present Continuous or Future Indefinite.
1) Ты собираешься домой? – Да. – Но на улице такой сильный дождь.
Ты промокнешь до нитки. Возьми зонт. – Спасибо, я принесу его
2) У тебя есть экзамены в конце этого семестра? – Да, три. Первый в
начале июня. – Ты уверен, что сдашь? – Конечно. – А если нет? –
Если не сдам, то попытаюсь сделать это через месяц.
3) – Бен и Люси женятся в субботу. Ты идешь на свадьбу? – Если они
меня пригласят, я обязательно приду поздравить их с этим
замечательным событием.
4) На следующей неделе я улетаю в Нью-Йорк. – Ты берешь с собой
жену? – Нет. Если я возьму ее с собой, я знаю, она проведет все свое
время в магазинах, где потратит все мои деньги.
5) Мы сегодня ужинаем в ресторане. Ты присоединишься к нам? – Нет, к
сожалению. У меня деловое свидание.
6) Я узнаю результаты тестирования завтра. Как только я буду знать их,
я позвоню тебе.
7) Если я подожду его еще немного, я опоздаю на поезд. – Когда
отправляется поезд? – Через полтора часа.
8) Если в субботу не будет дождя, мы замечательно проведем время на
даче. У Анны день рождения. Там соберутся все родственники.
9) Когда ты уезжаешь? – В понедельник, если ничего не произойдет.
10) – Как только он вернется, я дам тебе знать. – Он возвращается завтра?
– Да, но я не знаю точное время. Я думаю, дорога займет у него не
более 4 часов, но ты никогда не знаешь точно, если путешествуешь на
3.1.7. Translate using either the Present Indefinite, Present Continuous,
Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Future Indefinite or Future
1) Он еще не прочитал твою книгу? Сколько же времени он ее читает?
2) Он закончил первую главу романа и пишет вторую. Он работает над
романом уже 2 года. Через полгода он закончит его.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Они уже приняли резолюцию по первому вопросу? – Нет. Они все
еще спорят. Они обсуждают этот вопрос вот уже более двух часов и
еще не пришли к единому мнению.
Как только я вернусь домой, я сразу позвоню тебе. Я надеюсь, ты
будешь ждать моего звонка. У тебя займет не более получаса, чтобы
добраться до моего дома.
Наконец-то ты пришла. Я жду тебя более часа. Где ты была все это
– Что ты делаешь? – Глажу белье. – Ты до сих пор не закончила?
Сколько же времени ты делаешь это? – С утра.
Что изменилось в твоей жизни с тех пор, как мы расстались? –
Многое. Я женился, и сейчас мы ждем ребенка. – А работу ты
сменил? – Нет. Вот уже около 5 лет я работаю в банке и не собираюсь
Вот уже около полугода полиция разыскивает убийцу, но до сих пор
не нашла его.
– Ты не звонил мне целую вечность. Надеюсь, не случилось ничего
плохого? – Я был очень занят. Все лето я строил свой загородный
дом. Я почти закончил строительство. Через месяц мы переезжаем
Всю свою жизнь он собирал открытки. Сейчас у него их более 50
тысяч. Интересно, где он их хранит?
– Я очень сожалею, но я не могу поехать с вами. Моя мама заболела. –
Что-нибудь серьезное? – Нет, всего лишь простуда, но у нее уже
неделю высокая температура.
–С тех пор, как мы закончили институт, он многого добился. У него
хорошая семья, большой дом, престижная работа. – Когда ты видел
его в последний раз? – В прошлом году. Он совсем не изменился.
– Вот уже более двух недель она готовится к приезду своих друзей из
Англии. – Когда они приезжают? – В следующую субботу. – Она
давно их знает? – Они познакомились года три тому назад, когда она
впервые поехала в Лондон. И с тех пор они регулярно навещают друг
друга. Она недавно была в Лондоне, а сейчас они приезжают к ней.
Они были здесь уже трижды, и сейчас она с нетерпением ждет их
Я слышал, они поженились. – Я не удивлен. Они знают друг друга с
– Когда ты разговаривал с ним последний раз? – Я не помню. Но я
знаю, что он очень занят последние несколько дней. Он готовится к
экзамену по английскому языку.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
3.2. The Future Continuous – the Present Continuous.
Though the two tenses have much in common (they both express
future without intention), they differ in the following points:
a) The Present Continuous implies a deliberate future action.
b) The Future Continuous usually implies an action which will
occur in the normal course of events. It is less definite and more
casual than the Present Continuous.
I am seeing Ann tomorrow (it implies that Ann or the speaker has
deliberately arranged the meeting).
I’ll be seeing Ann tomorrow (it implies that Ann and the speaker will
meet in the ordinary course of events; perhaps, they study together).
The Present Continuous can only be used with a definite time
and for the near future while the Future Continuous can be used with
or without a definite time and for the near or distant future.
I am meeting her tomorrow.
I’ll be meeting him some time/next summer (or without a time expression
at all).
The Future Continuous can also be used like other Continuous
tenses to express an action which will continue for some time without
definite limits. When used in this way with a time expression it implies
that the action will start before the time mentioned and probably will
continue after it. This time tomorrow I’ll be flying to Rome.
3.3. The Future Perfect Continuous – the Future Perfect
1. Open the brackets using either the Future Perfect Continuous or Future
1) By the time they get home Dad (1) (to go) to the airport.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
By the time you finish the work I (2) (to fix) supper and (3) (to wait) for
you for half an hour.
In 10 minutes you (4) (to stand) in front of the mirror for an hour and a
half. You (5) (to choose) which dress to put on by this time?
I hope you (6) (to take) a decision by the time we meet again.
The guests (7) (to leave) by the time the children go to bed, I think.
In a few minutes' time I (9) (to stand) here in front of the theatre and (10)
(to wait) for her for almost an hour. As soon as the clock strikes seven I'll
Is there any hope he (11) (to find) the key by the time the children get
home from school?
By the time you join us we (12) (to try) to persuade her to go with us for 2
We (13) (to do) the greater part of the work by the time you are ready to
assist us. By this time we (14) (to do) it for several months.
I am sure, by the time you phone he (15) (to buy) the tickets and (16) (to
inform) me about the time of his departure. By this time I (17) (to wait) for
this reasonable step for two weeks.
By the end of this spring they (18) (to repair) their new house and will go
to see it. By this time they (19) (to repair) it for 2 years.
By the end of the year he (20) (to work) for this company for 30 years. He
likes his job and isn't going to quit it.
My parents (21) (to be married) for 60 years by next May. They have
always been a wonderful couple.
– You have been translating the text for 2 hours. – I'm sure, I (22) (to
finish) it by 5 o'clock. – By this time you (23) (to sit) here for 5 hours. Is it
as difficult as that?
My children became keen on video games when they went to school. By
2009 John (24) (to be) keen on them for 5 years and Nick (25) (to be) crazy
about them for 7 years by that time.
By the time they return we (26) (to discuss) the plan since 9 o'clock. I'm
afraid, we (27) (to finish) only by 7.
My parents have always lived in this house. They (28) (to live) in it for 50
years by next winter.
She (29) (to give) us her final decision by Monday. By this time she (30)
(to think) over it for 3 days.
– By the time my sister is twenty she (31) (to learn) English for 15 years. –
Do you think by the time she is twenty she (32) (to be able) to speak it as a
native speaker? – I'm absolutely sure, she will.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
20) My brother (33) (to try) to learn Spanish for 3 years by September. But I
don't think, he (34) (to achieve) any good results by this time. I'm so
pessimistic because by next May I (35) (to learn) German for 6 years, but I
must admit, I don't know it.
2. Translate using either the Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous.
36) К концу месяца он напишет первую главу своего нового романа.
37) Они будут жить в этом доме вот уже 40 лет к концу года.
38) К тому времени, когда вы вернетесь, мы уже приготовим ужин.
39) Вы уверены, что закончите работу к 7 часам?
40) К 7 часам будет уже 4 часа, как вы переводите эту статью.
41) К следующему году они будут женаты 40 лет.
42) К тому времени, когда придет управляющий, секретарь уже
просмотрит почту.
43) Я боюсь, они закончат работу к тому времени, как мы присоединимся
к ним.
44) Мы надеемся, что они получат наше письмо к концу недели.
45) Ты уверена, что упакуешь все вещи к 6 часам?
46) К вечеру будет уже 6 часов, как я пытаюсь найти Анну, но ее телефон
не отвечает.
47) К завтрашнему дню я прочту твою книгу.
48) В мае будет уже полгода, как он ремонтирует свою машину.
49) Вы переедете в свою новую квартиру к Рождеству?
50) Я надеюсь, ты будешь готова к 6 часам.
Total: 50/______
The Future Perfect Continuous – the Future Perfect
The Future Perfect is used for an action which will have
completed or not completed by a definite moment in the future.
It is always used with a time expression: By the end of summer they
will have moved to their new house.
If we want to indicate the duration of an event at a specific time in
the future, we can use the Future Perfect Continuous: By March next
year he will have been teaching French for 25 years.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
3.3.1. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Perfect or Future Perfect
1) I hope they (to repair) this road by the time we come back next summer.
2) By the time you come back I (to paper) the walls for more than 10 hours.
3) By the end of next year he (to run) this company for 45 years. And he is
not going to retire.
4) – Come back in an hour. – But you (to pack) by that time? – No, I don't
think so. I (to pack) only by midnight, I think.
5) I am afraid we (not to discuss) all the questions by the time they return.
6) I hope they (to receive) my letter by Saturday. By the time you get into
contact with them they (to arrive) at a conclusion.
7) We (to solve) this problem for more than two hours by the time you join
8) By the time you are able to start the experiment we (to study) all the
9) The secretary (to look) through all the papers by the time the manager
10) By the time he's 17 he (to learn) English for 12 years.
11) She (to do) the shopping by the time her husband comes home.
12) By next May they (to live) in this town for more than 50 years.
3.3.2. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Indefinite or Future
Continuous, Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous.
1) Next year she (to be) 20.
2) Tomorrow at this time they (to fly) to Rome.
3) What you (to do) the day after tomorrow from 3 to 5? – But why are you
4) They (to finish repairing my car by the time I come.
5) By the time he arrives in Minsk he (to drive) for 10 hours.
6) How long you (to learn) English by the end of the year?
7) I'm sorry, but I (not to go) to the theatre with you. I (to stay) at home. My
Mum has fallen ill.
8) Don't cry! You (to forget) about all your troubles by tomorrow.
9) By Monday I (to work) on this business plan for a month.
10) I'm sure, I (to read) this article by tomorrow night.
11) By 5 o'clock he (to translate) this text for 3 hours.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
12) Will you be busy tomorrow evening? – Yes, I (to write) a report. – Will
you (to finish) by 9 p.m.?
13) If nothing happens, they (to return) at 7.
14) If nothing happens, they (to return) by 7.
15) I (to wait) until you phone me.
16) I promise, I (to phone) by the time you get home.
17) I (to wait) for your call from 1 till 3.
18) Tomorrow at this time the children (to sleep).
19) As soon as I buy the tickets I (to let) you know.
20) It's going to be a big party. I'm sure we (to have) a great time.
3.3.3. Complete the dialogue using the Future Indefinite, Future Continuous,
Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous. Reproduce it.
– Can I call on you tomorrow, Linda?
– Tomorrow? What time?
– Well, I'm not going to the institute tomorrow so I (to call on) you at 10 in
the morning.
– Oh, no! It's too early. I (to sleep).
– OK. I (to call on) you at noon.
– Well, at that time I (to dye) my hair.
– Perhaps I (to come) in the afternoon, then. What you (to do) at about 3?
– I (to get) ready for my swimming class.
– Well, you (to be) at home, if I come at 5?
– I'm afraid not. I (to be) away to the theatre.
– When can I see you? I want my book back.
– Phone me tomorrow evening. I think, by that time I (to finish) it.
– You haven't finished it yet? You (to read) it for a year by May, 7.
– How do you remember it?
– May, 7 is my birthday.
3.3.4. Translate using either the Future Perfect or Future Perfect
1) К тому времени, когда мы приедем на вокзал, поезд уже уйдет.
2) Если ты не поторопишься, они завершат работу к тому времени, как
придем помочь им.
3) В следующем году будет уже 45 лет, как мои родители живут в этом
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Я напишу ему к твоему приходу.
Ты закончишь переводить статью к понедельнику?
К следующему году мой брат будет заниматься плаванием уже 5 лет.
Я уверен, что он не подпишет контракт к приезду директора.
Я надеюсь, что к тому времени, когда ты вернешься, он уже позвонит
мне и сообщит о результатах командировки.
К тому моменту, когда ты придешь, мы уже закончим ужинать.
Я была уверена, что к моменту приезда наших партнеров мы
подготовим все документы.
Через 5 минут будет уже час, как ты говоришь по телефону.
Я не уверена, что мы приготовим обед к двум часам. Давайте обедать
не в 2, а в 4. К этому времени все будет готово.
Через неделю будет 50 лет с тех пор, как мои родители поженились.
В будущем году будет уже 3 года, как его отец ушел на пенсию.
К понедельнику я обдумаю ваше предложение и сообщу вам о своем
1. In the following pairs of sentences, one sentence is right and one is wrong.
Choose the right one.
1) A) Had you heard the news?
B) Have you heard the news?
2) A) I was losing my glasses. I can neither read nor write.
B) I have lost my glasses. I can neither read nor write.
3) A) The plane to Bang Hong has just taken off.
B) The plane to Bang Hong just took off.
4) A) I’m exhausted. I was packing all day.
B) I’m exhausted. I’ve been packing all day.
5) A) How long do you write stories?
B) How long have you been writing stories?
6) A) Have you been to the bank yet?
B) Were you to the bank yet?
7) A) I saw her just now.
B) I have seen her just now.
8) A) Last time I spoke to her a week ago.
B) Lately I have spoken to her a week ago.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) When did they return?
B) When have they returned?
A) How long has he been working here?
B) How long is he working here?
A) Yesterday from 5 to 7 I had been learning English.
B) Yesterday from 5 to 7 I was learning English.
A) Will you have finished the job by 7?
B) Will you finish the job by 7?
A) We are leaving tomorrow.
B) We will be leaving tomorrow.
A) After he translated the text he had supper.
B) After he had translated the text he had supper.
A) Do you know him?
B) Are you knowing him?
A) Before he leaves he’ll phone me.
B) Before he’ll leave he’ll phone me.
A) If it doesn’t rain tomorrow we’ll go to the park.
B) If it not rains tomorrow we’ll go to the park.
A) I’ll talk to him after I have been typing the contract.
B) I’ll talk to him after I type the contract.
A) He’ll wait until I don't come.
B) He’ll wait until I come.
A) What have they been doing now?
B) What are they doing now?
2. Choose the correct alternative.
1) I (understood/ was understanding) that he (didn’t listen/ was not listening) to
what I (told/ was telling) him.
2) He went over in his mind all that (appeared/ had appeared) in the papers
about the Island.
3) He laid the paper down and (glanced/ had glanced) out of the window.
4) Mentally she reread the letter which she (already read/ had already read) so
many times.
5) I think they (will inform/ will have informed) you about it by the end of the
6) I (returned/ was returning) to this house at 5.30 precisely. The church clock
(chimed/ had chimed), I (looked/ was looking) at my watch and (found/ had
found) it (was/ had been) 5 minutes slow.
7) I thought the shop was shut. But it wasn’t. I (went in/ had gone in), there
wasn’t anyone about. I (hammered/ was hammering) on the counter and
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
(waited/ was waiting) a bit. Nobody (came/ had come), so I (went out/ had
gone out) again. That’s all I can tell you.
8) Twenty minutes later we were in a fast police car crossing the Thames on
our way out of London. With us was Inspector Crome, who (was/ had been)
present at the conference the other day, and who (was/ had been) officially
in charge of the case.
9) He (rang/ was ringing) the bell and (put/ had put) the question to the butler.
10) Hardly (turned we/ had we turned) round the corner, when we (saw/ had
seen) a strange lady again.
11) At least a lot of people (were detained/ had been detained) and questioned
before they (satisfied/ had satisfied) the police.
12) While I (shopped/ was shopping) I (lost/ had lost) my purse.
13) He (was/ had been) working as a journalist when World War II (began/ had
14) Dear Sir, I (was thinking/ have been thinking) a lot about this matter since
we last (met/ were meeting).
15) How long (have/ had) you been learning English?
16) I (was/ have been) using my word processor for five years and there is
nothing wrong with it.
17) It (is/ has been) raining for several days.
18) I (was/ have been) playing tennis since I (was/ have been) a boy.
19) How long (is she/ has she been) writing novels?
20) While I (did/ was doing) ironing, my sister (cooked/ was cooking) dinner.
21) A policeman (stopped/ has stopped) us on the motorway when we
(drove/were driving) less than 70 km an hour.
22) A reporter (took/ has taken) a photograph of them while they (fought/were
23) Hardly (have/ had) I seen him when I (realised/ had realised) that
something (went/ had gone) wrong.
24) I had an impression that they (didn't do/ hadn't done) anything practical by
that time.
25) While I (will be cooking/am cooking) an apple pie tomorrow, the children
(will be sleeping/are sleeping).
3. Choose the correct verb form.
1) He can't see you now. He ….. someone.
A) phones
B) is phoning
2) I….. hard for my exams now.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) am working
B) work
3) Don't forget to take your umbrella. It ….. outside.
A) rains
B) is raining
4) I ….. for a business trip tomorrow.
A) leave
B) am leaving
5) The pupil said at the lesson that water ….. at 100 degrees Centigrade and got
a bad mark.
A) boils
B) is boiling
6) I ….. to you attentively.
A) listen
B) am listening
7) Look! The water ….. . Let's make tea. I'm terribly thirsty!
A) boils
B) is boiling
8) Mr Brieger and his son ….. business together.
A) run
B) are running
9) I ….. French. But I've just started to learn it.
A) don't speak
B) am not speaking
10) The plane ….. in half an hour.
A) arrives
B) is arriving
11) He ….. for the travel agency "Holidays".
A) works
B) is working
12) Look! Someone ….. to open your car.
A) tries
B) is trying
13) He ….. a lot about show business.
A) knows
B) is knowing
14) I ….. of starting my own business.
A) think
B) am thinking
15) We ….. for Spain in a few days.
A) leave
B) are leaving
16) What time ….. Nick and Rosa ….. for dinner tonight?
A) do ... come
B) are ... coming
17) I ….. coffee at all.
A) don't drink
B) am not drinking
18) The children ….. quite well now. They don't quarrel any more.
A) get on
B) are getting on
19) I'm sure you ….. the right choice.
A) make
B) are making
20) Such a curious child! She ….. all sorts of questions.
A) constantly asks
B) is constantly asking
21) I ….. you are not right. His new book is much better than the previous one.
A) think
B) am thinking
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
22) The sun ….. from East to West.
A) goes
B) is going
23) He ….. his own shop.
A) runs
B) is running
24) Our company ….. a great risk at the moment.
A) runs
B) is running
25) The film ….. at 7. Let's hurry.
A) begins
B) is beginning
26) It's eight o'clock. Kate, ….. you ….. ready for school?
A) do ... get
B) are ... getting
27) "Where’s Tom?' – "He ….. the dog out for a walk."
A) takes
B) is taking
28) I ….. music lessons twice a week.
A) have
B) am having
29) Why ….. you ….. ?
A) do ... laugh
B) are ... laughing
30) What ….. you ….. after school tomorrow?
A) do ... do
B) are ... doing
31) I ….. French at Language School.
A) learn
B) am learning
32) What ….. you ….. next weekend?
A) do ... do
B) are ... doing
33) ….. it often ….. here in winter?
A) Does ... snow
B) Is ... snowing
34) ….. you ….. to make sandwiches?
A) Do ... go
B) Are ... going
35) It ….. long to get to work.
A) doesn't take
B) isn't taking
36) ….. your mother ….. listening to classical music?
A) Does .... enjoy
B) Is ... enjoying
37) They ….. lunch now.
A) have
B) are having
38) "Where are Jill and Tom?" – "They ….. Dad to plant flowers in the
A) help
B) are helping
39) "Where's Cathy? I can't see her." – "She ….. on a hat over there".
A) tries
B) is trying
40) He ….. on the phone. Don't disturb him. It's a very important call.
A) speaks
B) is speaking
41) It ….. heavily. Let's wait a little bit.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) rains
B) is raining
42) Who ….. she ….. with? I don't know that boy.
A) does ... dance
B) is ... dancing
43) She ….. a nice dress today.
A) wears
B) is wearing
44) The plane ….. at 2 p.m.
A) takes off
B) is taking off
45) Look! She ….. for someone.
A) waits
B) is waiting
46) He often ….. on business to Germany.
A) goes
B) is going
47) She usually ….. bright clothes.
A) wears
B) is wearing
48) He ….. in class!
A) constantly talks
B) is constantly talking
49) Our firm ….. office equipment.
A) produces
B) is producing
50) I ….. a birthday party next Saturday. Would you like to come?
A) have
B) am having
51) Tomorrow I ….. a representative of a German engineering firm.
A) meet
B) am meeting
52) The exhibition ….. at 11 a.m. as usual.
A) opens
B) is opening
53) Their train ….. at 7.
A) arrives
B) is arriving
54) I ….. you.
A) don't understand
B) am not understanding
55) I ….. to the disco tomorrow night. What about you?
A) go
B) am going
56) Excuse me, but I ….. you. It can't be true.
A) don't believe
B) am not believing
57) ….. this bus ….. downtown?
A) Does ... go
B) Is ... going
58) ….. it ….. like rain?
A) Does ... look
B) Is ... looking
59) ….. you ….. him tomorrow? Tell him I'm waiting for his call.
A) Do ... see
B) Are ... seeing
60) We ….. for coffee tonight.
A) meet
B) are meeting
61) Where ….. you ..... from?
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) do ... come
B) are ... coming
I ….. the concert very much. And you?
A) enjoy
B) am enjoying
I ….. the weather will be fine tomorrow.
A) think
B) am thinking
I ….. the problem. I'll try to help you.
A) see
B) am seeing
Do you know when they ….. on a trip?
A) go
B) are going
….. you ….. with me?
A) Don't... agree
B) Aren't... agreeing
….. you ….. how to settle the matter?
A) Do ... know
B) Are ... knowing
No, Liz isn't in. She ….. the dog out.
A) takes
B) is taking
What ….. you ….. to tell me?
A) do ... want
B) are ... wanting
I ….. this music! Let's go home.
A) hate
B) am hating
Your words ….. encouraging.
A) sound
B) are sounding
At present she ….. marketing. She's going to look for a job of a marketing
A) studies
B) is studying
We ….. a new product at the moment.
A) launch
B) are launching
….. she often ….. tennis?
A) Does ... play
B) Is ... playing
I ….. where to go on holiday yet.
A) don't know
B) am not knowing
My sister ….. in fashion design.
A) specialises
B) is specialising
At present they ….. on a new project.
A) work
B) are working
What ….. you ….. by saying this?
A) do ... mean
B) are ... meaning
I ….. what he is talking about.
A) don't understand
B) am not understanding
I ….. the dentist at 4 p.m. I've arranged it already.
A) see
B) am seeing
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
81) My uncle is a jockey. He ….. horses.
A) rides
B) is riding
82) Look! The fire brigade ….. at a terrible speed. There must be a fire somewhere.
A) rushes
B) is rushing
83) I….. my dog out for long walks in the park on Sunday.
A) always take
B) am always taking
84) I ….. cakes. Only on special occasions.
A) rarely bake
B) am rarely baking
85) We ….. your proposition. We'll give you an answer in a few days.
A) think over
B) are thinking over
4. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) I (phone / will phone) you when I (come / will come) back.
2) When the Sales Manager (arrives / will arrive) tell him I (am / will be)
back at 5 o'clock.
3) If I (pass / will pass) my exams, I (enter / will enter) the University.
4) If there (is / will be) a good program on TV, I (watch / will watch) it.
5) I (tell / will tell) him the news when I (see / will see) him.
6) If it (rains / will rain), I (stay / will stay) at home.
7) I (try / will try) to speak to the Managing Director before he (leaves / will
leave) for New York.
8) I (buy / will buy) a car when I (save / will save) enough money.
9) If you (insist / will insist), I (accept / will accept) the invitation.
10) What (do / will) you do if you (miss / will miss) the train?
11) I (pay / will pay) for the coffee if you (don't / won't) mind.
12) In case you (arrive / will arrive) earlier, wait for me at the station.
13) If you (are not able / will not be able) to do this yourself, I (help / will
help) you.
14) I (go / will go) to stay with my grandparents as soon as the exams (are/
/will be) over.
15) Can you look after my cat while I (am / will be) away?
16) If it (isn't /won't be) too expensive, I (buy / will buy) it.
17) You (fail / will fail) your exam if you (don't / won't) study hard.
18) Where (do / will) you stay when you (arrive / will arrive) in Paris?
19) As soon as I (get / will get) tickets I (phone / will phone) you.
20) The flowers (don't / won't) grow well if you (don't / won't) look after them
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
21) I (don't / won't) go to bed until I (finish / will finish) writing the paper.
22) If you (are / will be) out, I (leave / will leave) a message on the answer
23) I (show / will show) you round the factory as soon as the interview (is / will
be) over.
24) As soon as we (get / will get) money for the project we (start / will start)
constructing the building.
25) If we (get / will get) cold, we (make / will make) a fire somewhere on the
26) You (recover / will recover) soon, if you (follow / will follow) the doctor’s
27) We (go /will go) there straight away as soon as we (get/ will get) a message
from you.
28) I (have / will have) lunch as soon as I (finish / will finish) typing the report.
29) If he (calls / will call), tell him the meeting (is/ will be) at 8 o’clock.
30) Where (do /will) you stay if hotels (are/ will be) full?
5. Choose the correct verb form.
1) If I ….. late, wait for me a little bit.
A) am
B) will be
2) Do you think they ….. our terms?
A) accept
B) will accept
3) I wonder, if the weather ….. fine tomorrow.
A) is
B) will be
4) Do you know when the Production Manager ….. from his business trip?
A) is back
B) will be back
5) If you ….. to the countryside tomorrow, let me know.
A) go
B) will go
6) Do you know when they ….. house?
A) move
B) will move
7) When you ….. any information, phone me immediately.
A) get
B) will get
8) I don’t know when they ….. the product on the market.
A) put
B) will put
9) Send me a fax when you ….. your mind.
A) make up
B) will make up
10) I don’t know if I ….. any spare time tomorrow.
A) have
B) will have
11) Call the Director and ask him if he ….. us right now.
A) receive
B) will receive
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
12) Don’t get off the bus before it ….. .
A) stops
B) will stop
13) I wonder, if my parents ….. me a computer for my birthday.
A) buy
B) will buy
14) Please, wait till I ….. to her.
A) speak
B) will speak
15) I’m not sure if he ….. a report at the conference.
A) makes
B) will make
16) Don’t worry about it before you ….. with him.
A) speak
B) will speak
17) Do you know when the conference …..?
A) is over
B) will be over
18) In case you ….. the details, let me know.
A) find out
B) will find out
19) Don’t forget to call Mother when you ….. from work.
A) come back
B) will come back
6. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) When I (brought / was bringing) in the papers he (spoke / was speaking) on
the phone.
2) When I (entered / was entering) they (discussed / were discussing)
3) He (felt / was feeling) that somebody (watched / was watching) him.
4) I (met / was meeting) him while I (made / was making) a tour of France.
5) I (paid/was paying) my check when I (heard/was hearing) someone call
my name.
6) I (turned / was turning) round and (saw / was seeing) Jenny.
7) Pardon, I (didn’t hear / wasn’t hearing) what you (said / was saying).
8) I (finished / was finishing) shopping and (went / was going) home.
9) I (asked / was asking) her if she (knew / was knowing) any good Spanish
restaurant there.
10) When I (came / was coming) back home I (took/ was taking) an aspirin and
(went/ was going) to bed.
11) When Ruth (looked out / was looking out) of the window she (saw / was
seeing) that it (still snowed / was still snowing).
12) Mike (fell / was falling) down and (hurt / was hurting) his knees.
13) Last summer, when climbing a mountain in the Caucasus we (lost / were
losing) our way.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
14) The rescue team (found / was finding) us on the fourth day.
15) We (left /were leaving) the camp and (went / were going) towards the
16) When I (entered / was entering) the room Justin (showed / was showing)
photographs to the guests.
17) Police (stopped / were stopping) him while he (drove / was driving) at a
high speed.
18) While I (spoke / was speaking) to Jill, I (learned / was learning) that her
husband was in hospital.
19) I (looked / was looking) after my niece while my sister (made / was
making) a tour of Italy.
20) She first (met / was meeting) her husband when she (attended / was
attending) a conference in Stockholm.
21) While I (listened / was listening) to him I suddenly (remembered / was
remembering) our first meeting.
7. Choose the correct verb form.
1) After the meeting I ….. a terrible headache.
A) had
B) was having
2) We ….. tennis from 2 till 5 o’clock in the afternoon.
A) played
B) were playing
3) When I saw her that day she ….. a stylish yellow hat.
A) wore
B) was wearing
4) Where ….. you ….. for your holiday last year?
A) did … go
B) were … going
5) Yesterday Nick ….. his eighteenth birthday.
A) celebrated
B) was celebrating
6) One hot, sunny day in July, at about 5 p.m. we ….. on the terrace drinking
A) sat
B) were sitting
7) A terrible wind ….. our mountain-tent to pieces.
A) tore
B) was tearing
8) We ….. with us any survival equipment.
A) didn’t take
B) were not taking
9) They …. the hotel early in the morning.
A) left
B) were leaving
10) How long ….. you ….. there?
A) did … stay
B) were … staying
11) During the performance the lights on the stage suddenly ….. .
A) went off
B) were going off
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
12) We ….. a new market in South Asia last year.
A) opened
B) were opening
13) It was a warm autumn day. We ….. along the country road.
A) walk
B) were walking
14) All week long a severe wind ….. from the sea.
A) blew
B) was blowing
15) I ..... to Spain for my weekend last month.
A) went
B) was going
16) During my holiday I ..... swimming every day.
A) went
B) was going
17) What ..... you ..... at the weekend?
A) did … do
B) were .. doing
18) Now, Mr Briggs, what ..... you ..... yesterday at 8 o’clock?
A) did … do
B) were .. doing
19) A few minutes later we ..... on the London road in the direction of
A) rode
B) were riding
20) At about 4 o’clock in the morning I ..... some distant noise.
A) heard
B) was hearing
21) He ..... me about his departure during the lunch.
A) told
B) was telling
22) Looking through old newspapers I ..... the article about my grandfather.
A) came across
B) was coming across
23) I could hear that somebody ..... in the adjoining room.
A) whispered
B) was whispering
24) We ..... to go for a swim, but the weather was awful.
A) wanted
B) were wanting
25) We ..... in Madrid for three days and then went to Paris.
A) stayed
B) were staying
26) The helicopter ..... the children to hospital.
A) took
B) was taking
27) I ..... in the garden all day yesterday.
A) dug
B) was digging
28) At University I ..... economics and finance.
A) studied
B) was studying
29) Telling me his story he ..... nearly at each word. In the end I lost my
A) stumbled
B) was stumbling
30) Listening to him I couldn’t but feel that all he ..... us was a lie.
A) told
B) was telling
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
31) Jack ..... to see them the following day.
A) hoped
B) was hoping
32) It ..... heavily from Monday till Wednesday.
A) rained
B) was raining
8. Choose the correct alternative.
1) He ..... a lot, but now he doesn’t.
A) used to smoke
B) was smoking
2) My son was terribly homesick while he ..... abroad.
A) was living
B) used to live
3) They ..... happy together, but now they are constantly quarrelling.
A) used to be
B) were being
4) When I was a child we ..... to the Black Sea every year.
A) were travelling
B) would travel
5) My son hurt his knee while he ..... football.
A) was playing
B) used to play
6) I remember that Nanny ..... us fascinating stories about past times.
A) was reading
B) would read
7) When we came back the children ..... in the garden with two unknown
A) were playing
B) would play
8) I ..... swimming every morning when we lived near the swimming-pool.
A) was going
B) used to go
9) They walked on into the Zoo grounds. In the distance three camels .....
along side by side.
A) were strolling
B) used to stroll
10) We ..... supper when suddenly the light went off.
A) were having
B) used to have
11) My aunt ..... flowers, but now she has a beautiful rose garden.
A) wasn’t growing
B) didn’t use to grow
12) My Dad ..... mountains when he was a student.
A) was climbing
B) used to climb
13) I ..... to the pictures a lot, but now I prefer watching video at home.
A) was going
B) used to go
14) When Grandma was alive Aunt Polly ..... for a cup of tea now and then.
A) was coming over
B) would come over
15) Yesterday evening Mrs Brill ..... the paper with her spectacles on her nose.
A) was reading
B) would read
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
16) I ..... a lot of newspapers, but now I don’t. They’ve become so boring.
A) was reading
B) used to read
17) He was arrested when he ..... through passport control.
A) was going
B) used to go
18) We ..... the plane when suddenly we saw a police car rushing towards the
plane at a terrible speed.
A) were boarding
B) used to board
19) When a student Mother ..... Beatles records.
A) was collecting
B) used to collect
20) They ..... a lot when they were not married.
A) were going out
B) used to go out
21) When I came in the headmaster ..... very quietly, dreaming his own dreams
in the centre of the classroom.
A) was standing
B) used to stand
22) I ..... Champaign. But now I think it is hideous.
A) was liking
B) used to like
23) She ..... make up, but now she does a lot.
A) wasn’t wearing
B) didn’t use to wear
24) When a child I ..... with my grandparents in a small village.
A) was living
B) used to live
25) In her young years my aunt ..... in horse races.
A) was participating
B) used to participate
9. Choose the correct verb form.
1) They ..... the company two years ago.
A) started
B) have started
2) He ..... the Managing Director of the company since 1990.
A) was
B) has been
3) We ..... the project yet.
A) didn’t finish
B) haven’t finished
4) Our company ..... a big profit last year.
A) made
B) has made
5) My car ..... . I won’t be able to drive to the countryside at the weekend.
A) broke down
B) has broken down
6) He ..... a new car two weeks ago.
A) bought
B) has bought
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
I ..... of petrol. I must have my car filled.
A) ran out
B) have run out
Last year we ..... to manufacture new items of office equipment.
A) began
B) have begun
He and his wife Helena ..... for over 30 years.
A) were married
B) have been married
I ..... them since December.
A) didn’t see
B) haven’t seen
“I ..... such a strange dream last night,” said Jane.
A) had
B) have had
Since then I ..... my job several times.
A) changed
B) have changed
“You ..... your hair,” he cried.
A) dyed
B) have dyed
Jane ..... suddenly that there was a letter attached to the painting.
A) found
B) has found
I ..... that point yet.
A) didn’t consider
B) haven’t considered
Mary isn’t at home. She ..... to work.
A) went
B) has gone
Last year they ..... their production greatly.
A) increased
B) have increased
They ..... in construction business for 5 years.
A) were
B) have been
We ..... a few contracts last month.
A) signed
B) have signed
..... you ever..... the Queen of Great Britain?
A) Did ... see
B) Have ... seen
He can’t find a job. He ..... unemployed for half a year.
A) was
B) has been
..... you ever ..... to Africa?
A) Did ... travel
B) Have ... travelled
I ..... them that we would go down there immediately.
A) told
B) have told
Just out of curiosity I ..... Mike last night.
A) rang up
B) have rung up
..... you ..... about Miss Carol’s marriage?
A) Did ... hear
B) Have ... heard
“It ..... foolish to take the matter so seriously then,” she said.
A) was
B) has been
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
27) What ..... you ..... to find the way out?
A) did ... do
B) have ... done
28) He ..... to answer the telephone.
A) rose
B) has risen
29) Nick and Sally ..... each other since their school years.
A) knew
B) have known
30) “I ..... something fantastic,” he said.
A) expected
B) have expected
31) His spirits ..... a little. He’s all right now.
A) revived
B) have revived
32) So far we ..... to find anyone who saw that man.
A) weren’t able
B) haven’t been able
33) They ..... some years ago.
A) separated
B) have separated
34) “..... anything ..... from the flat?” asked the policeman.
A) Did ... disappear
B) Has ... disappeared
35) There ..... any sign of robbery. Nothing was stolen from the shop.
A) wasn’t
B) hasn’t been
36) “I ..... the letter asked about, sir,” said the butler.
A) brought
B) have brought
37) The doctor ..... us a careful description of the position of the victim.
A) gave
B) has given
38) She ..... the door of a small room and came in.
A) opened
B) has opened
39) ..... you ..... dinner already?
A) Did ... have
B) Have ... had
40) When we came in the boy ..... .He didn’t seem to notice us at all.
A) didn’t move
B) hasn’t moved
41) The clock ..... midnight. Holmes stood up and came up to the window.
A) struck
B) has struck
42) I ..... back on Monday afternoon.
A) arrived
B) have arrived
43) I’m sure you’ll be surprised when you get to know who ..... the game
A) won
B) has won
44) He ..... his driving test. He is so happy. He hasn’t been able to pass it three
A) just passed
B) has just passed
45) I ..... my keys. I can’t get in.
A) lost
B) have lost
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
46) The taxi ..... a few minutes ago.
A) arrived
B) has arrived
47) The taxi ..... .Hurry up!
A) arrived
B) has arrived
48) We ..... lunch already.
A) had
B) have had
49) ..... you ..... writing your book yet?
A) Did ... finish
B) Have ... finished
50) My aunt ..... me a nice puppy for my birthday. It’s a fox-terrier. I call it
A) gave
B) has given
51) I ..... on holiday for the last two years.
A) wasn’t
B) haven’t been
10. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) She (started/ has started) running the company a few years ago and soon
(doubled/ has doubled) her business.
2) I (studied/ have studied) economics at University, then I (worked/ have
worked) for a small advertising agency.
3) I (changed/ have changed) my job several times since I (left/ have left) the
4) She (began/ has begun) acting six years ago and since then she (starred/ has
starred) in more than ten films.
5) She (got/ has got) her first Oscar in 1986 and (won/ has won) three of them
during the next six years.
6) My parents and I (toured/ have toured) Europe twice but none of us (was/
has been) to the States yet.
7) She (wrote/ has written) several books since she (came/ has come) back
home from the US.
8) Alice is a journalist. She (met/ has met) a lot of famous people. She says
that she (interviewed/ has interviewed) Princess Diana.
9) They (moved/ have moved) to the village five years ago and since then
(never were/ have never been) to town. They like living in the country.
10) They (lived/ have lived) for many years in the United States, then in 1995
they (moved/ have moved) to France and (settled/ have settled) there.
11) My parents (toured/ have toured) Italy last summer but they (weren’t/
haven’t been) to Florence.
12) “I (had/ have had) a good long talk with Dr Thompson,” he said. “Some
things (became/ have become) clear to me.”
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
11. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) Our company (launched/ had launched) the new product at the beginning of
2) The address which the inspector (gave/ had given) us (was/ had been) that
of a good-sized house about a mile on the London side of the village.
3) Poirot (asked/ had asked) her if Mrs Ascheer (received/ had ever received)
any peculiar letters without a proper signature.
4) I thought that Mrs Fowler (told/ had told) us everything. But Poirot said that
she (knew/ had known) more than she (told/ had told) us.
5) The letter (came/ had come) just before I (arrived/ had arrived) back.
6) Miss Higley said that Elizabeth (was/ had been) friendly in working hours,
but the girls (didn’t see/ hadn’t seen) much of her out of them.
7) She said that Betty (didn’t say/ hadn’t said) anything about her plans and
she (didn’t see/ hadn’t seen) her in the cafe that evening.
8) Hardly (did/ had) she (say/ said) these words when a beautiful young lady
(appeared/ had appeared) in the room.
9) I (knew/ had known) that once he (was/ had been) a well-known specialist
in his field.
10) He (lived/ had lived) in the house he (built/ had built) for himself near the
Devon coast.
11) Susan (told/ had told) her parents the news only after she and Mike (got/
had got) married.
12) The telephone on his table (rang/ had rung) and he (picked/ had picked) it
13) He (paid/ had paid) the bill and (left/ had left).
14) She (was/ had been) a stronger person now than she (was/ had been) a few
months before.
15) She (put/ had put) on her coat and (went/ had gone) for a walk.
16) Hardly (did it stop/ had it stopped) raining when a rainbow (appeared/ had
appeared) in the sky.
17) Nabokov (lived/ had lived) in many countries after he (emigrated/ had
emigrated) from Russia.
18) He (graduated/ had graduated) from Cambridge University in 1922; then
(lived/ had lived) in Germany, France, and the United States where he
(worked/ had worked) at Harvard and (taught/ had taught) at Cornell
19) The museum, which (opened/ had opened) just a year before, (planned/
had planned) a rich and varied international program.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
20) Several local businesses and foundations (agreed/ had agreed) to sponsor
the Centennial.
12. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I was late because I ..... in a jam.
A) stuck
B) had stuck
2) We went out after it ..... raining.
A) stopped
B) had stopped
3) The sergeant ..... about ten minutes later.
A) returned
B) had returned
4) He told me that he ..... jazz.
A) liked
B) had liked
5) I thanked him for what he ..... for me.
A) did
B) had done
6) The house he ..... was of a modern design.
A) built
B) had built
7) We were told that Sir Clark ..... in the habit of taking a stroll after dinner.
A) was
B) had been
8) She said that she ..... detective stories.
A) liked
B) had liked
9) My mother was worried because I ..... in touch with her for a long time.
A) wasn’t
B) hadn’t been
10) I remembered that I ..... the letter on the table.
A) left
B) had left
11) When I came back a few minutes later I ..... the letter.
A) didn’t find
B) hadn’t found
12) I told her that I ..... interested in the project.
A) was
B) had been
13) The girl explained that she ..... from Bexhill by the 3-o’clock train.
A) came
B) had come
14) James regretted that he ..... that conversation.
A) started
B) had started
15) I asked him if he ..... a Shakespearian role.
A) ever played
B) had ever played
16) I remembered that I ..... the window.
A) didn’t close
B) hadn’t closed
17) I realised that he ..... with his illusions.
A) did not part
B) had not parted
18) Judging by his reaction I came to the conclusion that he ..... of her arrival.
A) wasn’t aware
B) hadn’t been aware
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
13. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I ..... supper when the bell rang.
A) was having
B) had had
2) When they came back home it was rather late. Everybody ..... to bed.
A) was going
B) had gone
3) When they came back home the children ..... already.
A) were sleeping
B) had slept
4) They ..... back home when the car skidded on a wet road.
A) were driving
B) had driven
5) It was an embarrassing moment. I ..... utterly ..... about his birthday.
A) was ... forgetting
B) had ... forgotten
6) I ..... the park gates. Jack was due to come in a couple of minutes.
A) was watching
B) had watched
7) By the time the police arrived everybody ..... in the dining room.
A) was gathering
B) had gathered
8) When we ..... the house we saw a dark shadow.
A) were approaching B) had approached
9) I realised that he ..... us everything during our first meeting.
A) wasn’t telling
B) hadn’t told
10) While I ..... to Sue there was a loud knock at the door.
A) was talking
B) had talked
11) He said that he ..... a new film at that time.
A) was making
B) had made
12) I was surprised when I heard that they ..... to the countryside a few months
A) were moving
B) had moved
13) When I came into the bar my friends ..... lunch.
A) were having
B) had had
14) He started a small advertising agency after he ..... from the military
A) was retiring
B) had retired
15) It was clear that he ..... to meet us. He seemed quite displeased at seeing
A) was not expecting
B) had not expected
16) When Holmes looked out of the window again the strange-looking
gentleman ..... by the gates.
A) was still standing
B) had still stood
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
17) We left after it ..... snowing.
A) was stopping
B) had stopped
18) The children spent the whole day indoors because it ..... heavily.
A) was raining
B) had rained
19) While the inspector ..... to Miss Terry he suddenly heard a slight noise
behind the door.
A) was talking
B) had talked
20) Jim’s father was really angry when he knew that Jim ..... the University.
A) was leaving
B) had left
21) Tom saw her for the first time at the University library when he ..... for his
final exam.
A) was working
B) had worked
22) She was very nervous while she ..... us about her stepfather’s departure.
A) was telling
B) had told
23) I met him first when he ..... already his second novel.
A) was publishing
B) had published
24) I asked him what he ..... at that time.
A) was doing
B) had done
14. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I ..... on my report all day. I’m exhausted.
A) have worked
B) have been working
2) I ..... six letters today.
A) have written
B) have been writing
3) Alice ..... English in Spain for some years and doesn’t want to come back
A) has taught
B) has been teaching
4) They ..... software for the last ten years.
A) have sold
B) have been selling
5) How long ..... Jane ..... for the tour agency?
A) has ... worked
B) has ... been working
6) The Prime Minister ..... just ..... that voting is postponed till tomorrow.
A) has ... announced
B) has ... been announcing
7) The police ..... people all week.
A) have questioned
B) have been questioning
8) So far the police ..... nobody.
A) have charged
B) have been charging
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
The economic situation in the country ..... over the last few years.
A) has improved
B) has been improving
Unemployment ..... lately.
A) has fallen
B) has been falling.
Export figures ..... their highest level.
A) have reached
B) have been reaching
I ..... my passport and my credit card. It’s a real disaster.
A) have lost
B) have been losing
“Why are you out of breath?” – “I ..... for half an hour.”
A) have run
B) have been running
The children ..... anything today.
A) haven’t eaten
B) haven’t been eating
We ..... our living room for a week.
A) have painted
B) have been painting
Our neighbours ..... a row all day. I'm sick and tired of them!
A) have had
B) have been having
..... his book yet?
A) Hasn't he finished
B) Hasn’t he been finishing
Samantha is a journalist. She ..... a lot of countries all over the world.
A) has visited
B) has been visiting
I ..... anything. I have left my purse at home.
A) haven’t bought
B) haven’t been buying
It’s one of the best books I ..... .
A) have ever read
B) have ever been reading
It ..... all night. There are huge pools everywhere.
A) has rained
B) has been raining
15. Choose the word that best completes the sentence.
1) Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for you ..... an hour.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
2) I’ve been trying to get in touch with him ..... early morning.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
3) ..... the break I had a cup of coffee and a sandwich.
A) While
B) During
C) Since
D) For
4) Tom and Sally have been going out together ..... about six.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
5) I haven’t been sleeping well ..... a few nights.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
It was terribly hot ..... my stay there. I could hardly bear it.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
7) ..... I was trying on a hat somebody stole my handbag.
A) While
B) During
C) Since
D) For
8) ..... Tom was painting the fence he noticed Sam slowly walking towards
A) While
B) During
C) Since
D) For
9) I’ve been waiting for an answer from the Personnel Officer ..... two weeks.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
10) Nora has been living in Madrid ..... she left the University.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
11) I spoke to him about my report ..... the lunch break.
A) while
B) during
C) since
D) for
12) ..... I was driving to work I got in a terrible jam.
A) While
B) During
C) Since
D) For
16. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Hanna ..... on the remote farm before she moved to the village last year.
A) has lived
B) had lived
2) He bought a house there. He ..... there for 5 years already.
A) has lived
B) had lived
3) I remembered that on my way home I ..... at the chemist’s.
A) haven't dropped in B) hadn't dropped in
4) By the time I got to the bank most of the staff ..... .
A) has gone away
B) had gone away
5) Aunt Nancy ..... .
A) has never been
B) had never been married
6) It’s the first time he ..... another country.
A) has visited
B) had visited
7) I ..... a letter from him just before my wedding.
A) have got
B) had got
8) By the time I arrived the Marketing Manager ..... her presentation already.
A) has made
B) had made
9) ..... the pills?
A) Have you taken
B) Had you taken
10) Only after I ..... two aspirins my headache disappeared.
A) have taken
B) had taken
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
11) “He went on honeymoon with his second wife.” – “Really? I didn’t know
he ..... married before.”
A) has been
B) had been
12) ..... married? I hear they are going to.
A) Have they got
B) Had they got
17. Choose the correct verb form.
1) How long ..... she ..... for your company before that incident?
A) had ... worked
B) had ... been working
2) Once upon a time there was an old farmer who ..... hard in his vineyard all
his life.
A) had worked
B) had been working
3) ..... you ever ..... abroad before you went to the States?
A) Had ... lived
B) Had ... been living
4) We ..... for about ten hours before we stopped for a break.
A) had driven
B) had been driving
5) When I got home, Mother ..... a pie already.
A) had made
B) had been making
6) The film ..... for about a month when I saw it.
A) had run
B) had been running
7) By 6 o’clock the conference ..... .
A) had finished
B) had been finishing
8) How long ..... she ..... driving lessons before she passed the exam?
A) had ... taken
B) had ... been taking
9) His English became much better. It was evident he ..... hard during the
A) had worked
B) had been working
10) When I was speaking with her on the phone I realised that something
unusual .... .
A) had happened
B) had been happening
18. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I ..... the washing up when suddenly I heard a terrible scream.
A) finished
C) had finished
B) was finishing
D) had been finishing
2) I ..... to drive for 5 months before I could pass my driving test.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) learnt
C) had learnt
B) was learning
D) had been learning
3) After the Managing Director ..... his report, we expressed our personal
views on the subject.
A) made
C) had made
B) was making
D) had been making
4) The lights went off and the orchestra ..... playing.
A) started
C) had started
B) was starting
D) had been starting
5) He ..... as a journalist for several years before he began writing novels.
A) worked
C) had worked
B) was working
D) had been working
6) He was a heavy smoker. He ..... smoking even when he fell seriously ill.
A) didn’t give up
C) hadn’t given up
B) wasn’t giving up
D) hadn’t been giving up
7) Jane ..... a dark-blue suit when she came for the interview.
A) wore
C) had worn
B) was wearing
D) had been wearing
8) My daughter ..... taking music lessons but soon gave it up.
A) began
C) had begun
B) was beginning
D) had been beginning
9) I learned that the interview ..... for more than an hour.
A) went on
C) had gone on
B) was going on
D) had been going on
10) Her parents ..... with her marriage until the baby was born.
A) didn’t reconcile
C) hadn’t reconciled
B) weren’t reconciling
D) hadn’t been reconciling
19. Choose the correct alternative.
1) They ..... their honeymoon in a villa by the sea.
A) will spend
B) are going to spend
2) “The Government ..... soon. The situation is critical,” he said.
A) will resign
B) is going to resign
3) I hear they ..... married.
A) will get
B) are going to get
4) I ..... him a new tie for his birthday. And you?
A) will give
B) am going to give
5) Are you going home? I ..... you a lift.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A) will give
B) am going to give
My parents ..... somewhere in the countryside after they retire.
A) will settle
B) are going to settle
Don’t worry! I ..... the report for you.
A) will finish
B) am going to finish
The suitcase is very heavy. Nick ..... it for you.
A) will carry
B) is going to carry
Tony and Alice ..... a bigger flat.
A) will buy
B) are going to buy
The film is over. Now I ..... the washing up.
A) will do
B) am going to do
My sister and her husband ..... a puppy. Their children are simply crazy
about having a dog in the house.
A) will take
B) are going to take
I hear the book is very interesting. I ..... it.
A) will buy
B) am going to buy
On Sunday we ..... a new exhibition in the Hermitage.
A) will see
B) are going to see
Stop! I ..... a photo of you.
A) will take
B) am going to take
They ..... a new car.
A) will buy
B) are going to buy
My husband and I ..... our own business.
A) will start
B) are going to start
Good bye! I ..... you a postcard from Italy.
A) will send
B) am going to send
He ..... a film about Ernest Hemingway.
A) will make
B) is going to make
I ..... a computer for my son.
A) will buy
B) am going to buy
..... you ..... after my cat when I am on holiday?
A) Will ... look
B) Are ... going to look
We ..... Florence, Venice, Milan, and Rome, of course.
A) will visit
B) are going to visit
I ..... a doctor immediately. He is running a high temperature.
A) will call
B) am going to call
They ..... their project in a couple of days.
A) will finish
B) are going to finish
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
24) I ..... take the dog out for a walk. Do the washing up meanwhile, please.
A) will take
B) am going to take
20. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I will (be working/ have worked) for my exam on Philosophy all day
2) By that time I’ll (be graduating/ have graduated) from the University and
will (be getting/ have got) a well-paid job, I hope.
3) “Will you (be seeing/ have seen) Alex tomorrow?” – “Of course I will. I’ll
(be seeing/ have seen) him at the Board meeting.”
4) We’ll (be reaching/ have reached) the camp by 10 o’clock, I believe.
5) I hope we’ll (be driving/ have driven) half of our way by tomorrow.
6) – I wonder, if that terrible wind will (be blowing/ have blown) tomorrow?
– Oh, yes. The weather forecast says the weather will (be changing/ have
changed) by Monday.
21. Choose the correct verb form.
1) At 10 o’clock tomorrow morning I’ll ..... my son to the dentist’s.
A) take
C) have taken
B) be taking
D) have been taking
2) We’ll ..... decorating the room by the time you get back.
A) finish
C) have finished
B) be finishing
D) have been finishing
3) By the end of August we’ll ..... house.
A) move
C) have moved
B) be moving
D) have been moving
4) Will you ..... the car tonight?
A) use
C) have used
B) be using
D) have been using
5) Don’t worry! I’ll ..... the ring.
A) answer
C) have answered
B) be answering
D) have been answering
6) If we don’t hurry, the party will ..... by the time we get there.
A) finish
C) have finished
B) be finishing
D) have been finishing
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
Imagine! Next year my Grandpa will ..... lectures at the University for 40
years already.
A) give
C) have given
B) be giving
D) have been giving
He’ll ..... by Monday, so try to get in touch with him earlier if you really
want to speak to him about that.
A) leave
C) have left
B) be leaving
D) have been leaving
You look so tired! I’ll ..... tea for you.
A) make
C) have made
B) be making
D) have been making
We are going for our holiday to Spain. This time tomorrow we’ll ..... the
warm sea and sunshine.
A) enjoy
C) have enjoyed
B) be enjoying
D) have been enjoying
I hope they will ..... this unpleasant episode by the time they meet again.
A) forget
C) have forgotten
B) be forgetting
D) have been forgetting
Do you think people will ..... books in 50 years' time?
A) read
C) have read
B) be reading
D) have been reading
It’s a nice place. I went there last summer. I hope you’ll ..... your stay
A) enjoy
C) have enjoyed
B) be enjoying
D) have been enjoying
Someone from the agency will ..... for you at the airport from 5 to 6.
A) wait
C) have waited
B) be waiting
D) have been waiting
In a few minutes I will ..... for their call for three hours already.
A) wait
C) have waited
B) be waiting
D) have been waiting
What time tomorrow will you ..... the Managing Director?
A) see
C) have seen
B) be seeing
D) have been seeing
I’ll ..... the letter. Where is it?
A) post
C) have posted
B) be posting
D) have been posting
I hope we will ..... the market research by January.
A) do
C) have done
B) be doing
D) have been doing
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
19) By next week we will ..... on our project for three months already but the
results are not encouraging.
A) work
C) have worked
B) be working
D) have been working
20) We will ..... at the hotel for the whole week.
A) stay
C) have stayed
B) be staying
D) have been staying
21) I will ..... to him about your suggestion.
A) talk
C) have talked
B) be talking
D) have been talking
22. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense.
Moving House
I come from a very large family, and recently my parents (1) (to decide)
that they (2) (to spend) long enough living in an overcrowded house in
Birmingham. “We (3) (to move) to the country,” my father (4) (to announce)
one evening. “I (5) (to sell) this house, and we (6) (to live) on a farm.” So last
week we (7) (to load) all our possessions into two hired vans and for the last
few days we (8) (to try) to organise ourselves in our new home. Yesterday, for
example, my three brothers and I (9) (to start) painting the downstairs rooms.
Unfortunately while I (10) (to mix) the paint, one of my sisters (11) (to open)
the door. Nobody (12) (to tell) her that we (13) (to be) in the room, you see. So
instead of painting the walls, we (14) (to spend) all morning cleaning the paint
off the floor. But worse things (15) (to happen) since then. This morning when
I (16) (to wake up), water (17) (to drip) through the ceiling next to my bed. We
(18) (to spend) today so far repairing the roof. It's not all bad news, though.
The school in the village nearby (19) (to close down) two years ago, and my
parents (20) (not to find) another school for us yet.
At the Dentist's
I was on time for my dentist's appointment, but the dentist was still busy
with another patient, so I (1) (to sit) in the waiting room and (2) (to read) some
of the old magazines lying there. While I (3) (to wonder) whether to leave and
come back another day, I (4) (to notice) a magazine article about teeth. It (5)
(to begin): “How long is it since you last (6) (to go) to the dentist? You (7) (to
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
go) regularly every six months? Or you (8) (to put off) your visit for the last
six years?” Next to the article was a cartoon of a man in a dentist's chair. The
dentist (9) (to say): “I'm afraid this (10) (to hurt).” I suddenly (11) (to realise)
that my tooth (12) (to stop) aching. But just as I (13) (to open) the door to
leave, the dentist's door (14) (to open). “Next please,” he (15) (to call), as the
previous patient (16) (to push) past me. “Actually I'm not here to see you, I
(17) (to wait) for my friend,” I (18) (to shout), leaving as rapidly as I could.
You ever (19) (to do) this kind of thing? Surely I can't be the only person who
(20) (to hate) the dentist!
23. Look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct, but some have a word
which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which
should not be there, write the word in the space.
Meeting Again
Dear Harry,
Do you remember me?
We have met last year when you were on holiday
in Brighton. I'm sorry I haven't been written to you 1) ……………….
since by then. I have been working abroad and
2) ……………….
I have only just come back home to England.
3) ……………….
Next week I am planning is to be in Bristol, and
4) ……………….
I am thinking about that we could meet.
5) ……………….
Do you remember Shirley, the girl we have met
6) ……………….
in Brighton? We are getting married next month,
7) ……………….
and we are want you to come to the wedding.
8) ……………….
I have lost your phone number, but when
9) ……………….
I have get to Bristol I'll try to contact you.
10) ……………….
It will be great to see you again. Are you still
11) ……………….
studying, or I have you found a job ?
12) ……………….
You won't recognise me when you will see me!
13) ……………….
I had my hair cut last week, and now I look at
14) ……………….
completely different. Shirley doesn't like men
15) ……………….
with long hair, you see!
Best wishes,
Graham Norris.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A Holiday in Scotland
Some friends of mine decided to go on holiday
to Scotland. They asked me if I was wanted to go
too, but I had already arranged to go to Italy.
I told them so that I had been to Scotland before,
so they asked me to give them some ideas.
I advised them to take up warm clothes and
raincoats. "If I were like you, I'd always carry
umbrellas!" I told them. "I doubt that whether
you'll have any sunny days." I didn't see
them again until after their holiday. They
were all very sun-tanned, and they told to me
that they had had very hot weather.
"If we had been taken your advice, we would
have made a terrible mistake," they said me.
"Luckily we were told us before we
left that it was very hot in Scotland.
It is said to they have been the hottest summer
1) ……………….
2) ……………….
3) ……………….
4) ……………….
5) ……………….
6) ……………….
7) ……………….
8) ……………….
9) ……………….
10) ……………….
11) ……………….
12) ……………….
13) ……………….
14) ……………….
15) ……………….
24. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.
The Latest News
Dear Linda,
I'm sorry I (1) ..... to you for so long, but I (2) ..... very busy lately. All last
month I (3) ..... exams, and I (4) ..... anything else but study for ages.
Anyway, I (5) ..... studying now, and I (6) ..... for my exam results.
As you can see from the letter, I (7) ..... my address and (8) ..... in Croydon
now. I (9) ..... that I wanted a change from central London because it (10) .....
so expensive. A friend of mine (11) ..... me about this flat, and I (12) ..... here
about two months ago. When you (13) ..... to London this summer, please
visit me. I (14) ..... here until the middle of August. Then I (15) ..... on
holiday to Scotland.
Please write soon,
A) don't write
C) am not writing
B) haven't written
D) wasn't writing
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
A)was being
B) had been
A) had
B) was having
A) haven't done
B) don't do
A) stop
B) will have stopped
A) wait
B) am waiting
A) am changing
B) had changed
A) will live
B) have been living
A) decided
B) have decided
A) will become
B) becomes
A) tells
B) told
A) have moved
B) had moved
A) will come
B) came
A) am staying
B) stayed
A) have gone
B) went
C) am
D) have been
C) had had
D) have had
C) wasn't doing
D) am not doing
C) have stopped
D) was stopping
C) have waited
D) was waiting
C) will change
D) have changed
C) live
D) have lived
C) was deciding
D) decide
C) has become
D) will have become
C) was telling
D) will tell
C) was moving
D) moved
C) come
D) were coming
C) stay
D) have stayed
C) am going
D) will have gone
The Stolen Bike
One morning last week I realised that my bike (1) ..... stolen from my
garden. I phoned the police and two officers called at my house the next day.
They (2) ..... me if I had seen or heard anything. I told (3) ..... I had been out
that evening, and hadn't noticed anything suspicious when I came home. “If I
had seen anything, I (4) ..... you,” I replied. “It was raining hard too. If the
weather (5) ..... so bad, I would have ridden my bike.” The officers told me
that lots of people (6) ..... their bikes stolen lately. “The thieves (7) ..... to have
put the bikes in a van,” said one of the officers. “I (8) ..... I had known about
that,” I said. “I saw a black van that evening. In fact, it (9) ..... opposite my
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
house.” The officers asked me what the van's number (10) ..... , but I couldn't
remember. “(11) ..... you saw the van again, (12) ..... you recognise it?” one of
them asked. “It (13) ..... painting. I remember that,” I replied. However, there
was a happy ending to this story. After the officers had left, I (14) ..... by a
friend of mine. “By the way,” she said, "(15) ..... you want your bike, I'll bring
it back this afternoon. I borrowed it a couple of days ago."
A) had
B) had been
A) reminded
B) said
A) them
B) that
A) called
B) would call
A) weren't
B) wouldn't be
A) had
B) had had
A) think
B) are thought
A) would think
B) realize
A) was parked
B) had been parking
A) is
B) was
A) If
B) When
A) do
B) can
A) needed
B) had been
A) called up
B) was phoned
A) unless
B) if only
C) will be
D) has been
C) told
D) asked
C) if
D) later
C) had called
D) would have called
C) hadn't been
D) wouldn't have been
C) had to have
D) have had
C) have thought
D) are thinking
C) wish
D) thought
C) is parked
D) has been parked
C) had
D) wrote
C) Remember
D) Suppose
C) would
D) if
C) looked like
D) seemed
C) had a phone call
D) heard some news
C) if
D) as long as
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
25. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense.
A Friend in the Rain
Last week I (1) (to walk) home after playing tennis when it (2) (to start)
raining very heavily. "Oh, no, I (3) (to get) soaked before I (4) (to reach)
home," I thought. "I wish I (5) (to remember) to bring my raincoat." But
unfortunately I (6) (to leave) it at home. "How stupid of me! I always (7) (to
forget) to bring it with me." Luckily just then a friend of mine passed in her car
and offered me a lift. "You (8) (to go) home?" she asked, "or you (9) (to want)
to go for a drink?" "I think I'd rather you (10) (to take) me home." I said. "If I
(11) (not to change) my clothes, I know I (12) (to fall) ill, and then I (13) (not to
be able) to play in the tennis tournament next week. And I (14) (to practise)
hard for the last month." "I (15) (to wait) for you to change if you (16) (to
like)," she told me. "I think it's time you (17) (to relax) for a change. You (18)
(to worry) too much about things lately. And people who (19) (to worry) too
much (20) (to fall) ill more easily. It's got nothing to do with the rain!"
26. Fill in the correct tense.
Sue Thomas is a fashion designer. She (1) has been making (make)
clothes ever since she (2) (to be) a young girl. She (3) (to get) her first job in a
clothes factory when she was sixteen. She (4) (to sew) buttons onto a shirt one
day when she (5) (to have) a brilliant idea for a design. After she (6) (to speak)
to her bank manager, she got a loan and (7) (to open) her own little workshop.
Now she (8) (to make) lots of money. Next year she (9) (to open) a shop which
will sell all her own designs. She (10) (to sell) clothes to a lot of famous people,
including film stars and singers, and she (11) (to think) she will be very rich
Kevin Adams (1) loves (to love) trains. He first (2) (to see) one when he
was four years old and he (3) (to think) it was great. He (4) (to go) to a
different railway station every week and (5) (to write down) the engine
numbers of every train he sees. He (6) (to do) this since he was eight. By the
time he was fifteen he (7) (to collect) over ten thousand different engine
numbers in various countries. Once, while he (8) (to stand) at the station in
Cheshire he saw something very unusual. He (9) (to wait) for over an hour for
a train to go by when suddenly he (10) (to see) a very old steam train coming
down the track. It (11) (not to stop) at the station and, as it passed, Kevin
noticed that all the passengers (12) (to wear) old-fashioned clothes. When he
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
told the station guard about this, the poor man turned pale. He said that no
steam train (13) (to pass) through that station for years, and that the last one
(14) (to crash) killing everyone on board.
1. Open the brackets putting the verbs into the appropriate form.
I am a doctor and I have to drive a lot. I (1) (to drive) for twenty years.
For all that time the police never (2) (to stop) me. But last Tuesday police
officers (3) (to catch) me for speeding. It was afternoon. I (4) (to drive) fast
because I (5) (to be) late. I (6) (to go) to the airport to meet a friend. I was late
because a patient (7) (to telephone) before I (8) (to leave) the house. The police
(9) (to wait) at the side road outside town. When they (10) (to see) me go past,
they (11) (to follow) me and (12) (to stop) me. They (13) (to tell) me I was
booked for speeding. I (14) (to try) to explain to them that my friend’s plane
(15) (to land) a few minutes before and he (16) (to wait) for me, but they (17)
(not to want) to listen to my excuse. They (18) (to say) I (19) (to have) to pay
$50 the next day. I paid, of course. But since then I never (20) (to violate)
traffic rules.
David William (21) (to have) such a terrible time this year that he ought
to be in the Guiness Book of Records.
The trouble (22) (to start) one morning last January when David (23) (to
find) that his car (24) (to disappear) from outside his house. He (25) (not to see)
it ever since.
In March he (26) (to buy) a new car, but he (27) (not to have) it for more
than a week when someone (28) (to crash) into the back of it. These disasters
(29) (to continue) for more than a year right up to the present time. Two days
ago David (30) (to sit) on a seat that someone (31) (to finish) painting only
some minutes before. He (32) (to wear) a new suit he (33) (to buy) only the
previous week.
The worst thing happened in August. David (34) (to spend) 3 days of his
holiday at airports because of strikes. When he (35) (to arrive) home finally, he
(36) (to discover) that someone (37) (to break) into his house. The burglars (38)
(to steal) his video-recorder and TV-set. David doesn’t know what he (39) (to
do) to deserve all this bad luck. But he (40) (to hope) his luck will change soon.
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
1) Two days ago I (41) (to put) an ad in the local newspaper so that I could
find a buyer for my old car. Yesterday I (42) (to sell) it. A man who (43) (to
look) for an old car (44) (to buy) it. Today a friend of mine told me that he
(45) (to want) to buy my old car, but he was too late. By the time he (46) (to
talk) to me, I already (47) (to sell) my car.
2) After the teacher (48) (to return) the test papers to the students in class
tomorrow, the students (49) (to receive) their next assignment.
3) Ever since they (50) (to build) the Taj Mahal three centuries ago, it has
always been described as the most beautiful building in the world. A
Turkish architect (51) (to design) it and it (52) (to take) 20.000 workers 20
years to complete it. Though it is so ancient, I'm sure, people always (53)
(to like) it.
“Dear Sirs,
I (54) (to want) to complain to you about some fashion boots I (55) (to
buy) from your Westborough branch last Wednesday. When I (56) (to put) them
on for the first time at the weekend, it (57) (to rain) and after a few minutes the
boots (58) (to let) the water in. The next day I took the boots to your shop and
asked the assistant who (59) (to sell) them to me to replace the boots. But she
said she (60) (not to replace) the boots because I (61) (to wear) already them.
But how could I have seen the defect without wearing them? I can’t believe that
boots are made to wear in dry weather only! And I (62) (not to want) the boots
which (63) (not to be) waterproof. I’ll be grateful if you (64) (to send) me a
replacement pair that will not let water in.
Look forward to your response.
Sincerely yours
Mary Crawford.”
It (65) (to rain) when I (66) (to wake) up last Saturday. It always (67) (to rain)
when I am not working. We (68) (to plan) to go to the seaside but in the end we (69)
(to decide) to go to the theatre instead. We (70) (to miss) the bus and (71) (to arrive)
late. We (72) (to arrange) to meet Joe outside the theatre and he (73) (to wait) for
twenty minutes when we (74) (to get) there. The play already (75) (to start) when we
(76) (to go) in.
It’s Monday again today, and I (77) (to work) as usual. I (78) (to sit) here
in the office for the last two hours, but I (79) (not to do) much work yet – I (80)
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison
(to feel) I am fed up with work. I already (81) (to have) my holiday this year. I
(82) (to go) to Scotland in July and, of course, it (83) (to rain) every day.
Tomorrow I (84) (to book) a holiday for next April in Spain.
Will Kelogg, famous for Kelogg’s cornflakes, was taken out of school at
thirteen because he (85) (to be) a slow learner. Since he (86) (to fail) as a
salesman, his brother, a doctor, (87) (to give) him a job in his hospital. He (88)
(to shine) shoes for ten years when a fortunate baking accident in the hospital
kitchen (89) (to give) him an idea for Kelogg’s cornflakes. This breakfast cereal
already (90) (to become) one of the most successful business ideas. Every
morning thousands of people (91) (to have) cornflakes for breakfast.
Mrs Winfred Weave (92) (to get involved) in politics ever since she (93)
(to be) a student. She (94) (to go) to Hull University, where she (95) (to study)
agriculture. She (96) (to have) a distinguished career in politics and (97) (to
represent) her constituency for 30 years.
For the past few months she (98) (to write) her memoirs, although she
insists her political career (99) (not to finish) yet. Who knows, maybe in some
years she (100) (to become) a prominent politician.
Total: 100/_____
1. Choose the correct variant:
1) Nylon ….. since 1938 and today it ..…in many things.
A) has been produced; is being found
B) has produced; is found
C) has been produced; is found
D) has been produced; has been found
2) Wait for a while. He ..… now.
A) is being interviewed
C) has been interviewed
B) is interviewed
D) will be interviewed
3) She ….. about the results of the research as soon as it ..… .
A) will have been informed; is finished
B) will be informed; will be finished
C) will be informed; is finished
D) will have been informed; will have been finished
4) The Houses of Parliament ..…between 1849 and 1857.
A) were being built
C) were built
B) was built
D) had been built
5) Acid rain ..… by burning coal or oil
A) is caused
C) has been caused
B) is being caused
D) has caused
6) Boss says I ..… a pay-rise.
A) was giving
C) will given
B) will be given
D) was be given
7) Two million books ….. to America every year.
A) are being sent
C) were being sent
B) will send
D) are sent
8) The students of our Institute ..… every opportunity to master the language.
A) give
C) had been given
B) was being given
D) are given
9) The room ….. for a month.
A) hasn’t lived in
C) has not been lived in
B) is not lived in
D) is not being lived in
10) By the time she comes, the problem ….. .
A) will have discussed
C) will have been discussed
B) will being discussed
D) will be discussed
Unit 7. Voice
11) By the time Mr. Brown returned, the old fireplace ….. .
A) had been taken out
C) was taken out
B) had taken out
D) has been taken out
12) The cats ..… when Mary entered the room.
A) were fed
C) had fed
B) fed
D) were being fed
13) The new night club ….. by the council last week.
A) was closed
C) closed
B) had been closed
D) had closed
14) I’m going home now because all the work ….. .
A) is doing
C) does
B) has been done
D) has done
15) Jim’s house is very modern. It ….. only 2 years ago.
A) had been built
C) was being built
B) built
D) was built
16) This piece of music ….. yet. I have just composed it.
A) hasn’t been recorded
C) hasn’t recorded
B) wasn’t recorded
D) wasn’t being recorded
17) This tree is very old. It ..… in the 19-th century.
A) had been planted
C) was planted
B) planted
D) was being planted
18) The house ..… at this time yesterday.
A) was painting
C) was being painted
D) had been painted
D) was painted
19) A valuable painting ..…from the Art Gallery last night.
A) was stolen
C) stole
B) had been stolen
D) had stole
20) By the time I arrived, all the tickets ..… .
A) had been sold
C) were sold
B) had sold
D) sold
21) The garages ..... every day
A) are being cleaned
C) are cleaned
B) clean
D) will clean
22) Two hundred people ..... to the wedding last week.
A) were invited
C) were being invited
B) invited
D) have been invited
23) A new spaceship ..... by our scientists now.
A) is being examined
C) has examined
B) is examined
D) has been examined
24) After the work ..... , they went home.
Unit 7. Voice
A) was finished
C) was being finished
B) had finished
D) had been finished
25) This letter recently ..... by the secretary.
A) has
C) is brought
B) has been brought
D) was brought
26) The meal ..... now.
A) is preparing
C) will prepare
B) has been prepared
D) is being prepared
27) By the time I returned from work, my new washing machine ..... .
A) had been delivered
C) has been delivered
B) was delivered
D) was being delivered
28) We ..... all the time we were there.
A) were watched
C) watched
B) had been watching
D) were being watched
29) A plan to build a helicopter near Westminster … last year.
A) was considered
C) had been considered
B) considered
D) has been considered
30) The burglar ..... yesterday.
A) arrested
C) was arrested
B) had been arrested
D) was being arrested
31) They didn’t leave the restaurant until the bill .....
A) was paid
C) had been paid
B) had paid
D) was being paid
32) When I entered the room, the politician .....
A) was being interviewed
C) had been interviewed
B) interviewed
D) has interviewed
33) The prisoners ..... to prison now.
A) are taken
C) take
B) are being taken
D) will be taken
34) When I returned, I noticed that the dog ..... yet.
A) wasn’t fed
C) hadn’t fed
B) hadn’t been fed
D) fed
35) The window … now.
A) is being replaced
C) will have replaced
B) will replace
D) will being replaced
36) Millions of pounds’ worth of damage ..... by a storm which swept across the north
of England last night . (refer to the Present)
A) has been caused
C) caused
B) had been caused
D) were caused
37) Too many offices ..... in London over the last 10 years.
Unit 7. Voice
A)were built
C) have been built
B) are building
D) had been built
38) When she discovered that all the biscuits ..... she got angry.
A) were eaten
C) had eaten
B) had been eaten
D) ate
39) I hope that the missing money ..... soon.
A) will be found
C) is found
B) has been found
D) will find
40) The antique car ..... by an expert, at the moment
A) is restored
C) is being restored
B) is restoring
D) has been restored
2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense and voice form.
41) The new proposal (to discuss) at our next meeting.
42) The man (to send) to prison for 6 months after he (to find) guilty of fraud.
43) Much of London (to destroy) by the fire in the 17-th century.
44) The Government is apparently winning the fight against inflation. A steady
fall (to record) over the last 6 months.
45) The builders will start work as soon as the plans (to approve).
46) The motorist (to disqualify) some five years ago.
47) They say this book (to publish) next year.
48) The naughty boy (to teach) a good lesson by his friends.
49) The meat must be nearly ready. It (to cook) for nearly an hour.
50) I read in the paper a few weeks ago that Richard (to make) Vice-president
of the company.
51) Their behaviour was so outrageous that we (to force) to leave the house.
52) The letter (to hand) to Lord Henry on the day of his departure.
53) Mind, you (to punish) if you disobey my orders.
54) The preparations for the party just (to finish) and the guests are arriving.
55) When I came into the kitchen I smelt something delicious. My favourite
cookies (to bake) in the oven.
56) You can’t use the fax now. It (to fix) at the moment.
57) Many towns (to destroy) by the earthquake in Japan last year.
58) You ever (to teach) how to play chess?
59) The exposition (to open) when we drove up to the picture gallery.
60) I can’t believe my eyes! My book (to publish) already!
61) The helicopter (to construct) in Russia many years ago.
62) You’ll have your copy soon, the contract (to type) now.
63) The sportsmen (to give) instructions before the match.
64) I’m happy as I just (to allow) to stay here for an extra day.
Unit 7. Voice
I wonder, when my project paper (to publish) (refer to the Future).
We felt happy that the car (to repair) the next day.
When they joined us, we already (to show) a lot of places of interest.
The house (to repaint) since they moved out.
She greatly (to impress) by the size and beauty of our capital every time
she visits Minsk.
He escaped when he (to move) from one prison to another.
They invited Jack, but Tom (to invite).
The escaped convict (to arrest) in a few days.
After a million pounds (to spend) on the project, they decided that it was
impracticable and gave it up.
He said he (to involve) in an accident that month.
The bomb (to carry) to a safe place when it exploded.
The water level (to check) every week.
A whistle (to blow) if there is an emergency.
Your shoes (to mend) at the moment.
The children already (to tell) about the party.
The outside of the ship (to paint) when the accident happened.
3. Translate into English.
81) Посылка будет отправлена к твоему приезду.
82) Не шумите! В этой аудитории сейчас пишут диктант.
83) Мне посоветовали съездить в Москву.
84) Свидетеля сейчас допрашивают.
85) Анну пригласили провести август месяц в Германии.
86) Не оставляйте велосипед на улице. Его украдут.
87) Его учили музыке в детстве.
88) Эту книгу уже обсудили, когда мы вошли в зал.
89) Включите телевизор. Его только что отремонтировали.
90) К концу июня все экзамены будут сданы, и мы поедем домой.
91) Аэропорт был закрыт, т.к. целую неделю шёл сильный снег.
92) Подождите, пожалуйста! Экзаменуют последнего студента.
93) Когда я вышел из дома, то обнаружил, что мой велосипед украли.
94) Туристы были довольны, т.к. программа была очень хорошо
95) Любопытно, что это строится в самом центре города?
Unit 7. Voice
96) Этого человека арестовали, т.к. он пытался несколько раз ограбить
97) Когда была нарисована эта картина?
98) Письма отправят до того, как вы придёте.
99) У моего брата брали интервью, когда я вошел.
100) Дверь была заперта, когда мы вернулись.
Total: 100/_____
Voice is the form of the verb which shows whether the subject of
the sentence is the doer of the action expressed by the verb or whether
it was acted upon.
There are two voices in English – the Active Voice and the
Passive Voice.
The Active Voice shows that the person or thing denoted by the
subject of the sentence is the agent (the doer) of the action expressed
by the predicate verb: Someone stole the jewels.
The Passive Voice shows that the subject of a sentence is not the
agent (doer) of the action but the receiver of it: The jewels were stolen.
1. F o r m a t i o n
The Passive Voice is formed by using the appropriate tense of the
verb to be + past participle.
1) The Rules of Changing from Active into Passive
a) The object of the active verb becomes the subject in the new
b) The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of
the active verb becomes the agent.
c) The agent is introduced with by or it is omitted.
Only transitive verbs can be changed into the passive.
Unit 7. Voice
The doctor
The patient
was invented
the telephone
has examined
has been
the patient
by Bell
by the
2) Active Tenses and their Passive Equivalents
Affirmative Form
Active Voice
Present Indefinite They repair cars
They repaired the car
Past Indefinite
They will repair the car
Future Indefinite
Passive Voice
Cars are repaired
The car was repaired
The car will be repaired
Past Continuous
They are repairing the
They were repairing the
The car is being
The car was being
Present Perfect
They have repaired the
They had repaired the
They will have repaired
the car
The car has been
The car had been
The car will have been
They may repair the car
The car may be repaired
They have to repair the
The car has to be
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
Negative Form
Active Voice
Present Indefinite They do not( = don’t')
repair cars
They did not (=didn't)
Past Indefinite
repair the car
They will not (=won't)
Future Indefinite
repair the car
Passive Voice
Cars are not (= aren't)
The car was not
(=wasn't) repaired
The car will not (=won't)
be repaired
Unit 7. Voice
Past Continuous
They are not (=aren’t)
repairing the car
They were not (=weren’t)
repairing the car.
The car is not (= isn’t)
being repaired
The car was not
(=wasn’t) being
Present Perfect
They have not (=haven’t)
repaired the car.
They had not (=hadn’t)
repaired the car.
They will not (=won’t)
have repaired the car
The car has not
(=hasn’t) been repaired
The car had not
(=hadn’t) been repaired
The car will not (=won’t)
have been repaired
They may not repair the
They don't have to repair
the car
The car may not be
The car doesn't have to
be repaired
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
Interrogative Form
Active Voice
Present Indefinite Do they repair cars?
Did they repair the car?
Past Indefinite
Will they repair the car?
Future Indefinite
Passive Voice
Are cars repaired?
Was the car repaired?
Will the car be repaired?
Past Continuous
Are they repairing the
Were they repairing the
Is the car being
Was the car being
Present Perfect
Have they repaired the
Had they repaired the
Will they have repaired
the car?
Has the car been
Had the car been
Will the car have been
May they repair the car?
May the car be
Has the car to be
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
Do they have to repair
the car?
Unit 7. Voice
NOTE 1. Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous, Past
Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the passive.
NOTE 2. Get is used in colloquial English instead of to be to express
something happening by accident: He got hurt last Monday. (more usual
than He was hurt last Monday).
2. U s a g e
The Passive Voice is used:
1) when the agent (the person who does the action) is unknown,
unimportant or obvious from the context: The door had been locked. (we
don’t know who locked it – unknown agent) Repairs are being made on the
runway. (by the builders – obvious agent)
2) when we are interested more in the action than the agent, such as in
news reports, formal notices, instructions, processes, headlines,
advertisements etc.: The whole area was evacuated. (news report) Breakfast
is served from 6.00 to 10.30. (formal notice)
3) to make statements more formal or polite: My new dress has been
ruined. (more polite than saying “You ruined my dress.”)
4) to put emphasis on the agent: The Pyramids were built by the ancient
3. Prepositions with Passive Verbs
1) They use by + agent to say who or what carries out the action.
2) They use with + instrument/material/ingredient to say what the
agent used. The pancakes were made by Claire. They were made with
eggs, flour and milk.
The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the
subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people, one,
someone/somebody, they, he, etc.
Active: Somebody has rearranged the furniture.
Passive: The furniture has been rearranged.
But: The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person,
or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence: The “Mona
Lisa” was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. A new law has been passed by
the government.
Unit 7. Voice
1.1. Underline phrases which are not necessary in these sentences. Not all
sentences contain unnecessary phrases
1) My wallet has been stolen by someone.
2) We were taught by a different teacher yesterday.
3) Nick was operated on at the hospital by a doctor.
4) The meal was served by a waiter in a red coat.
5) We were shown round the museum by a guide.
6) Two letters were delivered this morning by the postman.
7) Three men have been arrested by the police.
8) Yesterday a window was broken by someone.
9) Paper was invented by the Chinese.
10) The interview is being televised throughout the world.
1.2. Read the following text and underline the passive constructions.
Acid rain is caused by burning coal or oil. When either fuel is burned, it
releases poisonous gases which are carried up into the atmosphere and
sometimes transported long distances.
Over 3,000 research projects have been carried out to look into acid rain,
and a decision to tackle the problem has been taken in most of the western
European countries. Measures have been taken in Scandinavia and in Central
Europe to stop the pollution before it is dumped on the environment, and a
diplomatic campaign has been launched to convince other countries that the
problem has to be considered as a major ecological threat.
‘Five years ago this issue was not being treated seriously,’ says one
leading environmental group, ‘but now that damage has been reported in large
areas of forest and Lakeland, our politicians are being forced to take action.
This problem must be solved quickly: if governments do nothing, they will be
faced in two or three years’ time with the accusation that they have allowed our
forests to die.’ A major international initiative to combat acid rain is expected in
the near future.
Unit 7. Voice
Indefinite Passive
Indefinite Passive
Indefinite Passive
am/is are + Past
was/were + Past
shall/will be + Past
am (is/are) written
was (were) written
shall/will be + Past
The Present Indefinite Passive is formed by means of the
auxiliary verb to be in the Present Indefinite (am, is, are) and adding
the past participle of the main verb: Write  is written.
The Past Indefinite Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary
verb to be in the Past Indefinite (was/ were) and adding the past
participle of the main verb: Wrote  was written.
The Future Indefinite Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary
verb to be in the Future Indefinite (shall/will) and adding the past
participle of the main verb: Will write  will be written.
2.1. Open the brackets. Use the Present Indefinite Passive
1) Lots of people like coffee. About 20 billion cups of coffee (to drink) in
Belarus every year.
2) A billion litres of milk (to buy) by the Belarusian’s every year.
3) 1,5 million litres of juice (to produce) every year.
4) 10000 litres of water (to use) by the average Belarusian family every
5) Over 2 million cars (to own) by Belarusian families.
6) Some people do not eat meat. Meat (not to eat) by 2 per cent of Belarusian
7) 3 million chickens and turkeys (to kill) every week in Belarus.
8) A lot of TV-sets (to manufacture) by Belarusian plants every year.
9) Lots of computers (to assemble) by some Belarusian companies.
10) In Belarus lots of new block of flats (to build) every year.
Unit 7. Voice
(B) Open the brackets and retell the texts
Finding a Job
If you have left school and haven’t got a job, don’t despair. Jobs (to advertise)
in local papers under “Situations Vacant”. Go to your local Job Centre or
Employment Office. If they haven’t got a suitable job for you, at least good advice (to
give) here. Job vacancies (to post) up on notice boards outside firms and factories.
Local jobs (to display) on cards in shop windows and at post offices. When you have
found a job that interests you, make an appointment for an interview. Sometimes, an
interview (to arrange) by telephone, but often a written application (to require).
Application forms (to provide) for this purpose by the firms. Sometimes the applicant
(to test) at the interview. Don’t be nervous, do your best.
Don’t feel that you have to take the first job that (to offer) to you. Go to the
Career Office and ask about the Young Training Scheme. Many on-the-job courses
and schemes (to organize) by the Youth Training Scheme and they pay you during
the training.
Delivery letters
First the letters (1) (to pick up) from the postbox, and then they (2) (to take) to
the sorting office. Here the stamps (3) (to cancel) automatically with blue dots and
the date. The letters (4) (to sort) then either by post-office workers or by machines
which read the blue dots or postal code. Next the letters (5) (to sort) automatically
into boxes. They then (6) (to tie up) with elastic bands and (7) (to put) into bundles.
After that, they (8) (to send) to the main post-offices nearest their destinations.
Finally, they (9) (to pick up) by the postman and (10) (to deliver).
2.2. (A) Transform from Active into Passive. (Omit the agent where it can be
They kill elephants for ivory.
People chop down a lot of trees every year.
The Muslims celebrate Ramadan.
They put fresh flowers in the hotel rooms every day.
They check passports at Passport Control.
A million people visit the cathedral every year.
Do they teach Latin at this school?
People make wine from grapes.
A lot of children use computers nowadays.
10) People ask Eve about her job all the time.
11) Two million people use the London Underground system every day.
Unit 7. Voice
People all over the world speak English.
Millions of people watch this programme.
Students write most of the magazine.
We bake bread here.
(B) Transform from Passive into Active
Dinner is served at 6.00.
The best fudge is made by the Scots.
Trained dogs are used by the police to find drugs.
The patients are given their medicine every morning.
The rooms are cleaned daily.
The best restaurant in our town is owned by my parents.
Important decisions are made by the Government.
Tickets are checked by inspectors regularly.
These TV sets are made by a Japanese firm.
10) The milk is brought.
11) The letters are left in the hall.
12) Hot meals are served till 10.30.
13) Things are stolen from supermarkets every day.
14) He is never seen in the dining-room.
15) The warehouse is guarded by dogs.
2.3. Open the brackets. Use the Past Indefinite Passive to complete the
following texts. Retell them.
The disaster happened when the ship (1) (to hit) by something unknown. The
women and children (2) (to put) into the lifeboats first while the men (3) (to tell) to
stay on the ship. A nearby ship (4) (to bring) into action as a rescue vessel. The men
who (5) (to leave) on the ship (6) (to rescue). Unfortunately some of the men (7) (to
frighten) and jumped into the water. It is believed that they are now dead. The
survivors (8) (to take) to hospital by helicopter and maximum effort (9) (to make) to
find the missing men.
The Greatest Explosion in the World
Did you know that the greatest explosion in the world (1) (to cause) by a
volcano? Krakatoa, an island in Indonesia, erupted in 1883. More than half the
island (2) (to destroy). The explosion (3) (to hear) in India and Australia. Rocks
(4) (to throw) more than 55 kilometres high into the air. Surprisingly, only a
few people (5) (to kill), but a huge wave, 35 metres high (6) (to create) by the
explosion. Several small islands (7) (to cover) by the wave. 163 villages (8) (to
Unit 7. Voice
destroy) and 36.000 people (9) (to drown). Dust (10) (to carry) all round the
world and the weather everywhere (11) (to affect) for many years afterwards.
The Royal Hotel almost completely (1) (to destroy) by the fire last night.
By the time the Fire Brigade (2) (to call) the hotel was already blazing. Fifteen
people (3) (to take) to hospital suffering from severe burns. Seven of them were
in a serious condition. The fire had been started by a discarded cigarette.
They were Surprised
Jewellery and coins (to steal) last night from the house of Mr and Mrs Smith.
At about 2.30 a.m., a young man (to see) in the Smiths’ garden by a neighbour. The
police (to inform) immediately by the neighbour’s wife. Ten minutes later, the man
(to catch) as he was leaving the garden and (to take) to the police station for
questioning. His pockets (to search). Rings and gold coins worth over 3000USD (to
find). When the man (to question) about the theft, he said, “It was easy. A window
was open and the safe (not to lock)”.
The jewellery and coins (to return) to the Smiths.
2.4. Transform from Active into Passive where appropriate. (Omit the agent where
1) My sister had a baby. (a passive form would be inappropriate)
2) John opened the door. The door was opened by John.
The police questioned George.
My sister married Paul last year.
One of the most famous painters in the world painted this landscape.
Kate asked the policeman for the way to the station.
We didn’t come home late last night.
The nanny took the children to the zoo yesterday.
I left very early yesterday evening.
Victor took these photographs.
United won the cup last year.
The letter arrived a few days ago.
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928.
I arrived at the airport at 7.30 in the morning.
They washed the car yesterday.
She escaped from prison.
The dentist pulled out the rotten tooth.
Unit 7. Voice
2.5. (A) Fill in by or with. (Consult § 1 point 3 for information about
prepositions with Passive Voice.)
1) The lock was broken ..… a hammer.
2) The book was written ..… my favourite author.
3) The cake was decorated ..… icing.
4) The tiger was shot ….. a gun.
5) Claire was shouted at ….. her teacher.
6) He was hit on the head ….. an umbrella.
7) She was woken up ..… a loud noise.
8) The parcel was tied up ….. string.
9) John was told off ..… his mother.
10) This picture was painted ..… famous artist.
11) The chair was covered ….. a woolen blanket.
12) The walls were decorated ..… posters.
13) My car was repaired ….. my father.
14) This dessert was made ..… fresh cream.
15) The window was broken ..… a ball.
16) He was knocked down ..… a car.
17) That novel was written ..… D.H. Lawrence.
18) The lion was shot ….. a rifle.
19) The garden was dug ….. a spade.
20) The pudding was made ..… fruit and chocolate.
21) The city was attacked ..… the enemy.
22) He was hit ….. a handbag.
23) The picture was painted ….. Jackson Pollack.
24) The house was built ..… wood and bricks.
25) The Stadium was packed ..… cheering fans.
(B) Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use
by or with only where necessary
The police believe that someone used a master key to open the door.
The police believe that the door was opened with a master key.
1) Mozart, the well-known composer wrote this music.
The music …… .
2) Apparently, someone used a knife to kill him.
Apparently, he …… .
3) The police arrested a 39-year-old woman for shop-lifting.
A 39-year old woman …… .
4) Ice on the road caused the accident.
The …… .
Unit 7. Voice
5) The supermarket manager is afraid that someone put poison into some of
the food when he was out.
The supermarket manager is afraid that some of …… .
2.6. Open the brackets. Use the Future Indefinite Passive.
The company is sorry to announce that it has been forced to introduce a
range of cost-cutting measures from the beginning of the New Year.
Unfortunately, free tea and coffee (1) (not to provide). New coin-operated
drinks machines (2) (to install) in every department and a wide range of drinks
(3) (to purchase) from these. Overtime payments also (4) (to stop) after the end
of this month and all members of the staff (5) (to expect) to complete their
duties within their contract hours. Personal calls no longer (6) (to make) from
office phones and the pay phones in the basement (7) (to use) for this purpose.
Interview for the Post
Interviews for the post (1) (to hold) in the first week of October.
Candidates (2) (to ask) a lot of questions at the interview. They (3) (to inform)
about the results of the interview within 48 hours. The successful candidate (4)
(to expect) to start work on the first of November.
2.7. Rewrite and retell the following passage in the Passive
Our apartment-block is starting a new scheme. We will collect all the old
newspapers and tin cans. We will put them in a special container. When the container
is full, the council will collect it. They will take it to a factory. The factory will
recycle the newspapers and cans into something new.
2.8. Open the brackets. Use either the Present or Future Indefinite Passive.
1) The prizes (to award) by the President tomorrow.
2) The product (to launch) in May.
3) The offer (to confirm) by Jones Ltd. tomorrow.
4) Plants (to use) by herbalists to cure common illnesses.
5) The rooms (to clean) daily.
6) She (to represent) by a defense Lawyer.
7) I guess the refrigerators (to export) to Singapore and many other countries.
8) In 6 months my salary (to raise).
9) The old house (to demolish) in only three days.
10) The concert (to perform) on Wednesday evening.
11) Air fares (to increase) on all international flights next month.
12) You (to protect) by a bodyguard 24 hours a day.
Unit 7. Voice
13) Consideration (to give) to the issue at the next week’s meeting.
14) The letters (to deliver) here every week.
15) The luggage (to inspect) by the customs officers.
2.9. Translate into English. Use the Present, Past, Future Indefinite Passive.
1) Телефон был изобретён Александром Беллом.
2) Когда помидоры созревают, их собирают, проверяют качество, а затем
продают на рынках и в магазинах.
3) В какое время подают обед в этом санатории? – В любое время с 12.00
до 13.30.
4) Модная одежда поставляется в нашу республику из многих стран
мира, и она быстро продаётся во всех больших магазинах.
5) На уроках английского языка нам объясняют грамматические правила.
6) Новые автомобили проходят испытания перед использованием.
7) В Европе пьют много кофе.
8) Такое оборудование больше не выпускают, так как оно устарело.
9) Мебель собирается на фабрике и доставляется в магазины.
10) – Где выращивают кофе? – В Бразилии. – А что выращивают в Индии?
– Чай.
11) Участников встречи на высшем уровне встретили очень тепло. Их
проводили в зал для заседаний.
12) Когда мыли машину в последний раз?
13) Ему дали несколько дней, чтобы закончить статью
14) Документы были найдены на улице и возвращены владельцу.
15) Ему сообщили о результатах эксперимента в конце месяца.
16) Америка была открыта Колумбом в 1492 году.
17) Решение этой проблемы было найдено несколько дней тому назад.
18) Ей не разрешили принять участие в соревнованиях из-за слабого
19) Преступника арестовали 2 дня тому назад.
20) Собрание было отложено из-за того, что не все сотрудники
предприятия знали об этом.
21) Я не сомневаюсь, что план проведения конференции будет одобрен
22) Если больному станет легче, его не будут госпитализировать.
23) Если моему брату предложат хорошо оплачиваемую работу, он охотно
24) Любопытно, когда будет издана книга этого автора?
25) В следующем году будет завершено строительство большого
торгового центра на нашей улице.
Unit 7. Voice
26) Лексико-грамматические тесты будут проверены не раньше, чем через
2 часа.
27) Книги и журналы будут возвращены в библиотеку не позже, чем через
10 дней.
28) Товары будут доставлены завтра.
29) Контракт будет подписан, когда директор вернется с командировки.
30) Если его не повысят по службе, он уволится.
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
am/is/are being +
Past Participle
was/were being +
Past Participle
am/is/are being
was (were) being
The Present Continuous Passive is formed by means of the
auxiliary verb to be in the Present Continuous (am, is, are) and the
past participle of the main verb: Is repairing  is being repaired.
The Past Continuous Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary
verb to be in the Past Continuous (was, were) and the past participle
of the main verb: Was repairing  was being repaired
3.1. Open the brackets. Use the Present Continuous Passive.
1) The police (to question) the suspect now.
2) A new bridge (to build) across the river this month.
3) The match (to play) tonight.
4) Our school (to redecorate) at the moment.
5) A new museum (to build) in the city centre now.
6) The company report (to write) by Martin this year.
7) Dinner (to serve) at the moment.
8) The roof (to repair) now.
9) Excuse the mess: the house (to paint) at the moment.
Unit 7. Voice
Animals (to feed) at the moment.
Goods (to deliver) at the moment.
Look! The jewellery (to steal).
Don’t you know experiments (to carry) out on moon rocks this year?
The Final Lexical-Grammar Test (to write) in this room now. Don’t make
so much noise!
15) My passport (to check) at Passport Control at the moment.
Mrs Brown is angry. She is complaining to the mayor:
Too much money ..… (to waste).
Education ..… (not to improve).
Old people ….. (not to help).
The wrong things ….. (to spend) money on.
Nothing ….. (to do) against crime.
The streets ….. (not to clean).
Money ….. (to waste) on dinners and parties.
Too many offices ….. (to build).
The health service ….. (not to improve).
Nothing ….. (to do) against pollution.
3.2. Open the brackets. Use the Past Continuous Passive to show what was
going on at a particular time in the past
1) The telephone didn’t work, it (to repair).
2) When I arrived, dinner (to serve).
3) The fish (to cook), when Mr. Green arrived.
4) A lot of interesting things (to display) there last week when I passed the
Central Department Store on my way home.
5) Lorry driver Mr. Brown had a lucky escape this afternoon when a concrete
block, which (to load) on to his lorry, fell off.
6) Mary knew that she (to watch).
7) A new project (to discuss) when I came in.
8) What television programme (to watch) when I called on you?
9) The TV-set (to mend) when my mother came.
10) He (to question) when the inspector came in.
3.3. Answer the following questions about Minsk. Use the passive Continuous
1) What was being displayed in the Art Museum, when you visited it?
2) What were the tourists being shown when you passed them?
Unit 7. Voice
What was being built in Jakub Kolas square when you took your friend
sightseeing about the city?
In what districts are a great many new blocks of flats being built in Minsk?
In what districts are new Metro lines being constructed?
3.4. Translate into English. Use either the Present or Past Continuous
1) События последних дней широко обсуждаются в прессе
2) Этот материал всё ещё используется в промышленности, не так ли?
3) Какие-нибудь меры принимаются на вашем предприятии, чтобы
предотвратить загрязнение окружающей среды? – Разумеется.
4) Это предложение всё ещё обсуждается.
5) Минск быстро растёт. Строится множество жилых домов, клубов,
школ, больниц.
6) Что строят за углом? – Новый кинотеатр.
7) Чьё произведение сейчас исполняется? – Думаю, Чайковского.
8) Почему здесь так душно? – Кондиционеры не работают. Их сейчас
9) Условия контракта всё ещё обсуждаются.
10) План реконструкции здания сейчас рассматривается.
11) Когда я присоединился к группе туристов, им как раз рассказывали о
достопримечательностях нашего города.
12) Когда я возвратился в свой родной город, новое здание библиотеки
всё ещё строили.
13) Я не знала, что за нами следили (наблюдали).
14) Когда преступника допрашивали, зазвонил телефон.
15) Когда мы пришли, обсуждали новый фильм известного режиссёра.
16) Когда обсуждался план поездки за рубеж, он не принимал участия в
17) Его багаж взвешивали, когда он заметил своего школьного друга.
18) Ксерокс не работал. Его в тот момент ремонтировали.
19) Когда у меня брали интервью, зашёл главный редактор популярного
журнала «Караван».
20) Студента моей группы спрашивали, когда я вошла в класс.
Unit 7. Voice
Present Perfect
Past Perfect Passive
Future Perfect
have/has been +
Past participle
had been +
Past participle
shall/will have been +
Past participle
have/has been written
had been written
shall/will have been
The Present Perfect Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb
to be in the Present Perfect (have/has been) and the past participle
of the main verb: Have written  have been written
The Past Perfect Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to
be in the Past Perfect (had been) and the past participle of the main
verb: Had written had been written
The Future Perfect Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to
be in the Future Perfect (will have been) and the past participle of
the main verb: Will have written  will have been written.
4.1. Open the brackets. Use the Present Perfect Passive to complete the letter:
Dear Sam,
Last month we bought an old double-decker bus to convert into a mobile home
so that we can tour Europe in it this summer. So far …..
the windows … (to replace);
blinds … (to put) up on the windows.
the tyres … (to repair);
the roof… (to remove);
the bus … (to paint);
a door … (to put) on;
the lights … (to repair);
a toilet and shower … (to install);
new seats … (to put) in.
It’s marvelous. Do join us on the tour round Europe. You’ll love it. Write
to me soon. Love,
Unit 7. Voice
4.2. Complete the following short dialogues. Use Present Perfect passive
constructions in the positive or negative forms. (The suitable verbs are given
in the box)
pay, sting, choose, mend, light, catch, find, steal, change, arrest
A: I’d like to pay my bill, please
B: You don’t need to. It .….
A: I’m worried about those escaped prisoners.
B: Don’t worry. They …..
A: I’ve come to pick up my watch.
B: I’m sorry, It ..… yet.
A: I left my bicycle outside the house and it’s gone!
B: Oh, dear. I hope it .….
A: Is that the lost Property Office? Any news of the passport I lost
B: No, I’m afraid it ..… yet.
A: Don’t touch that bee, little girl!
B: Too late. She ….
A: Shall I go and light the fire?
B: You don’t need to. It …...
A: Are you playing in the basketball team?
B: I don’t know. The team ….. yet.
A: Is the dialing code for Orprington still 57?
B: I don’t know, but it seems to me it …...
10) A: What’s going on here?
B: A man ….. for the crime.
4.3. Say what improvements have been made in our country over the last 20
years. Talk about roads, hospitals, housing, new lawns, schools, social
system; industry, agriculture, working conditions, medical service, public
transport, living conditions, etc.
More roads have been built.
The social system has been improved.
Compulsory education has been introduced.
Useful verbs: build, develop, improve, introduce, make, modernize,
reorganize, set up, etc.
4.4. Open the brackets. Use the Past Perfect Passive
(A) When the pupils went back to school after the summer holidays, a lot of
things had been changed.
1) A new wing ….. (to build).
Unit 7. Voice
The walls ….. (to paint).
Some trees ..… (to plant) in the school yard.
The roof ..… (to repair).
The school ..… (to change) from a girls’ school to a co-ed school.
A library ..… (to open).
Computers ….. (to deliver).
New desks ….. already (to buy).
Several classes ..… (to add).
A tennis court ..… (to build).
(B) Mr Brown was having his house done up. Write what he saw when he
went to inspect the work
1) New furniture ….. (to deliver).
2) The windows ….. (to repair).
3) The walls ….. (to paint).
4) New curtains ….. (to put up).
5) Light fittings ….. (to install).
6) The carpets ….. (to buy).
7) The telephone ….. (to install).
8) The flowers ….. (to bring).
9) A nice picture ….. (to hang) above the fireplace.
10) The old fireplace ..… (to mend).
4.5. Make up sentences. Use the Future Perfect Passive to say what will have
been done by the year 2015. (The following word-combinations may be
Model: I don’t think (I think) the drug problem will have been solved.
- the drug problem;
- the world hunger problems;
- talking robots;
- supersonic trains;
- international traffic laws;
- new energy source;
- a cure for AIDS/cancer;
- the problem of world peace;
- passenger transport to the Moon;
- satellite TV for everyone.
- a European currency;
4.6. Transform from Active into Passive. Use either the Past Indefinite
Passive or Past Perfect Passive, Future Indefinite Passive or Future Perfect
1) Someone stole my car and abandoned it fifteen miles away. He had
removed the radio but done no other damage.
2) It was obvious, someone had posted my parcel.
Unit 7. Voice
When she heard that somebody had killed her dog, she burst into tears.
I thought that someone had told you about the meeting.
I hoped that someone had given Sally the message.
The manager will have received the documents by tomorrow.
The builders say they will have finished the road by Saturday.
She thinks, she will have written an article by the end of the month.
By the end of the week the government will have introduced new measures
against crime.
10) They will have given him medicine before another cheek-up.
4.7. Transform from Passive into Active. Use either the Past or Future
Perfect. (When the agent is not known add words like people, somebody or
1) I was given a goat for my birthday last year. It had been bought from a farm
down the road.
2) The problem had been discussed for more than an hour before the decision
was arrived at.
3) The house had been broken into and three thousand pounds worth of
jewellery had been stolen.
4) The last ticket had been sold before we could get to the theatre.
5) The accountant realized that some money had been stolen.
6) New buildings, concert halls, cinemas will have been built by 2017.
7) New working methods will have been introduced by the end of the week.
8) They didn’t leave the restaurant until the bill had been paid.
9) A new National Library will have been built by 2010.
10) By 2012 a new wing will have been added to the house.
4.8. Translate into English. Use the Present, Past or Future Perfect Passive
1) Я догадывался, что всё уже приготовили к их выступлению.
2) Нам сказали, что делегацию уже проводили.
3) Ваше решение одобрено?
4) Он был уверен, что к 5 часам все бумаги были просмотрены, и
сделаны нужные изменения.
5) С тех пор как окончилась война, в Минске построено много жилых
домов, кинотеатров, больниц, школ, детских садов.
6) Мы рады, что этой проблеме уделили много внимания.
7) Включите телевизор. Его только что отремонтировали.
8) Как только все вещи будут упакованы, мы отправимся немедленно.
9) К концу января все экзамены будут сданы, и мы поедем домой.
Unit 7. Voice
10) Эту статью уже обсудили, когда вы вошли.
11) Машину уже отремонтировали? – Нет ещё.
12) Вчерашнюю почту уже принесли? – Нет ещё. Её принесут к 6 часам.
13) Почему на эти письма ещё не ответили?
14) Будет очень хорошо, если ремонтные работы закончат к концу лета.
15) Мне кажется, что к концу года это здание ещё не будет
16) Туристы были довольны, т.к. им показали все достопримечательности
17) Мне сказали, что за последнее время в этой лаборатории проведено
много экспериментов и получены хорошие результаты.
18) Не переживайте, такси приедет до того, как все вещи будут упакованы.
19) Мне кажется, что к концу 2015 года спутниковое телевидение будет
установлено в каждом доме.
20) Я думаю, документы будут напечатаны до того, как вернётся директор.
Some English verbs in the Active Voice can take two objects, a
direct (usually a thing) and indirect one (usually a person).
With verbs which take two objects such as bring, tell, send,
show, teach, promise, buy, throw, write, award, hand, sell, owe,
grant, allow, feed, pass, post, read, take, offer, give, pay and lend,
they can make two different passive sentences. However, it is more
usual for passive sentences to begin with the person.
Ann showed Rod some photos
a) Rod was shown some photos by Ann. (more usual)
b) Some photos were shown to Rod by Ann. (less usual)
5.1. (A) Change the structure of the following sentences so as to begin them
with a person.
A clock was given to him. He was given a clock
1) Nothing was sent to him.
Unit 7. Voice
Contracts were brought to sign.(He)
Fairy-tales were read to the kids.
A lot of money is owed to my friend.
A new job was offered to him.
Spanish is taught to us by Mrs Brown.
A car was lent to me for a few days.
A message has been sent to Ann’s director.
A full explanation has been promised to me.
Lots of flowers were given to the winner.
A nice picture will be sent to them soon.
Some help was offered to Sam, but he refused it.
The whole truth has been told to Melanie.
A lot of lies were told to me by the secretary.
The newspaper was handed to him.
(B) Use two passive constructions where possible
1) The Queen presented him with a medal.
2) The waiter brought us the bill.
3) Sam bought Ann some flowers.
4) Victor has sold Tom a second-hand car.
5) The examiner didn’t give us enough time to prepare all the questions.
6) They left the children some fish.
7) She took the report to Mr Green.
8) They showed us the way to the cinema.
9) We owe some money to the bank.
10) I lent my friend 10$ the day before yesterday.
11) The teacher explained the use of the Passive Voice to the students.
12) The local council suggested a new project to the citizens.
13) She has described her methods of teaching to us.
14) Mr Brown introduced his cousin to us.
15) Ann sent Bob her guitar.
16) Mary wrote her friend a letter.
17) No one explained the procedure to us.
18) They have taught the boy a good lesson.
19) The scientist demonstrated to the public how the machine worked.
20) My boss promised me promotion.
5.2. Translate into English. Use the Passive Voice where appropriate
1) Ребёнку показали, как пользоваться телефоном.
2) Нам сообщили о результатах выборов.
Unit 7. Voice
3) Мистеру Грину оставили большое наследство. Сейчас он собирается в
кругосветное путешествие.
4) В начале квартала сотрудникам фирмы сообщили, что их зарплата
будет увеличена.
5) Ему предложили интересную работу за рубежом.
6) Доступ к серьёзной информации был разрешён лишь двоим
7) Известным людям во время интервью задают много вопросов об их
творческих планах.
8) Этот певец очень популярен. Ему всегда дарят много цветов.
9) Нам принесли счёт за ужин.
10) Два дня назад мне купили шубу, о которой я давно мечтала.
11) Мне пришлют денежный перевод через неделю
12) Ему вчера одолжили нужную сумму денег.
13) Ей обещают повышение по службе.
14) На днях моей подруге предложили хорошо оплачиваемую работу, и
она согласилась.
15) Вчера мне из Москвы прислали посылку.
16) Им сообщили о нашем приезде заранее, они нас встречали на вокзале.
17) Мальчикам подробно описали дорогу, и они быстро нашли нужный
18) Если мне не пообещают повысить зарплату, я оставлю работу.
19) Анне подарили много цветов на день рождения.
20) Опишите мне, как выглядит ваша жена.
Personal and Impersonal constructions are used when we cannot say or
do not need to say who the speaker is (for example, in news reports). It
was reported that the president had suffered a heart attack. (People said that
the President had suffered a heart attack.) or The President was reported to
have suffered a heart attack. (Someone reported that he had suffered a heart
The verbs think, believe, say, repoirt, know expect, consider,
understand are used in the following personal and impersonal
1) It + passive verb + clause with verbs of reporting: It is said (that)
Henry is in love with Claire.
Unit 7. Voice
2) Subject (not it) + passive verb + to infinitive with verbs of
reporting: Henry is said to be in love with Claire.
3) There + passive verb + to be with verbs of reporting: There is said
to be plenty of oil off our coast.
6.1. Begin these sentences with it, a name/a noun + passive
1) It is expected that prices will rise again this month. (to expect)
2) …… that all the passengers had died in the crash. (to fear)
3) …… to be an expert in financial matters. (to suppose)
4) …… to have committed a crime. (to think)
5) …… that the sea level is rising. (to think)
6) …… to be a lot of coal in the Antarctic. (to think)
7) …… to be honest and reliable. (to consider)
8) …… to be thousands of people waiting to renew their passports. (to say)
9) …… that thousands of new jobs will be created in the computer industry.
(to say)
10) …… to be a fall in house prices, but I haven’t noticed it. (to suppose)
6.2. Complete the sentences, as in the example.
1) It is expected that he will win the race tomorrow. He …is expected to win
the race tomorrow…
2) It is thought that the school has good teachers. The school……
3) It is said that she speaks seven languages. She ……
4) It is believed that the missing jewellery has been found. The missing
jewellery ……
5) It is thought that she is a talented pianist. She ……
6) It is said that the athletes train for eight hours every day. The athletes ……
7) It is expected that the American team will break the world record. The
American team ……
8) It is known that she is hiding somewhere in the city. She ……
9) It is reported that the world leaders have reached an agreement. The world
leaders .…..
10) It is reported that the thieves have escaped from prison. The thieves ……
Unit 7. Voice
6.3. Transform the following sentences into the Passive as in the example.
1) People expect him to win. He is expected to win. / It is expected that he will
2) Journalists have reported that the President is ill.
3) Everyone knows that the statement was untrue.
4) Many people believe that the climate is changing.
5) People say that the quiz champion Claude Jennings has lost his memory.
6) Everyone expects that the soap opera “Round the Corner” will end next
7) Journalists suppose that the footballer Wayne Johnson is earning 10 million
USD a year.
8) Lots of people believe that the Prime Minister and his wife have separated.
9) Everybody has agreed that changes to the scheme are necessary.
10) People think that the company is planning to set up a new production line.
11) People say that the company is having problems.
12) Everyone thought that he was lying.
13) People believe that a spy revealed the secret.
14) Many people say that the new prices are too high.
15) They claim that this diamond is the largest in the world.
They use have in a passive structure.
I’m building a garage at the moment. (I’m building the garage myself)
I’m having a garage built at the moment. (I arranged for someone else to do
this for me)
1. F o r m a t i o n
has/have +
his car
participle II
cleaned every day
* All tenses are possible in the construction.
He paints the house.
He has the house painted.
He painted the house.
He had the house painted.
Past Indefinite
Future Indefinite He will paint the house. He will have the house
Unit 7. Voice
He is painting the
Past Continuous He was painting the
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
He will be painting the
He has painted the
He had painted the
He has been painting
the house.
He had been painting
the house.
He can paint his house.
He is having the house
He was having the house
He will be having the house
He has had the house
He had had the house
He has been having the
house painted.
He had been having the
house painted.
He can have his house
NOTE: The verb to have, used in the causative forms its negations and
questions with do/does (Present Indefinite) and did (Past Indefinite):
She doesn’t have her hair dyed. Did you have your curtains put up?
2. U s a g e
1) They use have + object + past participle to talk about something
which they arrange for someone else to do for them: I’m having a
garage built at the moment.
I’m building a garage at the moment. (I’m building the garage myself)
I’m having a garage built at the moment. (I arranged for someone else
to do this for me)
2) They can use have + object + past participle to express accidents
or misfortunes. She had her car stolen. (= Her car was stolen.) He had his
leg broken. (= His leg was broken.)
Get can be used instead of have in the causative: I had/got my tooth
taken out yesterday. (Get is stronger in meaning than have and can be used
to suggest difficulty). Get the door repaired, will you? He finally got the seats
Unit 7. Voice
Make/have + object + bare infinitive are used to express that
someone causes someone else to do something, but their meaning is
slightly different: He made Ann type the letter. (He insisted that Ann should
type the letter.) He had Ann type the letter. (He asked Ann to type the letter.)
Get + object + to-infinitive is used to show that someone persuades
someone else to do something: He got his mum to bake him a cake. (He
persuaded his mum to bake him a cake.)
7.1. Read the situations. Then write sentences using the causative form on
each situation. The first one is done for you.
1) Liz is at the beauty parlour. The beautician is painting her nails. What is she
doing? She is having her nails painted.
2) Wilf has written a novel and it’s going to be published. What is Wilf going
to do?
3) A jeweller has made a special wedding ring for Ann. What has Ann done?
4) Simon’s suits are all made by a tailor. What does Simon do?
5) Sonia is going to the optician for an eye test tomorrow. What’s she going to
6) Trevor has paid a technician to install his computer. What has he done?
7) They had arranged for their house to be cleaned by the end of the week. Now
it is clean. What had they done?
8) His tooth was filled yesterday. What happened to him?
9) Their house is small. They are going to build an extension. What are they
going to do? ……
10) Mr Brown arranged for the builder to build a barn. What did he do?
11) All Linda’s clothes are made specially for her. What does she do?
12) They arranged for their house to be painted last week. Now it has been
done. What have they done?
13) Her bag was stolen yesterday. What happened to her?
14) Diana is at the hairdresser’s. The hairdresser is cutting her hair. What is
Diana doing?
15) Malcom’s car was broken into last night. What happened to him?
7.2. Kate Gilmore is a poor young actress. Lily Showbourne is a rich star.
Kate does everything herself while Lily pays other people to have it done for
her. Write what Lily says.
Unit 7. Voice
Kate Gilmore.
1) I dyed my hair yesterday.
2) I make all my costumes.
3) I enjoy entertaining people.
4) I’m going to cook dinner
5) I like doing my make-up
6) I’ll send some flowers to my
7) I had painted my flat before I
moved in.
8) I’ll manicure my nails.
9) I write letters to my fans.
10) I make my bed every morning.
Lily Showbourne.
I had my hair dyed yesterday.
5) ....................................................
6) ....................................................
7) ..............................................…...
8) ...................................................
9) ....................................................
10) ....................................................
7.3. Complete the following conversation. Use the causative form. Reproduce it.
A: …I’m having an extension built (an extension/to build) on my house this
B: That’s nice. When it’s finished, ……(it/to decorate)?
A: No, I’m going to do that myself. First, though, I ……(double glazing/to fit).
A: …… (carpets/to lay)?
B: I’m not sure yet. How about you? ..….(you/your curtains/to deliver) last
A: Yes. They’re really nice. I also …...(the carpets/to clean), so everything
looks lovely now.
7.4. (A) Rewrite these sentences. Use have + object + past participle.
Change some words if necessary:
1) Someone delivers the newspapers. (We) We have the newspapers
2) Someone cleaned the carpets every year. (I)
3) We ask someone to check the accounts every month. (We)
4) Someone sends the money to my bank account in London.
5) My camera’s being repaired at the moment. (I’m)
6) He split coffee on my jacket so he took it away for cleaning. (He split
coffee on my jacket so he …)
7) I think it’s time to service the car. (It’s time to)
8) I don’t like the office curtains. It’s time to change them. (I think I’ll)
9) The computer is no good: we are changing it. (We)
10) I send the films to England: they are processed there. (I)
Unit 7. Voice
(B) Model: His teeth are checked twice a year.
He has his teeth checked twice a year.
1) His skirt is being cleaned at the moment.
2) My hair is trimmed once a month.
3) Central heating is going to be installed in our house next month.
4) Sam’s burglar alarm was fitted last week.
5) My car is being repaired at the moment.
6) The band’s new single has just been recorded.
7) Our new furniture is going to be delivered tomorrow.
8) Their new house is being decorated at the moment.
9) The windows will be cleaned.
10) A new jumper has been knitted for me.
11) The hairdresser was styling Mrs. Brown’s hair.
12) She told her son to carry the shopping to the house.
13) Dad is going to arrange for someone to cut the grass.
14) They used to employ a cleaner who cleaned the house.
15) Did the mechanic repair Paul’s motorbike?
16) The boss asked his assistant to type the letter.
17) A plumber fixed the dripping tap for Joe.
18) Have you told the secretary to make some photocopies?
19) The chef was cooking Tom’s lunch.
20) Did you tell the shop to deliver the sofa to you?
21) My purse was stolen last Friday.
22) Did you employ a painter to decorate your house?
23) The builders are putting a new roof on Adam’s house at the moment.
24) She asked the maid to polish the silver.
25) The man had asked the porter to carry his luggage to his room.
26) Did you ask Jenny to arrange the flowers for you?
27) When will your glasses be made?
28) I hired a professional to cater for my party.
29) Did you ask anyone to sweep the chimney?
30) She asked him to do the shopping.
31) Their house was burgled last night.
32) He employed a carpenter to build the fence.
33) Julie’s housekeeper irons all her clothes.
34) His shops windows were smashed in the riot.
35) A new pair of glasses was bought for him.
Unit 7. Voice
Special care should be taken with the passive forms of verbs and
phraseological units taking prepositional objects: the verb and the preposition
following it always stay together while the noun-object (or pronoun) becomes
the subject of the passive construction.
They laughed at him.
They looked down upon him.
They did away with the old rules.
He was laughed at.
He was looked down upon.
The old rules were done away with.
NOTE: When phrasal (compound) verbs are followed by a direct object
without a preposition, remember to keep the two parts of the phrasal
verb together in a passive structure.
They knocked down old buildings
in the centre of the town.
Old buildings in the centre of the
town were knocked down.
Prepositional Verbs
account for – to give an explanation or reason for
His foolish behaviour could not be accounted for.
The late arrival of the steamer is accounted for by a storm on the sea.
arrive at (a decision, conclusion, agreement) – to reach, to come to
After many hours’ talk the decision was arrived at.
After an interesting discussion about the problem the agreement was
arrived at.
ask for – to make a request for
Have I been asked for at the hotel?
approve of – to consider good, right, wise
(disapprove of – to consider bad, wrong or unwise)
His request was disapproved of.
His behaviour can’t be approved of.
break into – to enter by force: to break into a house
Their house was broken into last night but nothing was stolen.
Unit 7. Voice
At night his car was broken into and a few things were stolen from it.
call for – a) to demand: to call for the waiter, to call for the bill
At the end of the meal the bill was called for.
b) to collect (someone or something)
You’ll be called for at 7 o’clock.
comment on – to make a remark, give an opinion
The election results were widely commented on in the newspapers.
deal with – to do business
This store has been dealt with for twenty years.
The matter should be dealt with as soon as possible.
depend on – to trust (usually someone)
You’ll be depended on to do it.
The map was depended on but it was wrong.
hear from – to receive news from someone usually by letter
She hasn’t been heard from since she went to live in France.
hear of – 1) to know of (a fact, existence of something or somebody)
2) to hear about
This young tennis player has been heard of quite a lot lately.
insist on (upon) – to declare firmly (when opposed)
Punctuality is insisted on in this office.
Higher rates of pay were insisted on.
interfere with – to get in the way of another, to prevent from happening
My work was constantly being interfered with.
He doesn’t like to be interfered with while he is working.
laugh at – to treat as foolish, worthless or an object of fun
You look stupid with this haircut. You’ll be laughed at.
Don’t say such foolish things. You’ll be laughed at.
listen to – to give attention in hearing
I like to be listened carefully.
He was listened to attentively.
look at – to give attention in seeing, use the eyes
She felt she was being looked at and it pleased her.
She was looked at with surprise.
look after – to take care of someone or something
Are you being well looked after?
I hope the child will be well looked after while the parents are away.
Albert is 85. He lives with his son’s family and is well looked after.
look for – to try to find
The missing keys had been looked for everywhere but were never found.
The boy who disappeared from home last week is still being looked for.
Unit 7. Voice
19) look into – to examine the meaning or causes of something
The matter will be looked into in the near future.
20) mock at – to laugh at (someone or smth.) when it is wrong to do so
His strange way of expressing himself is always mocked at.
21) object to – to be against something or someone
His proposal was strongly objected to.
22) provide for – to support, supply with necessary things
She was well provided for in her husband’s will.
23) read to – to say printed or written words especially to give pleasure to
Little children like to be read to.
24) refer to – to mention, speak about
Later the Minister’s report was referred to.
Your sister shouldn’t be referred to like a fool.
25) rely on – to trust someone to do something
He can be relied on to help you.
Jill can always be relied on. She never breaks her promises.
26) send for – to give a command, request
The child looks ill and I think the doctor must be sent for at once.
When they found her lying on the floor the doctor was sent for.
27) shout at – to give loud cry, speak or say very loudly
I hate to be shouted at. I like people to be nice to me.
28) think highly (well, little, poorly) of someone or somebody – to have a
good (bad, etc) opinion of someone or something
He was highly thought of in his town.
29) wait for – to stay somewhere without doing anything until somebody or
something comes or something happens
“Hurry up. You are being waited for downstairs.”
30) write to – to produce and send (a letter)
Will Bill be written to and informed about the changes?
Phraseological Units
do away with – cause to end, abolish
All these silly restrictions should be done away with.
2) find fault with – to complain, perhaps too much or too often
The poor child is always found fault with.
3) lose sight of – 1. to cease to see
At last the ship was lost sight of.
Unit 7. Voice
to forget
The main purpose of this discussion mustn’t be lost sight of.
make use of – to use well, to take advantage of
These are good examples. They should be made use of in the report.
make fun of – to laugh or cause others to laugh rather unkindly
She is often made fun of because she wears such strange hats.
pay attention to – to take notice of
All his remarks were paid little attention to.
put an end to - to stop from happening any more
This state of affairs will be put an end to.
put up with – to accept an unpleasant situation or person without
Her attitude to her duties can’t be put up with.
set fire to – to light (something) not really meant to burn, set something on
The house was set fire to in the middle of the night.
take (good) care of – to be responsible for someone or something
I hope the child will be taken good care of.
take notice of – to pay attention to
She said something but her words were taken no notice of.
Phrasal Verbs
blow down – to fall by blowing
Several trees were blown down by the storm last night.
bring up – 1. to educate and care for the family until grown up: to bring up
It was clear that the child had been brought up well.
to raise or introduce (a subject) – to bring up a question
The question of Judy’s future was brought up at the regular meeting of the
call up – to order (someone) to join the armed forces
He was called up in 1996.
give up – to stop believing that someone can be saved especially from
The boy was given up for lost.
hold up – to delay
The building of the new road has been held up by bad weather.
knock down – to destroy a building (bridge) by means of blows
Unit 7. Voice
Our house is being knocked down to give way for a new road.
There used to be a church here but it was knocked down.
let down – to cause (someone) to be disappointed in one’s loyalty; fail to
keep a promise to someone
It was difficult to believe that he had been let down by his friend.
pick on – a) to choose someone to do an unpleasant job or blame someone
for something, especially unfairly
Why am I always picked on (by the boss)?
b) to choose something or someone
Any student can be picked on to answer the examiners’ questions.
pick out – a) to choose someone or something carefully
All the synonyms to the word “despair” must be picked out from the text.
b) to recognize someone or something in a group of people or things
Bob’s father could be easily picked out of the crowd.
pick up – a) to lift something up from a surface
The baby is always picked up whenever it cries.
The litter should be picked up.
b) to collect someone who is waiting for you or something that you have
left somewhere
The mail will be picked up a bit later.
I hope to be picked up at 8.00 at the latest.
The hitchhiker was picked up by the truck driver.
point out – to draw attention to something or someone
Not all the mistakes in Bob’s written test were pointed out.
pull down – to break to pieces and destroy something
Half the houses in the street are being pulled down to make room for the
new post-office.
put off – to move to a later date, to delay
Their wedding has been put off.
The meeting will have to be put off till later in the week.
run over (of a vehicle or its driver) – to knock down and pass over the top
of (esp. a creature)
The brakes failed and the old man was run over by the bus.
They had a dog but it got run over.
see off – to go to the airport, station, etc. with someone who is beginning a
When he was going away he was seen off by all his friends at the airport.
Unit 7. Voice
8.1. Transform from Active into Passive
1) They put up with some problems.
2) They have carried out their work recently. Their managers talked a lot
about the outcome.
3) Somebody has thrown his papers away.
4) The strong wind blew our tent down yesterday night.
5) They will deal with the matter as soon as possible.
6) They accounted for the money.
7) At last the delegates arrived at a decision.
8) They always pick up their child when it cries.
9) One never approves of silly people.
10) The thieves broke into the house of a rich man the other day.
11) They called for the bill as soon as they finished their meal.
12) The newspaper reporters have commented widely on the Ex–president’s
speech .
13) They insisted on the interview with a famous singer.
14) I haven’t heard from him since he left for Moscow.
15) Who is he? I have never heard of him.
16) Does anybody object to my proposal?
17) Act your age! Otherwise people will laugh at you.
18) Ann is very bright. The colleagues always speak highly of her.
19) When the child was ill, his granny often read to him.
20) Ann always keeps her words. Her friends rely on her.
21) Mr N. is a good speaker. The audience always listens to him very
22) Are the parents looking well after the children?
23) They have knocked down the old building to give way to a new road.
24) She doesn’t like when somebody interferes in her private affairs.
25) The boy tried to do his best but his mates mocked at his efforts.
26) She said something in a low voice and nobody took notice of her words.
27) It is not easy to deal with silly people.
28) They are always finding fault with Ann.
29) They have recently called in the police.
30) They put an end to their row.
31) The car ran over him.
Unit 7. Voice
If it rains they will put off the concert.
Leave these papers here! Ted will call for them later.
They picked up signals for help from the sinking boat.
He tried to warn them of the danger but nobody paid attention to his words.
8.2. Put a suitable preposition in each space
1) Though the problem had been discussed for a long time no decision was
arrived .... .
2) The speech of the President is widely commented ..... in the newspaper.
3) He left for London several years ago and he hadn’t been heard .….. since.
4) I’m sure your ideas will be strongly objected ….. .
5) Her presence at the meeting will be insisted ..… .
6) Don’t tell anybody about it! You’ll be laughed ….
7) Mr Brown is an experienced lecturer. He is always listened ..... with great
8) I felt I was being looked ..... and turned around.
9) The gloves have been looked ..... since noon.
10) A shop was broken ..... last night. A man was seen leaving the premises.
11) He was knocked ..... by a car and taken to hospital.
12) The problem will be dealt ..... as soon as possible.
13) The tent was blown ..... by a gust of wind.
14) The doctor has been sent ..... and he will come soon.
15) All children like to be read ..... .
8.3. Translate into English. Use the Passive Voice where appropriate.
1) Мистер В. очень талантливый писатель. О его произведениях всегда
хорошо отзываются.
2) Я очень общительная, и у меня много друзей, поэтому меня часто
ожидают после занятий.
3) Дети любят, когда им читают сказки.
4) Я сомневаюсь, что этот материал будет использован при написании
5) К завтрашнему дню контракт будет просмотрен и подписан.
6) Моя подруга очень обязательный сотрудник. На нее часто
7) Вопрос очень долго обсуждался, прежде чем было принято решение.
8) О нем ничего не слышали с тех пор, как он уехал за рубеж.
9) Никому не нравится, когда вмешиваются в личную жизнь.
10) В этом доме когда-нибудь жили?
Unit 7. Voice
11) Это очень интересный проект. Полагаю, он будет одобрен советом
12) Не беспокойтесь. Ключ уже давно ищут, и я почти уверена, что его
скоро найдут.
13) За доктором послали 15 минут назад. Он скоро будет.
14) Думаю, что на вашем присутствии (на собрании) будут настаивать.
15) Мне не нравится, когда на меня кричат.
16) Это очень интересная статья. На нее часто ссылаются.
17) Сэм всегда подводит своих друзей, поэтому на него не рассчитывают.
18) Результаты лабораторных исследований уже используют на практике.
19) Почему ты решил, что над ним смеются.
20) Ему была сделана операция, и он чувствует себя гораздо лучше.
1. Translate into English. Mind the use of Tenses.
1) Завтра ко мне приезжает моя старая подруга. Я думаю повозить ее по
городу, показать Минск, пригласить на концерт (в театр) вечером.
2) Я почти никогда не хожу на работу пешком. Раньше, когда я жила
рядом с университетом, я ходила на работу и с работы пешком. А
сейчас езжу автобусом.
3) Я привык поздно ложиться по вечерам и попозже вставать утром. Я
не тороплюсь утром, так как занятия в университете начинаются во
второй половине дня. Я не пропускаю занятия по английскому языку.
Домой я возвращаюсь вечером, после 5 часов. Зимой в это время уже
темно. На дорогу у меня уходит около часа, так как я снимаю комнату
в другой части города.
4) Отца не было дома, когда я пришла. Он был еще на работе. Он
работает коммерческим директором в одном СП и очень занят весь
5) В прошлом месяце я ездил по туристической путевке в Индию.
Удивительная страна! До Дели мы летели самолетом. В Дели мы
прилетели ночью. Мы перекусили в ресторане аэропорта. Потом мы
сели в автобус и поехали в гостиницу. Мы пробыли в Дели неделю, а
потом ездили по стране.
Unit 7. Voice
6) Вчера я опоздала на лекцию по менеджменту. Обычно я не люблю
опаздывать. Я не стала заходить в аудиторию, так как прошло уже 20
минут с начала лекции.
7) Вчера я поздно лег спать и не мог сразу уснуть. Утром, естественно,
проспал и опоздал на занятия.
8) – Познакомься. Это Джил, моя бывшая однокурсница. Мы вместе
учились в колледже. Теперь Джил – моя невеста. Мы собираемся
пожениться в июле.
9) Мама уехала, она сейчас в отпуске. Она возвращается через неделю.
Она совершает круиз по Средиземному морю.
10) На днях у меня был день рождения. Я устроил обед в кафе и
пригласил друзей. Мы хорошо провели время.
11) Вчера мы пошли навестить Пола. Он болеет уже две недели. Когда мы
пришли, он лежал в кровати. Оказалось, у него не просто простуда, а
воспаление легких.
12) –Ты обычно обедаешь дома или где-то в городе? – По выходным –
дома, ну а в будние дни ем где-нибудь в студенческой столовой или в
закусочной. Но это просто ланч. А по-настоящему я обедаю после 6
часов вечера, когда прихожу домой после занятий.
13) – Где ты был в воскресенье вечером? Я тебе звонил, но никто не
ответил. – Я ходил в кино со своей девушкой. Фильм был
14) Прошлым летом мы ездили в Санкт-Петербург. Мы здорово провели
время, но я очень устала. Каждый день мы куда-нибудь ходили,
ездили по городу на машине. Погода была не очень хорошая. Часто
шел дождь, было ветрено. Один раз мы взяли такси и поехали на
Финский залив, сходили пешком в Репино. К сожалению, дом Репина
был закрыт на ремонт, но мы побродили по парку. Очень красивое
15) – Очень жарко. Давай сходим искупаемся. – Давай. Похоже, что будет
дождь. Очень душно. – Жаркая погода стоит уже целый месяц. Когда
же наконец похолодает?
16) – Она когда-нибудь бывала за границей? – Да, много раз. Она
журналист и много путешествует. Она умна и очаровательна и
прекрасно владеет английским. Она учит его с детства.
17) – Я все выходные просидела дома и очень хорошо отдохнула. Я
люблю читать, люблю сидеть дома одна. Я очень устаю на работе:
очень много посетителей, много хлопот.
Unit 7. Voice
18) – Что она собирается делать в следующую субботу? – Кажется, она
думает поехать на экскурсию в Вильнюс. Она не отдыхала уже год и
никуда не уезжала из города.
19) Я бы хотела съездить во Францию, но только не по делу, а ради
удовольствия. Я еще ни разу не была за границей. Очень хочется
посмотреть другие страны, города.
20) Я хожу за покупками в наш торговый центр. Это очень удобно.
Сегодня я уже сходила за покупками. Я купила все необходимое и
теперь пойду за покупками не раньше, чем через неделю.
21) Когда Пит зашел в гостиную, отец сидел в кресле перед телевизором и
смотрел какую-то спортивную передачу. Он очень любит спорт, а
футбол особенно. Он еще никогда не пропустил ни одного
футбольного матча.
22) – Я предпочитаю балет театру. А ты? – Я не увлекаюсь ни тем, ни
другим. Больше всего я люблю симфоническую музыку. – А ты часто
ходишь на концерты? – Раньше я ходил чаще, теперь не всегда есть
время, но все-таки стараюсь бывать на наиболее интересных
концертах. Недавно я побывал на концерте Юрия Башмета. Это было
23) – Ты не слушаешь меня, Том? – Да нет же, я все время вас
внимательно слушал, но не все понял.
24) Теперь люди мало пишут друг другу, все предпочитают общаться по
телефону. И очень мало читают. Большинство смотрит ТВ, видео. Как
ты думаешь, есть ли надежда, что в ближайшем будущем что-либо
25) – Какие у вас планы на лето? – Пока ничего особенного. А что ты
посоветуешь? – Лучше всего, мне кажется, сесть в машину и поехать
куда-нибудь, разбить палатку где-нибудь в тихом месте у реки или на
берегу озера, в лесу и провести пару недель с семьей.
26) На днях мы зашли к Анне на чай и посмотрели ее фотографии,
которые она привезла из своей поездки по Италии.
27) – Что ты собираешься делать? Давай сыграем партию в шахматы. Мы
давно не играли. Когда мы играли в последний раз? – Я не помню, так
давно это было.
28) – Хочешь сыграть партию в теннис? –Я бы не против, но сейчас я
очень занят, готовлюсь к экзамену по истории. – А когда ты его
сдаешь? – Через два дня, а я еще не все прочитал. Как только я сдам
экзамен, мы сыграем.
29) – Куда они ездили в отпуск в прошлом году? – В Испанию. А ты
бывала в Испании? – Нет еще. Я обычно езжу в Блэкпул. А теперь я
Unit 7. Voice
буду откладывать деньги, чтобы съездить следующим летом в
Россию. Я переписываюсь с одной русской девушкой. Хотел бы
познакомиться с ней лично. У меня есть ее фотография. Она очень
милая. – А что она за человек? – Мне кажется, что она
привлекательна, умна. Она учится в Московском университете.
– Ты уже собрала свои вещи? – Пока нет, но я соберу их к вечеру. А
завтра в это время я буду лететь в Болгарию. Я собираюсь провести
там пару недель.
Дети уже проснулись? Иди и разбуди их. Уже пора вставать. Через
час автобус в школу. Если ты не разбудишь их, они опоздают на
Извини, но я не могу тебе дать эту книгу на выходные. Я как раз
собираюсь писать доклад по искусству Рима. В среду я делаю доклад
на студенческой научной конференции.
Не забудь выключить свет, газ и воду, прежде чем уйдешь из дома.
Так всегда такой рассеянный.
– Ты сама себе готовишь завтраки? – Иногда да, но чаще это делает
бабушка. Она говорит, что ей это нравится. Иногда я помогаю ей.
Больше всего мне нравится накрывать на стол. Это очень приятное
– У тебя сегодня усталый вид. Было много дел на работе? – Да.
Сегодня я, наконец, напечатала свою дипломную работу.
Я приготовила салат, яичницу с беконом, гренки с джемом и заварила
чай. Традиционный английский завтрак. Наша семья никогда не ест
на завтрак ничего другого.
– Кто обычно готовит еду в вашей семье? – Я, но мне это надоело. –
Сколько времени ты обычно тратишь на приготовление еды? –
Последнее время не менее двух часов в день.
– Когда ты обычно уходишь из дома по утрам? – Задолго до работы. Я
люблю утром пройтись пешком. Я обычно ложусь спать рано и
хорошо сплю, никакой бессонницы. Поэтому и утром встаю рано и
без спешки все успеваю сделать. Я никогда никуда не опаздываю.
Я с нетерпением жду отпуска. Я еду в Канаду. Я была там в прошлом
году, и мне очень понравилось.
– Что ты здесь ищешь? – Я случайно уронила кольцо и вот не могу
найти. Ты не видела его?
Не надевай пальто. Сегодня тепло. Хорошая погода стоит уже
несколько дней. Надеюсь, она не изменится к выходным.
Ты совсем замерз. Почему ты не надел перчатки?
Unit 7. Voice
43) Каждое утро муж отводит младшую дочь в школу по пути на работу, а
я забираю ее после обеда. Она еще маленькая, ходит в первый класс.
Через пару лет, когда ей будет 8 лет, она будет ходить в школу сама.
44) Это лучший отпуск, какой у меня когда-либо был. В следующем году
я снова приеду сюда.
45) Он курит более 20 лет. Он говорит, что собирается бросить. Когда же
это произойдет?
46) По субботам они делают уборку, и дети всегда помогают им. Каждый
делает, что может, чтобы помочь родителям. Сегодня суббота, и они с
самого утра убирают в доме.
47) Я очень хочу есть. Я завтракала рано утром и с тех пор я ничего не
48) Я очень устала от этой работы. Сколько дел и проблем! Помимо
всего прочего я переживаю за сына. Он не сдал экзамен по физике. Он
мало готовился.
49) – Что случилось? – Да ничего особенного. Я просто получила письмо
от подруги. У нее большие неприятности.
50) – Ты покормила кошку? – Да, и сейчас она спит. Она всегда спит
после еды.
51) – Банк далеко от остановки? – Довольно далеко. Дорога займет у вас
минут 15, если вы пойдете пешком.
52) – Как вы будете платить? Наличными или кредитной карточкой? – К
сожалению, я оставил кредитную карточку дома. Я вернусь через час
и оплачу покупку.
53) – Где я могу обменять деньги ? – Ближайший обменный пункт в пяти
минутах ходьбы отсюда. Идите прямо, вы не пройдете мимо. –
Интересно, он открыт сейчас? – По всей вероятности, да.
54) – В котором часу ты сегодня обедала? – В три. А сейчас который час?
– Скоро 7. Как насчет того, чтобы зайти в кафе и поужинать? – Нет,
только не сегодня. Меня ждут дома. Вчера я пообещала детям, что
вернусь рано, и мы пойдем на прогулку.
55) Когда мы вернулись, он все еще сидел за компьютером Он работает
над новым проектом уже два месяца. Он сказал нам, что, как только
все сделает, у него будет двухнедельный отпуск. Он хотел навестить
своих родителей. Он не видел их полгода.
56) Снег все еще идет. Он идет с самого утра. Если он не прекратится,
через несколько часов на улицах будет столько снега, что городской
общественный транспорт остановится.
Unit 7. Voice
57) Вчера я зашел в кассу Большого театра, чтобы купить билеты на
новый спектакль. Но мне не повезло, так как все билеты уже были
58) Я не писал своим родственникам с тех пор, как ездил к ним в
сентябре. Я сегодня никуда не пойду до тех пор, пока не напишу им.
59) В городе, где он родился, не было своего (местного) театра, но когда
приезжала какая-нибудь труппа на гастроли, он никогда не упускал
возможности посмотреть спектакль.
60) Наконец настал день, когда она впервые вышла на сцену. Она так
волновалась, что не заметила, как поднялся занавес. Когда она
заговорила, то не узнала собственного голоса.
61) Закончилось первое действие. Занавес опустился. Я никогда в жизни
не испытывал бóльшего наслаждения. Это был успех. Гром
аплодисментов подтверждал это.
62) Я только что получила телеграмму от своей сестры. Она сообщает,
что возвращается в понедельник. Она собирается провести с нами
пару дней, прежде чем уедет домой. Мы не виделись почти год, с тех
пор как она уехала на север.
63) – Сегодня мы идем в театр. – А я не был в театре уже целую вечность.
Но когда я учился в университете, я не пропускал ни одного
64) Если я не буду занят в пятницу вечером, давайте пойдем на выставку,
хорошо? Я заеду за вами часов в 6. Договорись? Я надеюсь, вы к
этому времени уже вернетесь с работы. Мы перекусим где-нибудь, а
потом пойдем на выставку. Говорят, она впечатляет.
65) Мы не останемся в городе на субботу и воскресенье, если будет
хорошая погода. Всю неделю мы были очень заняты и много
работали. Отдых за городом пойдем нам на пользу.
66) Я пришел на автобусную остановку без четверти семь, но автобус уже
ушел, и я решил идти домой пешком. Когда я пришел домой, дети
уже спали.
67) Анна сказала мне, что у нее есть билеты на новый фильм, и спросила,
не хочу ли я пойти с ней. Она не хотела идти одна, а ее подруга не
могла пойти, потому что плохо себя чувствовала. Это была блестящая
возможность посмотреть фильм, который я давно мечтал увидеть.
68) – Вы пойдете со мной обедать? – Боюсь, что нет. Я смогу пойти
только через час. Я ожидаю важный звонок. –Тогда я пойду один. Я
очень хочу есть. Я завтракал сегодня в 6-30 утра.
69) Вчера мы опоздали на фильм. Когда мы вошли, было темно, и
картина уже началась. Мы с трудом нашли наши места. А когда
Unit 7. Voice
фильм закончился, я обнаружила, что у меня нет перчаток. Очевидно,
я где-то уронила их в темноте. Какая жалость! Они были почти
новые, и я очень их любила.
Я только что закончила переводить письмо, которое шеф дал мне
позавчера. Я переводила его почти два дня.
Я с нетерпением жду встречи с моими друзьями. Мы не виделись с
тех пор, как сдали последний экзамен. Прошло пять лет. Наверное,
мы все изменились. Узнаем ли мы друг друга, когда увидимся?
Почему ты не позвонила и не предупредила, что опаздываешь к
ужину? Мы ждали тебя полчаса.
Не успел он получить телеграмму, как тут же отправился в аэропорт.
Сейчас он летит в Париж. Менее чем через час самолет приземлится.
Он родился в Париже, но не был там более 20 лет, с тех пор, как
родители привезли его в Россию.
Бабушка в больнице. Если операция будет успешной, через пару
недель она будет дома. Когда она вернется домой, все родственники
придут навестить ее.
– Снег прекратился. Он шел всю ночь. – Интересно, сколько времени
займет у нас дорога в город на поезде? – Не могу сказать тебе точно, я
никогда не ездила поездом. Думаю, часа три.
– Как только ты получишь от них какие-либо известия, позвони мне.
Они, я уверена, прекрасно проводят время: море, солнце и т.д. Но
почему они не позвонили, как обещали, в день приезда? Кейт сказала,
что позвонит мне, как только они доберутся до отеля. – Да, она
никогда не держит слова.
– Вы хорошо говорите по-английски. – Спасибо, хотя я так не думаю.
Мне иногда очень трудно понимать англичан, хотя я уже дважды
побывала в Великобритании.
– Ты когда-нибудь читал немецкие книги в оригинале? –Еще нет. Я
изучаю немецкий язык менее полугода, но думаю, что к концу года я
прочту какую-нибудь книгу.
–Он уже вернулся из Берлина. – О ком ты говоришь? – Ты меня
удивляешь! Конечно, об Эндрю. Он провел там пять месяцев. Я не
видел его с прошлого года. – Он уже звонил тебе? – Да, и обещал в
самом ближайшем будущем встретиться с нами.
– Не говори маме о том, что я плохо себя чувствую. – Очень жаль, но
я уже сказала ей об этом. Она не удивилась. Последнее время было
очень холодно, а ты никогда не надевала ни теплое пальто, ни шарф.
Вот и заболела.
Unit 7. Voice
81) – Когда начался дождь? – Ночью. Он идет уже более 10 часов и не
собирается прекращаться. – Но вчера я слушал прогноз погоды – они
не обещали дождя.
82) – Так вот ты где! Я ищу тебя целое утро. Мы ведь договорились
встретиться. Опять забыла? Ты вечно забываешь о своих обещаниях!
– Не сердись. Я действительно забыла. Прости, пожалуйста. Так что
же мы будем делать? – Уже ничего, у меня нет времени. Через 20
минут у меня деловое свидание.
83) Кто взял мой словарь? Я уже полчаса ищу его. Каждый раз, когда мне
нужен словарь, его нет на месте. Кто всегда берет его и никогда не
кладет на место? Если я не найду свой словарь, я возьму твой.
84) Я не знала, как делать упражнение, так как пропустила много занятий.
И только когда подруга объяснила мне правило, я поняла, что
упражнение вовсе не такое трудное, как мне показалось.
85) Я была поражена, так как подруга сказала мне именно то, о чем я
думала сама с тех пор, как получила это письмо.
86) – Она хорошо печатает, не правда ли? – Да, не беспокойся, она
напечатает текст без ошибок. Она всегда печатает мне все документы
и официальные бумаги. Она научилась печатать в 17 лет. Значит, она
печатает более 20 лет.
87) Обязательно прочти эту статью. Она тебя заинтересует. Хорошо бы
было обсудить ее. Да, когда прочтешь, верни газету мне. Я обещала
дать ее Марии. Пусть тоже прочтет.
88) – По воскресеньям дети просыпаются позже, чем обычно, завтракают,
и мы идем на прогулку в парк. Они очень любят проводить время в
этом замечательном месте. – Что они делают в данный момент? – Мы
только что пообедали, и сейчас они смотрят фильм по телевизору. – А
что вы собираетесь делать вечером? –Мы идем в театр. А когда
вернемся, мы будем рады видеть вас у себя. – Когда начинается
спектакль? – В 4, значит в 8 мы будем дома. Приходите, мы будем
ждать вас.
89) – Где вы собираетесь отдохнуть летом? – Мы еще не решили. Ты же
знаешь, мы недавно купили дом и еще не выплатили весь кредит.
Скорее всего, останемся дома. А вы? – А мы поедем к морю: мужу в
этом году повысили зарплату, и мы уже отложили необходимую
90) – Часы пробили 9. Почему ты еще дома? Разве ты не идешь на
занятия? – Я жду подругу. Она только что позвонила и сказала, что
будет через 10 минут.
Unit 7. Voice
91) Я знал, что к тому времени, когда я вернусь, он будет просматривать
документы уже часа три.
92) Жареная индейка подается к обеду по случаю Дня Благодарения в
США. Американцы считают ее традиционным праздничным блюдом.
93) – Почему ты так поздно? Мы же идем сегодня в театр. Ты забыл? –
Нет, не забыл. Меня задержали на работе. У нас есть еще полчаса.
Если я вызову такси, мы не опоздаем.
94) Когда я позвонил Джону, его не было дома. Его сестра сказала, что он
играет в футбол с самого утра, и не знает, когда он придет.
95) Предприятия в Англии заканчивают работу в 4 часа, учреждения и
банки – в 5. В 7 часов англичане ужинают. Как правило, после ужина
остается еще несколько свободных часов. Одни любят поработать в
саду, другие посидеть у телевизора. Многие не отказывают себе в
удовольствии пойти в паб, выпить пива, поиграть в «дартc».
96) Моя сестра постоянно разговаривает по телефону со своими
подругами. Вот и сейчас телефон занят уже два часа.
97) Сентябрь и октябрь в Англии превосходны. Бабье лето здесь долгое,
солнечное и теплое. Представьте себе такую картину. Наступил
сентябрь. Трава лишь чуть-чуть стала менее яркой. Деревья только
слегка пожелтели. Они станут желтыми лишь к декабрю.
98) "В Англии живут англичане, во Франции – французы, а кто живет в
Нидерландах?" – спросил мальчик папу. – "Голландцы," – ответил
папа. – "Если тебя интересуют разные страны и народы, я подарю
тебе одну замечательную книгу. В ней ты найдешь ответы на все
99) Когда я узнал, что отправление поезда задерживается, я попросил
друзей не беспокоиться и не провожать меня. Но они все же пришли
на вокзал. Только Пол опоздал. Он пришел, когда поезд уже
100) Я только что узнал, что поезд, на котором едут мои родственники,
задерживается и прибудет в Минск через 2 часа. Это значит, что у
меня достаточно времени, чтобы добраться до вокзала и встретить их.
К 6 часам мы приедем домой. Бабушка к этому времени приготовит
ужин, и мы еще долго будем сидеть и разговаривать. Нам есть, о чем
поговорить. Мы не виделись 3 года. Последний раз мы встречались,
когда я еще учился в школе. С тех пор многое изменилось.
1) Совет директоров собирается сегодня в 3. Главный вопрос, который
будет обсуждаться, это расширение рекламной кампании по
Unit 7. Voice
продвижению новых товаров народного потребления, к выпуску
которых предприятие только что приступило.
2) –Можно видеть управляющего отделом рекламы? –Нет, сэр. Он
вышел. Он вернется через четверть часа. Вы подождете? – Спасибо, я,
пожалуй, зайду через час.
3) – Как ты вчера добрался до работы? – Из-за сильного мороза моя
машина не завелась, я поехал на метро и через двадцать минут был у
себя в офисе. Когда я пришел, все сотрудники отдела были уже на
работе. Они всегда приходят на работу за 5-7 минут до начала
рабочего дня. Наш начальник отдела персонала сам очень пунктуален
и не выносит, когда кто-нибудь опаздывает на работу.
4) – Давайте изменим время встречи. – Извините, но в 10 утра я буду
занят. Я только что получил телеграмму, что утром приезжает шеф. Я
поеду в аэропорт встречать его в 8 часов утра.
5) Он всегда просматривает почту, газеты и письма, когда приходит в
офис. Сейчас 8.15. Он только что просмотрел почту и разговаривает
по телефону.
6) – Он сделал состояние на торговле сигаретами. Сейчас он
процветающий владелец нескольких магазинов. – Уж не хотите ли вы
сказать, что он честно заработал деньги?
7) Деньги отца позволили Нику начать свое дело, получить доходы,
вложить их в новое предприятие. Вот уже 10 лет, как умер его отец .
С тех пор Ник многого достиг.
8) Он получил деньги по наследству от своего деда, который был
владельцем нескольких крупных банков. Сейчас он завоевывает
международный банковский рынок. У него два надежных деловых
партнера, их доля в деле около 40%.
9) – Хорошо, что вы пришли. Я собирался звонить вам. – Что-нибудь
случилось? – Ничего особенного. Через день приезжают наши
партнеры из Варшавы. К этому времени вы подготовите все
необходимые документы для подписания контракта? – Конечно, я
уже практически все подготовил.
10) Мы поговорим об этом, когда вы приедете ко мне. Я буду ждать вас в
среду в 10-00. К этому времени я просмотрю все контракты, которые
мы подписали в прошлом году. Меня очень интересует ваше мнение
по этому вопросу.
11) Я встречаюсь с представителями фирмы завтра в 10-00. Двое из них
только что вернулись из командировки в США. Позавчера я говорил
по телефону с управляющим. Он сказал, что поездка в США была
очень плодотворной.
Unit 7. Voice
12) Он уже пять месяцев заведует лабораторией и многому научился за
это время. Работа нелегкая, но ему нравится. В сентябре он
собирается на международный симпозиум в Женеву.
13) Администрация только что приняла решение. Его назначили
управляющим отдела персонала. У него есть опыт подобной работы.
Прежде чем он начал работать здесь, он 6 лет руководил отделом
персонала в компании среднего размера, торгующей товарами
народного потребления.
14) – Где мистер Браун? Могу я поговорить с ним? – К сожалению, нет.
Он болен. Его нет на работе с понедельника. Но в среду у него
деловое свидание с представителями одной крупной компании. Я
уверена, что он придет.
15) – Он купил билеты и через неделю уезжает сначала в Лондон, затем в
Париж. Он собирается провести там неделю. Когда он вернется, он
позвонит нам и передаст документы, которые мы просили его забрать
в Star Ltd. – Ты имеешь в виду последние каталоги компании? – Да.
16) – Наш агент сообщил вам об изменении цены на ваш заказ? – Нет
еще. Интересно, вы повысили цену на 10% или на 15%?
17) – Эта работа высокооплачиваемая? – Я еще не знаю всех деталей, но
думаю, что да. После того, как я узнаю все детали, я дам вам более
подробную информацию.
18) – Ты слышал, что компания Шэрринг завоевала польский рынок? –
Да, она заключила партнерские соглашения с местными инвесторами.
19) – Наш партнер считает, что, если корпорация улучшит качество
товаров, то она получит больше прибыли. – Не хотите ли вы сказать,
что наши товары плохого качества?
20) Встреча руководителей предприятий закончится к 4-00 пополудни. К
этому времени будут обсуждены основные вопросы сотрудничества и
подписан проект договора.
21) – Почему ты так долго был в кабинете нашего шефа? – Он
комментировал мое выступление на последнем собрании акционеров.
Выступление шефу не очень понравилось, но я попытался
проанализировать в нем финансовое положение компании.
22) Руководитель проекта спрашивает, закончим ли мы обработку данных
к среде. Он говорит, что они понадобятся ему в среду вечером.
23) Фирма предложит вам место в отделе маркетинга только после того,
как вы закончите университет. У вас будет гибкий график работы, и
вы будете часто ездить в командировки.
Unit 7. Voice
24) Мы начнем обсуждение проекта договора через полчаса, в 11 часов,
как запланировано. Наши партнеры позвонили и сообщили, что их
рейс задерживается, поэтому к этому времени они еще не приедут.
25) Вчера он вернулся домой очень усталый. Он выполнял очень срочное
задание и работал весь день без отдыха. С тех пор как он стал
управляющим отдела сбыта, он очень много работает.
26) Когда я, наконец, появился в приемной, секретарь сказала, что
директор разгневан. Неудивительно, ведь он ждал меня почти
27) – Почему никого из персонала отеля нет на месте? – Персонал отеля
сейчас обсуждает вопрос сервиса. – Интересно, сколько времени они
обсуждают этот вопрос? Я уже полчаса жду. Кто же мне поможет?
28) Мой брат с детства мечтал работать в компании по производству
компьютеров, но только сейчас его мечта сбылась.
29) Мы уже три года поддерживаем тесные контакты с компанией "Рено".
Это надежный деловой партнер, который ни разу не подвел нас.
30) Я хочу сообщить, что фирма согласилась на наши условия и
подписала контракт. Последний срок поставки товара – 15 октября.
Если мы нарушим сроки поставки, мы заплатим штраф.
31) Надеюсь, она довольна, что получила хорошее место в нашей
компании. Она успешно прошла собеседование, и была выбрана из 5
32) – Ты уже закончил разрабатывать свой бизнес-план? – Нет еще. Я не
могу перейти к последнему разделу плана, так как не нашел
необходимых данных.
33) Совет ЕС начал разрабатывать новый проект финансовой помощи
странам СНГ. Интересно, сколько времени потребуется на разработку
этого проекта и когда можно будет получить эти деньги? Наконец,
хотелось бы знать, каковы будут условия получения финансовой
34) Я помню, что раньше он был не очень хорошим сотрудником. Он
всегда откладывал важные дела на самый последний момент, часто
опаздывал на работу. – Говорят, в последнее время он очень
35) Всю прошлую неделю группа предпринимателей из Китая находилась
в нашем городе. Они изучали возможности сотрудничества в сфере
малого бизнеса.
36) Вчера я хотел увидеться с руководителем нашего отдела по личному
вопросу. Однако, когда я к нему пришел, у него в кабинете кто-то
был. Я ждал в приемной более получаса, прежде чем он принял меня.
Unit 7. Voice
37) Он только сейчас безработный. Я помню, что в это время в прошлом
году он работал на фабрике, что в 100 км от дома. Он тогда работал с
утра до вечера и даже сверхурочно. Домой он приезжал только на
38) Вот уже два года он возглавляет службу сбыта. Его повышение было
признанием его заслуг перед компанией, в которой он работает вот
уже 10 лет.
39) В 1979 году мой отец не принял весьма выгодное предложение
возглавить филиал компании в Дюссельдорфе, так как это означало
переезд в другую страну. Кроме того, тогда он еще плохо владел
немецким языком. – Он выучил немецкий? – Да, сейчас он хорошо
говорит по-немецки.
40) Если компания введет новую линию, она получит больше прибыли.
Мы уже заказали новое оборудование. Оно будет доставлено через
неделю. К тому же, мы получили десятипроцентную скидку.
41) В этом году наша компания работает более успешно, поэтому
прибыль постоянно растет. Это позволило нам повысить зарплату
42) – Я сейчас занимаюсь на курсах немецкого языка и компьютерного
программирования. При приеме на работу руководство совместного
предприятия, где я работаю, отдает предпочтение тем, кто владеет
иностранным языком. – А что производит ваше предприятие? – Мы
собираем телевизоры из деталей, которые поставляет немецкая
сторона. К сожалению, у нас сейчас проблема сборки блока
дистанционного управления, поэтому на этой неделе я лечу в
Германию, чтобы обсудить этот вопрос с немецкими партнерами.
43) Начальник отдела не может принять вас сейчас. У него в кабинете
некий мистер Грин. Они обсуждают какой-то важный вопрос.
44) – Что это за бизнес, в который вы вкладываете столько денег? – Это
производство продуктов питания, кроме того, мы собираемся заняться
45) – Я не принадлежу ни к одной политической партии, хотя уважаю
политические взгляды тех, кто их выражает. – А чем вы занимаетесь?
– Я агент по недвижимости.
46) Экспорт Британии в США значительно снизился. В 1996 году Банк
Федерального резерва США начал выпуск долларов нового образца.
47) Я уверен, что наше предприятие, несмотря на экономический спад,
будет и далее успешно работать.
48) – Прежний начальник отдела только что ушел на пенсию. – Ты не
прав. Администрация уволила его.
Unit 7. Voice
49) – Над чем вы работаете сейчас? – Мы планируем значительно
расширить производство и ввести новые технологии. Работа над этим
проектом занимает все мое время.
50) Европейские и американские компании обнаружили, что их рынки
резко сокращаются в результате успешного проникновения японских
производителей. Более того, некоторые
западные фирмы
почувствовали, что они не в состоянии конкурировать с японскими
51) Поставщик нарушил условия договора и понес большие убытки.
52) Если покупатель в течение месяца обращается с рекламацией, фирма
возмещает ему все потери.
53) Наша фирма отказалась от мелких фирм-поставщиков после того, как
крупный торговый партнер предложил нам сотрудничество.
54) Решение о внедрении новых технологий в производство обсуждается
сейчас на встрече руководителей фирм.
55) Если мне предложат эту работу, я с радостью соглашусь. Я мечтал о
такой работе с тех пор, как закончил Университет.
56) Мне дали 3 дня, чтобы подготовиться к собеседованию. Я знаю, что
еще 3 претендента обратились по вопросу о найме на эту работу.
57) Завтра в 3 у нас переговоры с фирмой "Dorothy and Company" по
закупке двигателей. Думаю, к 5 они завершатся.
58) Несколько дней назад мы получили ваш прейскурант и каталог
видеопродукции, а также информацию о дисконтных условиях
59) До 10 мая мы сообщим вам условия страхования и фрахта заказанных
товаров до места назначения.
60) Возможности сети Интернет, которая существует уже много лет,
помогают существенно экономить на рекламе. А клиенты, которые ею
пользуются, выигрывают время в поисках нужного товара.
61) Он решил принять предложение. Полгода он искал работу. Теперь он
будет работать в фирме по продаже автомобилей.
62) В следующем месяце она уходит на пенсию. К этому времени она
проработает на нашей фирме 40 лет.
63) Только что по факсу было получено сообщение о слиянии двух
наших компаний.
64) Изобретение стандарта VHS (video-home system) принадлежит
корпорации JVC. Многие годы она является лучшим производителем
в этой области. Их товары конкурентоспособны и уже давно
пользуются спросом.
Unit 7. Voice
65) Переговоры о поставке запасных частей только что завершены.
Надеюсь, в самом ближайшем будущем они будут отгружены.
66) До сих пор компания не увеличила нам заработную плату, хотя мы
проработали в ней уже 4 года.
67) С 2 часов я жду сообщение по факсу. Как только я получу его, я сразу
пойду в кафе. Я не ел с самого утра. Пойдешь со мной? – С
68) Ты не знаешь, как давно он без работы? – С прошлого месяца. Вот
уже месяц он ищет работу, но пока не нашел ничего подходящего.
69) Сейчас Генеральный директор фирмы и менеджер компании
просматривают последние каталоги и прейскуранты цен, которые
недавно были присланы фирмой.
70) Арендный договор, который заключила наша фирма, истекает.
71) До 10 сентября японские фирмы обещали перечислить нашей
компании 300 тысяч американских долларов. Сегодня уже начало
октября, но валютные средства пока не поступили.
72) Центробанк сообщил, что запасы валюты к понедельнику текущей
недели составят 20 млрд. долларов США.
73) Местная валюта этой южно-американской страны обесценилась за два
месяца на 15%. Прогнозируется, что к осени она обесценится еще на
10-12 пунктов.
74) К началу финансового кризиса 17 августа 1998 г. обменный
(валютный) курс американской валюты в России находился на уровне
6 руб. 30 коп. за один доллар. К началу 1999 г. он увеличился до 20
75) К приезду коммерческого директора корпорации "Бритиш Петролеум" все валютные ограничения были устранены.
76) Г-н В. арендует дом в течение 45 лет. Наконец, он решил оформить
пожизненную аренду.
77) Владелец дома долго объяснял нам необходимость повышения платы
за аренду помещения. Мы не соглашались, и он отказался продлевать
арендный договор.
78) Вы планируете выпустить акции, не так ли? – Нет, пока не
79) Банк признал вас платежеспособными, не так ли? – Да.
80) У меня нет опыта работы по финансовым сделкам. – Вам поможет г-н
N., если вы обратитесь к нему.
81) Кредитор обещал, что заем нашей фирме в 1 млн. долларов будет
предоставлен к концу месяца.
Unit 7. Voice
82) Участники сделки пришли к соглашению о создании холдинга. Если
он будет создан, это будет выгодно обеим сторонам.
83) Совет директоров принял решение о строительстве сборочного завода
в Калининграде. Решение было поддержано правительством и
Торговой палатой России. Теперь там будут собирать автомобили
марки BMW.
84) Он начал свой бизнес после того, как заложил свой дом.
85) Наши торговые отношения с фирмой "Hotrem" будут прекращены
через год.
86) Разве вы не понимаете, что разглашаете коммерческую тайну нашей
87) Свое участие в сделке он планирует ограничить взносом в £1,000.
88) Вот уже 10 лет эта фирма успешно торгует мебелью.
89) Мы решили продлить свой патент на торговлю еще на год.
90) Вы все еще желаете заключить сделку купли-продажи акций
компании? – Нет, спасибо. Необходимость покупки уже отпала.
91) Если ваши товары не будут соответствовать образцам, мы снизим на
них цену.
92) Вы можете дать мне взаймы довольно большую сумму под проценты?
– Да, такая возможность у меня есть.
93) Так как мы не связаны договором, то известите нас, сможете ли вы
гарантировать отправку двигателей к концу месяца.
94) Генеральный директор вовремя ознакомился с кредитным
законодательством и получил большой кредит на выгодных условиях
под низкий процент.
95) Служба безопасности банка недавно пресекла попытку получения
кредита нелегальным способом.
96) Ни один предприниматель не платит работнику ниже минимальной
тарифной ставки. Эта ставка устанавливается правительством США.
97) В течение недели Генеральный директор не соглашался с условиями
предоставления займа, но в начала месяца оформил ссуду под 4%.
98) Руководитель финансового отдела прибудет к 3 часам. Он решает
вопрос выделения компании кредита.
99) Фирма не смогла вовремя погасить задолженность по кредиту, и банк
немедленно применил кредитные санкции.
100) Наша компания получила согласие на предоставление кредита на
открытие нового офиса и закупку офисной мебели.
Unit 7. Voice
1) Место преступления было тщательно обыскано, но не было найдено
никаких отпечатков пальцев.
2) После того, как были допрошены все свидетели, появились новые
доказательства его вины.
3) Преступники проникли в дом ночью через открытое окно, которое
хозяин дома забыл закрыть.
4) Количество правонарушений, которые совершают малолетние
правонарушители, значительно выросло за последнее время.
5) Некоторые люди поддерживают смертную казнь, другие выступают
против нее. Их главный аргумент против такого вида наказания
состоит в том, что с момента ее введения большое число невиновных
людей было лишено жизни из-за ошибки следствия.
6) – Директора этого предприятия обвиняют во взяточничестве. – Я
уверен, он невиновен. Я знаю его с детства. Он всегда был честным и
порядочным человеком.
7) Дело "Смит против Грина" уже заслушано? – Нет, оно еще слушается.
Оно слушается с 10 часов.
8) Говорят, он освободился из тюрьмы несколько месяцев назад и сейчас
ищет работу.
9) Парковка в этом месте была запрещена совсем недавно. Я не знал об
этом, и вчера был оштрафован.
10) Контрабандистов арестовали, когда они пытались нелегально перейти
11) С самого утра полиция обыскивает дом в поисках улик, но сих пор
ничего не найдено.
12) После того, как его незаконно задержали, он решил возбудить
уголовное дело против полиции.
13) Г-н Смит как адвокат приобрел известность не очень давно. Два года
назад он выиграл нашумевший процесс о взяточничестве. Надеюсь,
вы слышали о нем.
14) Было собрано достаточно свидетельских показаний, чтобы
предъявить обвинение мистеру К., подозреваемому.
15) Заседание было отложено до полного выздоровления обвиняемого.
16) Мистера Х. поймали с поличным. В этот раз ему не удастся уйти от
17) Малолетний карманник был задержан на месте преступления, когда
он пытался вытащить кошелек из сумки пожилой дамы в
18) Вы полагаете, подпись на документе подделана? – Думаю, да.
Unit 7. Voice
19) Вы уже сняли отпечатки пальцев у задержанного? – Да, мы уже
провели эту процедуру.
20) Когда мы прибыли на место аварии, личность пострадавшего еще не
была установлена.
21) Когда была совершена кража со взломом? – Утром. Не успел хозяин
уйти на работу, как преступники проникли в дом через разбитое окно.
22) Азартные игры запрещены законом.
23) – Он совершил непредумышленное убийство. – У вас есть
доказательства вины подозреваемого? – Да, я занимаюсь этим делом
несколько месяцев и уверен, что он виновен.
24) Адвокат постоянно напоминал обвиняемому о том, чтобы он говорил
правду. Только в этом случае можно было ожидать снисхождения
25) Подозреваемый настаивает на своей невиновности. У него твердое
26) Прокурор настаивал на применении самого сурового наказания в
связи с тяжестью совершенного преступления.
27) Потерпевший от мошенничества сделал заявление в полицию.
28) Ночной грабитель был задержан по описанию случайного свидетеля.
29) После того, как адвокат официально обратился в суд, секретарь суда
выдала г-ну М. копию судебного документа.
30) Г-н Н. представил доказательство своей непричастности к делу,
которое рассматривается в суде уже несколько месяцев.
31) Потерпевшая сторона решила увеличить сумму иска в связи с
большим моральным уроном, который был нанесен фирме.
32) Осужденный провел в тюрьме три года и был освобожден по
33) Задержанный провел в тюрьме несколько недель, прежде чем
обвинение было полностью снято и его оправдали.
34) Заключенный подал жалобу в вышестоящую инстанцию. Он надеется,
что его дело будет пересмотрено.
35) Следователь не мог понять, что заставило этого человека совершить
тяжкое преступление.
36) У адвоката были серьезные причины сомневаться в том, что
преступление было совершено в состоянии алкогольного опьянения.
37) У потерпевшего не было никаких шансов восстановить картину
преступления. Он не помнил ни место, ни время, когда был украден
его бумажник.
38) На суде слушалось дело полицейского, который превысил пределы
допустимой самообороны.
Unit 7. Voice
39) Закон о торговом праве, который готовит правительство, будет
рассмотрен Думой в конце года.
40) – Предъявите, пожалуйста, документы, удостоверяющие вашу
личность. – Я не могу этого сделать. У меня украли паспорт. – Когда
это произошло? – 2 часа назад.
41) Дорожная полиция прибыла на место происшествия 20 минут спустя
после того, как произошло столкновение. К этому времени
пострадавшие были доставлены в больницу.
42) Мой друг попал в автомобильную аварию и с тех пор находится в
больнице. Авария произошла не по его вине. Водитель, виновный в
ней, с места аварии скрылся.
43) Так как задержанный не соглашался подписать протокол, был
приглашен его адвокат.
44) Секретарь суда вручила подозреваемому повестку о явке в суд.
45) Юрисконсульт Министерства финансов срочно вылетел в
командировку. Его не будет 3 дня.
46) Генеральный Солиситор уже ознакомился с делом об ограблении
47) Согласно судебному предписанию мы получим компенсацию за
причиненный фирмой ущерб в размере 1 млн. рублей.
48) Начальник полиции дал приказ о задержании подозреваемого, а
прокурор дал ордер на обыск его квартиры.
49) Мы стали свидетелями происшествия. Нам придется задержаться,
чтобы дать свидетельские показания.
50) Я надеюсь, что судья рассмотрит наш иск к среде, и когда мы
приедем в Минск, у нас будут наличные деньги.
51) Обвиняемый признался в содеянном. Суд присяжных на вчерашнем
заседании вынес ему условное наказание.
52) – Он уволил своего секретаря за плохую работу? – Не только. Он
совершил несколько административных правонарушений.
53) Суд действительно признал нарушение авторского права? – Да,
плагиат налицо.
54) В Англии в настоящее время судом присяжных рассматриваются
довольно сложные дела, такие как пасквиль, устная клевета,
злонамеренное судебное преследование, неправомерное лишение
свободы, обман или мошенничество.
55) На протяжении многих десятилетий предлагались тысячи поправок к
Конституции США, но ратифицированы были лишь 27.
Unit 7. Voice
56) Конституция США очень старая, она была принята более 200 лет
назад и практически не менялась с тех пор. Но в нее внесен ряд
57) Несмотря на то, что по Конституции США управление в стране
осуществляется тремя ветвями власти – исполнительной,
законодательной и судебной, ни одна из них не является главной.
58) Хотя в Конституцию Великобритании включены многочисленные
документы, как, например, Билль о Правах и различные законы, к ней
еще относят и достаточно многочисленные судебные решения,
которые называют прецедентами.
59) Противоправное действие было совершено в парке, в центре города.
Свидетель на фотографии узнал человека, который совершил
безнравственный поступок.
60) Около здания суда и в зале, где рассматривалось дело об убийстве,
было много полицейских.
61) Преступник скрылся на яхте. Вещественное доказательство – нож –
нашли в реке. Яхту нашли два дня спустя. Преступник еще не найден.
62) Во время расследования было установлено, что заявитель
фальсифицировал доказательства в свою пользу.
63) Ни один из подозреваемых не признал свою вину.
64) Оба нарушителя отказались в суде от признания, которое они сделали
65) В Англии довольно большое количество уголовных и гражданских
дел рассматривается судом присяжных.
66) Когда рассматриваются уголовные дела, присяжные, во-первых,
решают вопрос о применении конкретного закона к фактам
содеянного; во-вторых, они выносят совершенно определенное
решение о виновности или невиновности подсудимого.
67) При рассмотрении гражданских дел присяжные тщательно
обсуждают их и выносят решение, подлежит ли ответственности
обвиняемый перед истцом.
68) – Интересно, может ли суд в Англии приговорить кого-либо к
смертной казни? – Да, такая статья есть, например, за измену Родине
и за пиратство. Но вот уже довольно продолжительное время в
Англии не выносят решений о смертной казни, ее заменяют
пожизненным заключением.
69) В Америке вопрос о применении смертной казни решается иначе, чем
в Европе. Там такой закон применяется.
Unit 7. Voice
70) В России суд присяжных широко функционировал до 1917 г., потом
был отменен, и только в конце 90-х годов был вновь введен в
судебную практику.
71) Интерпол был основан в 1923г. С тех пор он ведет борьбу с
международным терроризмом. Его штаб-квартира расположена в
пригороде Парижа, в Сан Клу (at Saint Cloud).
72) В СССР за валютные операции привлекали к уголовной
ответственности. Но ко второй половине 1992 г. положение
изменилось. К тому времени торговля иностранной валютой была
73) Контрабандный провоз валюты – уголовно наказуемое деяние. Но
жена американского дипломата решилась на такой шаг, и была вчера
задержана на таможне. К этому времени ее самолет улетел.
74) Свидетеля предупредили, что за дачу ложных показаний он будет
обвинен в этом и привлечен к уголовной ответственности.
75) Добрая репутация начальника отдела была разрушена, когда его
обвинили в подлоге.
76) Судья приговаривает обвиняемого к определенному наказанию
только после того, как его вина доказана.
77) Интересно, он под подозрением или под арестом?
78) Слушание дела еще не закончено. Допрошены только два свидетеля.
79) Он обвиняется в убийстве первой степени. Если его вина будет
доказана, его могут приговорить к длительному сроку тюремного
заключения или к пожизненному заключению.
80) Слушание дела будет отложено до тех пор, пока не будут получены
результаты психиатрической экспертизы.
81) Психиатрическая экспертиза уже проведена? – Еще нет. Как только
результаты будут получены, я сообщу вам.
82) Вам сказали, что ловить рыбу в этом озере запрещено законом?
83) Похитители задержаны. Ребенок вне опасности. Его разыскивали
несколько дней.
84) Что должен знать истец? Даже если он выиграл дело, это еще не
означает, что ответчик беспрекословно исполнит решение суда и
выплатит, к примеру, вашу заработную плату либо компенсацию за
моральный ущерб.
85) Юридическая профессия в развитых странах переживает ряд
изменений. Одной из наиболее заметных тенденций является рост
числа больших юридических фирм с количеством адвокатов более
250. Одновременно с этим количество индивидуально практикующих
адвокатов уменьшается.
Unit 7. Voice
86) В соответствии с Семейным кодексом, имущество, которое супруги
нажили во время брака, является их совместной собственностью, если
договором между ними не установлен иной режим этого имущества.
87) Если решение суда не исполнено в добровольном порядке, судебный
пристав-исполнитель начинает применять меры принудительного
88) В гражданском праве договор – это соглашение двух или более
сторон. Оно направлено на установление, изменение или
прекращение гражданских прав и обязанностей.
89) Договор широко используется во внешней торговле. Там он обычно
именуется контрактом.
90) В истории развития уголовного права, российского в том числе,
существовали периоды, когда единственным правовым последствием
преступления считалось наказание, цель которого заключалась в каре.
91) В наши дни формируются новые подходы к определению задач
уголовно-правового воздействия на преступность, сущность и цели
92) Широко известно высказывание Беккариа, что "одно из самых
действенных средств, сдерживающих преступления, заключается не в
жестокости наказания, а в их неотвратимости…".
93) Термин "деликт" означает правонарушение, в широком смысле слова
– антиобщественное деяние, которое причиняет вред обществу и
карается по закону.
94) Активное развитие рынка недвижимости сделало необходимостью
умение ориентироваться в вопросе сделок с землей.
95) Брачный договор заключается в письменной форме и заверяется
нотариусом. При разрешении споров между супругами суд будет
руководствоваться Брачным договором, а не нормами Кодекса.
96) Несмотря на то, что монарх в Великобритании не обладает
абсолютной властью, не имеет таких больших полномочий, как
бывало в прошлые века, политическая стабильность во многом
обеспечивается благодаря монархии.
97) Так как закон о национальной политике по охране окружающей
среды пока не принят, многие предприятия продолжают загрязнять
98) Парламент появился в Великобритании в XIII веке и с тех пор
функционирует как самая главная власть страны.
99) Много говорится о британских традициях, но в этой стране до сих пор
нет написанной Конституции. Страна управляется принятыми
Unit 7. Voice
100) Нынешний монарх – королева Елизавета II – опытный и мудрый
политик. Такой опыт она получила благодаря длительной работе. Она
является королевой с 1953 г.
§ 10
Read the stories. Practise retelling them. Analyze the key structures, do the
1. A Pretty Carpet
We have just moved into a new house and I have been working hard all
morning. I have been trying to get my new room in order. This has not been
easy because I own over a thousand books. To make matters worse, the room is
rather small, so I have temporarily put my books on the floor. At the moment
they cover every inch of the floor space and I actually have to walk on them to
get in or out of the room. A short while ago, my sister helped me to carry one of
my bookcases up the stairs. She went into my room and got a big surprise when
she saw all those books on the floor. "This is the prettiest carpet I have ever
seen", she said. She gazed at it for some time, then added, "You don't need
bookcases at all. You can sit here in your spare time and read the carpet!"
Key Structures:
We have just moved into a new house.
I have been working hard all morning.
I have been trying to put my new room in order.
This is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen.
Comprehension questions:
1) What has happened to the man? Has he just bought a new house?
2) What has been happening all morning in the new house?
3) Has the man been trying to put over a thousand books of his on the
4) Where and why has he temporarily put his books?
5) Has he finally got his new room in order?
2. The Greenwood Boys
The Greenwood Boys are a group of popular singers. At present, they are
visiting all parts of the country. They will be arriving here tomorrow. They will
be coming by train and most of the young people in the town will be meeting
them at the station. Tomorrow evening they will be singing at the Workers’
Unit 7. Voice
Club. The Greenwood Boys will be staying for five days. During this time, they
will give five performances. As usual, the police will have a difficult time. They
will be trying to keep order. It is always the same on these occasions.
Key Structures:
At present they are visiting all parts of the country.
They will be singing at the Workers’ Club.
They will be staying for five days.
Comprehension questions:
Whom will the young people of the town be meeting at the station?
Where will the Greenwood Boys be singing?
Will they be giving 5 or 7 performances?
Are they visiting only big cities of the country?
Why will the police be having a difficult time?
Speak about a group of popular singers visiting Minsk now.
3. Do You Speak English?
I had an amusing experience last year. After I had left a small village in
the south of France, I drove on to the next town. On the way, a young man
waved to me. I stopped and he asked me for a lift. As soon as he had got into
the car, I said good morning to him in French and he replied in the same
language. Apart from a few words, I do not know any French at all. Neither of
us spoke during the journey. I had nearly reached the town, when the young
man suddenly said, very slowly, “Do you speak English?” As I soon learnt, he
was English himself.
Key Structures:
After I had left a small village I drove on.
As soon as he had got into the cat I said good morning to him.
I had hardly reached the town when he asked if I spoke English.
Hardly had I reached the town when he asked if I spoke English.
Join these sentences:
1) The man left a small village in the south of France. He drove on to the next
2) The young man got into the car. The driver said good morning to him in
3) They nearly reached the town. The young man said, "Do you speak
Unit 7. Voice
4) They were silent during the journey. They understood they both spoke
Comprehension questions:
1) Where did the man drive after he had left a small village in the south of
2) What did the young man who had waved to the driver ask him for?
3) What happened as soon as the young man got into the car?
4) What did the young man say hardly had they reached the town?
5) Did the two men laugh after they had learnt that they both spoke English?
4. A New House
I had a letter from my sister yesterday. She lives in Nigeria. In her letter,
she said that she would come to England next year. If she comes, she will get a
surprise. We are now living in a beautiful new house in the country. Work on it
had begun before my sister left. The house was completed five months ago. In
my letter, I told her that she could stay with us. The house has many large
rooms and there is a lovely garden. It is a very modern house, so it looks
strange to some people. It must be the only modern house in this district.
Key Structures:
If she comes, she will get a surprise.
When she comes, she will get a surprise.
Before she comes she will send us a telegram.
Work on the house had begun before she left.
I said to my friends I had received a letter from my sister.
Comprehension questions:
1) What did the girl from Nigeria say in her letter?
2) What will happen when she comes?
3) When did work on the house begin?
4) When was the house completed?
5) Is there a lovely garden or a nice lawn near the house?
Unit 7. Voice
5. Not For Jazz
We have an old musical instrument. It is called a clavichord. It was made
in Germany in 1681. Our clavichord is kept in the living room. It has belonged
to our family for a long time. The instrument was bought by my grandfather
many years ago. Recently it was damaged by a visitor. She tried to play jazz on
it! She struck the keys too hard and two of the strings were broken. My father
was shocked. Now we are not allowed to touch it. It is being repaired by a
friend of my father.
Key Structures:
It is called a clavichord.
It was made in 1691.
It has belonged to our family for a long time.
He was shocked.
Recently it has been damaged by a visitor.
It is being repaired now.
Comprehension questions:
1) What is their old musical instrument called?
2) Where and when was it made?
3) Where is it kept?
4) When was it bought?
5) What has happened to it recently?
6) Why was their father shocked?
7) How many strings were broken?
8) Are the strings being replaced now?
9) What aren’t they allowed to do?
10) What is being done to the clavichord?
6. Quick Work
Ted Robinson has been worried all the week. Last Tuesday he received a
letter from the local police. In the letter he was asked to call at the station. Ted
wondered why he was wanted by the police, but he went to the station
yesterday and now he is not worried any more. At the station, he was told by a
smiling policeman that his bicycle had been found. Five days ago, the
policeman told him, the bicycle was picked up in a small village four hundred
miles away. It is now being sent to him by train. Ted was most surprised when
he heard the news. He was amused too because he had never expected the
bicycle to be found. It was stolen twenty years ago when Ted was a boy of
Unit 7. Voice
Key Structures:
He was asked to call at the station.
He was told by a policeman that his bicycle had been found.
Change the form of the phrases in italics using the Passive Voice:
1) Something has worried Ted all the week.
2) In the letter they asked him to call at the station.
3) Ted wondered why the police wanted him.
4) At the station a smiling policeman told him that they had found his bicycle.
5) They picked up the bicycle in a small village.
6) They are sending it to his home by train.
7) This amused him because he never expected them to find the bicycle.
8) Someone stole it twenty years ago.
Comprehension questions:
1) Who has been worried all the week?
2) What was Ted asked to do?
3) What did Ted wonder?
4) What was Ted told at the station?
5) Where was Ted's bicycle picked up?
6) Where is the bicycle being sent?
7) What did Ted feel when he heard the news?
8) Why was Ted amused?
9) How long ago was the bicycle stolen?
10) For how long has Tom been without his bicycle?
7. The Olympic Games
The Olympic Games will be held in our country in four years' time. As a
great many people will be visiting the country, the government will be building
new hotels, an immense stadium, and a fine new swimming pool. They will also
be building new roads and a special railway line. The Games will be held just
outside the capital and the whole area will be called "Olympic City". Workers
will have completed the new roads by the end of this year. By the end of next
year, they will have finished work on the new stadium. The fine modern
buildings have been designed by Kurt Gunter. Everybody will be watching
anxiously as the new buildings go up. We are all very excited and are looking
forward to the Olympic Games because they have never been held before in this
Unit 7. Voice
Key Structures:
The Olympic Games will be held in four years’ time.
A great many people will be visiting the country.
Workers will have completed the new roads by the end of the year.
Say: what will happen in some years;
what will be happening;
what will have happened by the end of the year.
8. Everything Except the Weather
My old friend, Harrison, had lived in the Mediterranean for many years
before he returned to England. He had often dreamed of retiring in England and
had planned to settle down in the country. He had no sooner returned than he
bought a fine house and went to live there. Almost immediately he began to
complain about the weather, for even though it was still summer, it rained
continually and it was bitterly cold. After so many years of sunshine, Harrison
got a shock. He acted as if he had never lived in England before. In the end, it
was more than he could bear. He had hardly had time to settle down, when he
sold the house and left the country. The dream he had had for so many years
ended there. Harrison had thought of everything except the weather.
Key Structures:
He had no sooner returned than he bought a fine house and went to live there.
He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the
Note the inverted word order with the prepositions hardly … when,
scarcely … when, no sooner … than:
Hardly had he had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the
Scarcely had he had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the
No sooner had he had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the
Now study these sentences. They tell us what happened some time ago and
what had happened some time before.
He lived in Scotland fifteen years ago.
He had lived in Scotland fifteen years before he came to England.
Unit 7. Voice
Underline in the text the verbs which tell us what happened some time
ago and what happened some time before.
The police found Billy Wilkins last night. He had run away from home
five days before. He had spent the last two nights near a farmhouse. The police
took him home at once. When she saw him, his mother burst into tears. She said
he had never run away before.
Comprehension questions:
1) Where had Harrison lived before he returned to England?
2) When did he buy a house there?
3) What did he begin to complain about?
4) Why did he sell the house hardly had he had time to settle down?
5) Why did the dream he had for many years end?
9. A Clear Conscience
The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been stolen.
Sam Benton, the local butcher, had lost his wallet while he was taking his
savings to the post-office. Sam was sure that the wallet had been stolen by one
of the villagers, but it was not returned to him. Three months passed, and then
one morning, Sam found his wallet outside his front door. It had been wrapped
up in a newspaper and it contained half the money he had lost, together with a
note, which said: "A thief, yes, but only 50% (per cent) a thief!" Two months
later, some more money was sent to Sam with another note: "Only 25 per cent a
thief now!" In time, all Sam's money was paid back in this way. The last note
said: "I am 100 per cent honest now!"
Key Structures:
He was sure that the wallet had been stolen.
The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been stolen.
It had been wrapped up in a newspaper.
All Sam's money was paid back.
Change the form of the expressions in italics. Use the Passive Voice.
The whole village soon learnt that someone had lost a large sum of
money. Sam was sure that one of the villagers had found the wallet, but no one
returned it to him! Someone had wrapped it up in newspaper and it contained
half the money Sam had lost. Two months later, someone sent more money to
Sam with another note ... . In time someone paid back all Sam’s money in this
Unit 7. Voice
10. Mad or Not?
Airplanes are slowly driving me mad. I live near an airport and passing
planes can be heard night and day. The airport was built during the war, but for
some reason it could not be used then. Last year, however, it came into use.
Over a hundred people were driven away from their homes by the noise. I am
one of the few left. Sometimes I think this house will be knocked down by a
passing plane. I have been offered a large sum of money to go away, but I am
determined to stay here. Everybody says I must be mad and they are probably
Key Structures:
I live near an airport.
I am living at my friend's now as my house is being painted.
I have been living here for 10 years (since I was born).
Comprehension Questions:
1) Why are airplanes driving the man mad?
2) What happened to a hundred people when the airport came into use last
3) Did the man stay at his house or did he move to a new flat?
4) Why is the man determined to stay?
5) Do you believe he is mad? Why?
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form.
Last week a new leisure centre (1) (to open) in the town of Malden. The centre
(2) (to believe) to be the largest in Europe and it (3) (to hope) that it (4) (to visit)
by over 40,000 people a month. The centre (5) (to plan) for over ten years, but
it (6) (only/to make) possible by a large government grant. Unfortunately, it (7)
(not/to finish) yet, but it (8) (to think) that it (9) (to complete) by next month.
The centre includes an Olympic-size swimming pool and fifty tennis courts
which can be booked by phone. The gym (10) (to claim) to be the most modern
in the country. The equipment (11) (to buy) in Germany and training (12) (to
provide) by five top instructors. Entrance fees are cheap because half the cost
(13) (to pay) by the local council, so many local people will be able to afford
Unit 7. Voice
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form.
Something should (1) (to do) to protect holidaymakers from awful experiences.
So many articles (2) (to write) so far in newspapers and magazines warning
tourists to guard against being victims of tricksters. The brochure
advertisements ought to be approved by ABTA before being published to
ensure that the details which (3) (to give) aren’t misleading or inaccurate. Mr
and Mrs Brown had a typical bad holiday experience. They arrived at the old
hotel which was situated in the middle of nowhere. The brochure claimed that it
(4) (to build) recently, but it was obvious that it was old. It (5) (not/to decorate)
for years and the paint was peeling off the walls. The previous owners had sold
the hotel, which (6) (to buy) by an elderly couple. They (7) (to advise) by their
children to employ staff to manage it but, unfortunately, people (8) (still/to
interview) at the time when Mr and Mrs Brown arrived. Food (9) (not/to serve)
in the restaurant and guests (10) (to expect) to make their own arrangements. As
if that wasn’t enough, when they went to their rooms, they found the bed linen
(11) (not/to change) after the previous occupants. As far as Mr. and Mrs. Brown
were concerned the hotel should be closed until adequate staff (12) (to employ).
It is certainly nothing like the hotel which (13) (to describe) in the brochure.
3. (A) Laura is writing to a friend. This is a part of her letter.
... Someone broke into our house at the weekend. The burglar took some
jewellery. But luckily he didn’t do any damage. A very nice young police officer
interviewed me. Detectives found some fingerprints, and the police computer
identified the burglar. Police have arrested a man and are questioning him. But
they haven’t found the jewellery.
Now complete the passive sentences in this conversation. Use a phrase with
by only if it adds information. Reproduce it.
Our house was broken into at the weekend.
Melanie: Oh no!
Some jewellery (1) ....... .
But luckily no damage (2) ...... .
Melanie: Did the police come and see you?
Yes, they did. I (3) ...... .
Melanie: I don’t suppose they know who did it.
Well, amazingly they do. Some (4) ...... , and the (5) ...... .
A man (6) ...... and (7) ...... now.
Melanie: Wonderful.
There’s only one problem. The (8) ...... .
Unit 7. Voice
(B) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. Retell the text.
Jake felt that the secret plans (1) (to hide) somewhere in the room. He
began searching carefully. Behind a picture on the wall he found a small metal
safe. “They (2) (to keep) in here,” he thought. Suddenly, he (3) (to push)
violently from behind. He fell, hitting his heard on the stone floor, and
everything went back.
When he came round, he found that he (4) (to take) to a small room. His
hands and feet (5) (to tie) with rope and he felt as if he (6) (to drug). He also
had the strange feeling that he (7) (to watch). A few minutes later the door (8)
(to unlock), and two men walked into the room. Jake immediately recognized
one of them. It was Boris Mariovitch, the mad scientist!
“So, my friend,” said Boris, smiling coldly, “what made you think the
plans (9) (to keep) in the safe? You fool! They (10) (to hide) where no one will
ever find them!”
“What are you going to do with him?” asked the second man, pointing at
“Him? Nothing for the moment. No doubt he (11) (to kill) in the
The two men left. The door slammed shut and (12) (to lock) from the
outside. Jake looked desperately round the room. The door (13) (to make) of
metal and couldn’t be broken. The windows couldn’t be opened from inside.
What was he going to do? There was no escape! Jake (14) (to trap)!
4. Rewrite the following passages in the passive. Retell them.
The Government made an important decision last night. They will ban all
cars from the centre of town as pollution is seriously affecting people’s health.
They will allow only bicycles and buses to enter the town centre. They are
making plans for a new environmental police force. After all, they will do
something before it’s too late.
Last month the Council put forward a plan to make the seafront trafficfree. Many of the shop and restaurant owners support the plan as they believe
that a more pleasant environment will improve their trade. However, the hotel
owners are less enthusiastic and say that the traffic restriction will make access
to their car parks very difficult. There have also been protests from some local
residents who complain that the closure of the seafront road will make their
journeys around the town much longer.
Unit 7. Voice
(C) Reproduce the dialogue.
Jane is talking to her friend Greg about her holiday.
G: So, how was the holiday?
J: Oh, it was fantastic. They organized everything so well. As soon as we
arrived at the airport, our courier met us and took us to the hotel. Someone
had cleaned all the rooms beautifully and put fresh flowers on the tables.
G: Oh, how lovely. And what about the food?
J: It was excellent. They freshly prepared it all in the hotel and they even
made the bread in the hotel kitchen. They served the bread rolls hot every
morning with breakfast.
G: Mm, it does sound good. I must say, I’d like someone to cook my meals for
me for a couple of weeks. And what about the surrounding area? Was that
J: Oh beautiful. There were trips every day and they showed us all the local
sights. There was so much history to see. You’d love it there, honestly.
5. Rewrite these sentences. Use have something done.
1) John will have someone bring him the post. John will have the post
brought to him.
2) Did Sheila ask the dressmaker to make her a dress? ……
3) When will his photographs be developed? ……
4) The decorators are decorating Tim’s house at the moment ……
5) Your car needs to be serviced. ...…
6) The gardener was pruning Bob’s bushes. ……
7) The manager has asked the secretary to book a room for him. ……
8) I paid someone to fix the roof of my house. ……
9) Let’s ask the porter to carry the luggage to the taxi. ……
10) Larry has got the plastic surgeon to remove his tattoo. ……
11) A nurse took her temperature. ……
12) The make-up artist was applying the model’s lipstick. ……
13) Ask the cook to prepare the vegetables. ……
14) Have you told the accountant to check the figures? ……
15) Jim hates the teacher correcting his mistakes. ……
16) Did the beautician paint Joanne’s nails? ……
17) He told the maid to serve breakfast in his room. ……
18) Dad was late because the garage had been servicing his car. ……
19) Pam is going to tell someone to repair the pipes. ……
20) My parents’ house was burgled last Monday. ……
21) He used to employ a chef who cooked his meals. ……
22) Does your mother ask for her shopping to be delivered to her house? ……
Unit 7. Voice
23) Did you pay an artist to paint a portrait of your family? ……
24) Do you employ someone to clean your house? ……
25) Did you tell the tailor to make a suit for you? ……
6. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form (Active or
1) The children (1) (to frighten) by the story. It was about ghosts, witches and
evil spirits.
2) Derek crashed his mother’s car. It can’t be repaired quickly, because the
front door end (2) (to knock) into the wheel, making it unmovable.
3) Yesterday we had a surprise party for Albert’s birthday. While Mary (3) (to
take) him to a show, we (4) (to gather) at his appartment. When they (5) (to
return) home, Albert was surprised to see us all there.
4) Joan is an example of someone who can beat the odds. In 1980, she (6) (to
tell) she had 6 months to live because she had cancer. After exercise, dieting
and positive thinking she (7) (recently/to inform) that she (8) (to beat) the
5) This newspaper (9) (to publish) by an Italian company. It (10) (always/to
have) interesting stories.
6) Rice (11) (to grow) in this area for hundreds of years, but now the
government (12) (to try) to find an alternative crop because rice (13) (not to
make) much profit last year.
7) My shoes (14) (to make) in Italy, but I (15) (to buy) them in France last
8) The Queen (16) (not/to see) since last July. The newspaper say that she is
sick, but most people (17) (not to believe) it.
9) The class (15) (to cancel) because very few students (16) (to register) before
registration (17) (to close).
10) After Allan (18) (to search) for twenty minutes he (19) (to realize) that
his jacket (20) (to lie) on the table all the time.
7. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Why ..... he ..... to the party?
A) didn’t ... invite
B) wasn’t ... invited
2) The painting by Rembrandt ..... from the museum yesterday.
A) stole
B) was stolen
3) The first sputnik ..... by the Soviet Union in 1956.
A) launched
B) was launched
Unit 7. Voice
When ..... Jury Gagarin ..... into cosmos?
A) did ... fly
B) was ... flown
A new car design ..... at the plant.
A) developed
B) was developed
Somebody ..... the door from inside.
A) closed
B) was closed
Marilyn Monroe’s dress ..... at the auction at the price of $ 20 000.
A) sold
B) was sold
What ..... Greece ..... ?
A) does ... export
B) is ... exported
Both the driver and the passenger ..... in the car accident.
A) injured
B) were injured
..... credit cards ..... in your shop?
A) Do ... accept
B) Are ... accepted
..... his words ..... you?
A) Did ... hurt
B) Were ... hurt
Nylon ..... in the 1930 by an American chemist, Julian Hill.
A) invented
B) was invented
In Japan marriages of young people ..... by their parents.
A) usually arrange
B) are usually arranged
We..... a telephone call from them a few days ago.
A) received
B) were received
The first Volkswagen cars ..... in Germany just before the World War II.
A) made
B) were made
I ..... them a fax yesterday.
A) sent
B) was sent
She ..... a well-paid job. I think she’ll take it.
A) offered
B) was offered
Our parent company ..... in Sweden.
A) located
B) is located
Mary Poppins ..... them steadily, looking from one to the other.
A) regarded
B) was regarded
Our factory ..... last year.
A) reconstructed
B) was reconstructed
I ..... my car last week.
A) sold
B) was sold
English ..... all over the world.
A) speak
B) is spoken
We..... a lot of money on advertising campaign.
A) spent
B) were spent
Unit 7. Voice
24) The storm ..... on Monday afternoon.
A) began
B) was begun
25) During the storm a lot of trees ..... .
A) blew down
B) were blown down
26) The roofs of some houses ..... .
A) blew away
B) were blown away
27) Windows in some houses ..... .
A) broke
B) were broken
28) ..... the film ..... Oscar?
A) Did ... win
B) Was ... won
29) His film ..... for Oscar.
A) nominated
B) was nominated
30) I feel I ….. .
A) am being looked at
B) am looking at
1) The contract ..... at the board meeting now.
A) is discussed
B) was discussed
C) is being discussed
D) was being discussed
2) Wait a minute! The document ..... by the secretary at the moment.
A) is typed
B) has been typed
C) was typed
D) is being typed
3) The papers ..... by the Managing Director yet. He is on business trip.
A) weren’t signed
B) aren’t signed
C) haven’t been signed
D) weren’t being signed
4) She ..... the Head of the Information Systems Department two months ago.
A) is appointed
B) is being appointed
C) was appointed
D) has been appointed
5) Recently a new generation of TV sets ..... in Japan.
A) is being launched
B) has been launched
C) was being launched
D) had been launched
6) At present our company ..... .
A) is reorganised
B) is being reorganised
C) has reorganised
D) has been reorganised
7) The mail ..... yet.
A) isn’t received
B) isn’t being received
C) wasn’t received
D) hasn’t been received
8) From Monday English classes ..... in the Training Centre.
A) are held
B) are being held
C) will be held
D) have been held
Unit 7. Voice
We ..... to send the documents by Friday.
A) were asked
B) were being asked
C) have been asked
D) had been asked
10) At last a new government ..... after a long governmental crisis.
A) is formed
B) is being formed
C) was formed
D) has been formed
11) My car ..... at the moment. Sorry, I can’t give you a lift to the station.
A) is serviced
B) is being serviced
C) has been serviced
D) has being serviced
12) All the teaching material ..... after the classes start.
A) are provided
B) will be provided
C) provided have been
D) will have been provided
8. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) The jumper (is/has been) washed several time s, and it (wasn’t/ hasn’t)
2) Nylon (has/has been) produced since 1938 and today it (is/ is being) found
in many things.
3) The Houses of Parliament (were/ have been) built between 1840 and 1857.
4) Scientists hope that a cure for cancer will soon (be/ have been) found.
5) Each Concord (was/had been) built at a cost of 55 million pounds.
6) Boss says I will (be/ have been) given a pay-rise next month.
7) By next year, everybody in the company will (be/have been) given a payrise.
8) She will (be/ have been) informed about the results of the research as soon
as it (is/ will be) finished.
9) Wait for a while. He (is/ is being) interviewed now.
10) He (is being/ has been) interviewed for 40 minutes already.
9. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form (Active or
Dear Sally,
How are you? We've been having a lovely time. We're being very well
looked after by our hosts. We (1) (to take) sightseeing and we (2) (to
introduce) to some of their friends, who (3) (to make) us feel very welcome.
Last night we (4) (to show) round a castle, by the owner! Most of the land in this
area (5) (to belong), to his family for about five hundred years. Apparently, the
land (6) (to give) to them after one of his ancestors (7) (to kill) while trying to
save the king's life. Quite romantic, isn't it?
Unit 7. Voice
The castle itself was a little bit disappointing, to be absolutely honest.
The owner told us that it (8) (to suffer) serious damage during a fire about
thirty years ago. When it (9) (to restore) they (10) (to add) central heating and
things like that. So once you're inside it (11) (not to feel) much different to
any other large, old house. But the owner is a real character. He told us lots of
stories about things that (12) (to happen) to him when he was young. He (13) (to
send) abroad to work in a bank, but he hated it, so he (14) (to behave) very
badly in order to (15) (to sack) He kept us laughing for hours. I hope he (16)
(to invite) us here again before we leave. I'll have lots more to tell you when we
get back. Take care.
Yours affectionately,
Sir James and Lady Blenkins (1) (to be) married for thirty years next
March. They (2) (to celebrate) their wedding anniversary with a dinner party on
the seventeenth. I don't think it (3) (to be) a particularly stylish affair, but I am
sure a lot of good food (4) (to serve). Sheila, Ken and Willie (5) (to invite)
already. A few days ago Marilyn (6) (to invite) too, but she can't go because she
(7) (to leave) for the States by then. Helen and Denis say they (8) (to go) if they
(9) (to invite).
Licking his lips in anticipation of a tasty meal he (1) (to ask) her where she
(2) (to go). The girl, who never (3) (to see) a wolf before (4) (to tell) him about
her grandmother and where she (5) (to live) Just as he (6) (to be) about to
attack her, he (7) (to hear) two woodcutters approaching and (8) (to hurry)
off, saying he (9) (to forget) an important meeting on the other side of the
forest. While the little girl (10) (to make) her way slowly along the path, the
wolf (11) (to rush) through the forest towards the old lady's cottage. The
cottage door (12) (to be) locked so the wolf (13) (to pretend) to be Little Red
Riding Hood by copying her voice. Granny (14) (to open) the door to let her in
and ....
When we (1) (to arrive) in London we (2) (to be) two hours late
because our train (3) (to hold) up by bad weather. Outside the station it (4) (to
snow) hard and a lot of people (5) (to wait), for taxis.
As we (6) (to be) about to join them, a young man (7) (to pull) up in
his car and (8) (to ask) us where we (9) (to want) to go. Although it (10) (not
Unit 7. Voice
to be) an official taxi, the car (11) (to be) new and shiny and the young man
(12) (to look) clean and respectable. So we (13) (to decide) to accept his offer.
When we (14) (to tell) him that we (15) (not to have) a hotel he (16) (to say) he
(17) (can) take us to one which (18) (to be) cheap and clean.
He (19) (to put) our luggage in the boot and we (20) (to drive) off to the
hotel. On the way we (21) (to chat) cheerfully and he even (22) (to point) out
some interesting sights.
We (23) (can) hardly believe our luck and (24) (to think) of all the
people we (25) (to leave) standing in the freezing cold. When we (26) (to get)
to the hotel, he (27) (to tell) us he (28) (to wait) until we (29) (to check) in.
After we (30) (to tell) that the hotel (31) (to be) full, we (32) (to go) down
the steps only to find that our driver and our luggage (33) (to disappear)
Needless to say, we never (34) (to see) him again.
Some Facts About Sugar
Pocket sugar from the supermarket (1) (to extract) from either sugar cane
or sugar beet. These products (2) (to mix) with water, which (3) (to dissolve)
their natural sugar. Sugar (4) (also to find) in fruit some of which, such as dates
and grapes, (5) (to contain) very high amounts of sugar. To be a little more
scientific, sugar should (6) (to call) sucrose. Sucrose (7) (to make up) of two
substances, glucose, which 8) (to use) for instant energy, and fructose, which (9)
(to last) longer as a source of energy. The sugar in fruit is mainly fructose. So
when we (10) (to eat) fruit, we (11) (also to eat) quite large amounts of natural
sugar. Some scientists (12) (to believe) that too much sugar (13) (to eat) in
sweets, cakes and bisquits. It (14) (to say) to be generally bad for the health,
although nothing (15) (definitely to prove) so far. However, it (16) (to know) that
sugar (17) (to cause) tooth decay. As one expert put it: “If other foods (18)
(to damage) our body as much as sugar (19) (to damage) our teeth, they (20) (to
ban) immediately.
10. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form (Active or
Passive). Retell the text.
Animals on the roads
More cars and lorries (1) (to drive) on our roads every year and, sadly, as
a result of this, more and more wild animals (2) (to kill) by vehicles. Roads
often (3) (to cross) the routes that (4) (to take) by animals when they are
migrating, breeding or feeding.
Unit 7. Voice
Every spring, many thousands of toads (5) (to kill) as they (6) (to make)
their way to the traditional breeding ponds. All over the world, animals are
victims of the road and their dead remains (7) (often/to see) lying on the
roadside. Many badgers and hedgehogs (8) (to hit) by cars at night as they (9)
(to move around) in search of food. Rabbits sometimes seem to (10) (to
hypnotize) by the headlights of cars and (11) (not to move) quickly out of the
way. Birds (12) (sometimes to hit) too as they (13) (to fly) low over roads.
Can anything be done to protect these animals from the dangers of the
road? Well, in 1969, a toad tunnel (14) (to build) in Switzerland and was a great
success. Since then, other tunnels (15) (to construct) elsewhere in Europe, not
just for toads but for badgers and salamanders too. In Florida, where the rare
Florida panther (16) (to live), panther tunnels (17) (to build) under the highway
and fencing (18) (to put up) beside the highway to guide the animals safely into
these underpasses. Road signs warning drivers to (19) (to look out) for
particular animals (20) (often/to see) in the US and it is to (21) (to hope) that
they (22) (to become) a more common sight on the roads of Europe.
11. Translate from Russian into English. Use the passive voice where
1) Меня ожидали в субботу, но я не приехала, так как не было билетов.
2) Сценарий был одобрен, съемки фильма уже начались.
3) Это очень интересная статья. На нее часто ссылаются.
4) Если за тобой пришлют, не отказывайся туда пойти.
5) Не говорите так громко! Я не люблю когда, на меня кричат.
6) Это заманчивое предложение, я полагаю, что оно будет одобрено.
7) Я надеюсь, что за детьми присмотрят, пока вы будете в отпуске.
8) Не беспокойтесь, ваши документы уже ищут, и, полагаю, их скоро
9) - В этом доме когда-нибудь жили? – В нем живут уже несколько лет.
10) Я не думаю, что на вашем присутствии будут настаивать.
11) Против многих бессмысленных предложений очень сильно
12) Дети очень любят, когда им читают.
13) Мистер Смит уже пришел? Его ожидают в холле.
14) Она была очень счастлива, так как на вечеринке на нее обращали
15) Я обратился в милицию, когда обнаружил, что у меня украли паспорт.
16) Я чувствовала, что на меня смотрели.
17) Об этом ученом много говорят в последнее время.
Unit 7. Voice
– За доктором уже послали? – Да, он придет через 15 минут, я думаю.
Над тобой будут смеяться, если ты будешь говорить глупости.
О вашем отце позаботятся. Не беспокойтесь!
За обед уже заплатили. Мы можем идти.
Господина Смита не видно уже давно. Мне кажется, что-то
Надеюсь, потолки в этом здании отремонтируют к концу лета.
Несколько чиновников обвинили во взяточничестве.
Если вас будут спрашивать о том, что произошло, не отказывайтесь
Я посмотрел на ребенка и понял, что его давно не подстригали.
Библиотекарь не дала мне журнал, так как его еще не возвратили.
Так как Марии не сообщили об изменении в расписании поездов, она
опоздала на встречу.
Моему брату платят хорошие деньги за его работу.
Я не знаю, сколько сейчас времени. Мои часы на ремонте.
Художественный музей сейчас находится на реставрации.
В каком производстве используется этот материал?
Реклама спиртных напитков запрещена в нашей стране.
Согласно контракту, товары будут доставлены в магазины в конце
Это предложение все еще рассматривают.
Концерт на стадионе «Динамо» отложили из-за плохой погоды.
Встреча выпускников (школы) была назначена на 7 часов.
Полиция ищет пропавшего ребенка. Его ищут уже целую неделю.
Полы в этом здании сейчас красят. Их уже красят целую неделю.
Его последний роман был недавно написан и опубликован в журнале.
В Великобритании оплачивается работа не всех судей. Так, например,
работа «мировых судей» («justices of the peace») не оплачивается.
Мировых судей выбирают не потому, что они имеют какое-то
юридическое образование, а потому, что они обладают здравым
смыслом (they have sound common sense) и понимают человеческие
В Великобритании есть судьи, которых называют
высокого суда» («High Court Judges»). Ими рассматриваются дела о
наиболее тяжких преступлениях.
За серьёзные правонарушения выносится приговор о тюремном
Судьям высокого суда платят жалование.
Unit 7. Voice
46) Если человек арестован за опасную езду или нарушение
общественного порядка, (a disturbance of the peace) его дело будет
рассмотрено в магистратском суде. (Magistrate Court).
47) Свидетельские показания слушаются в зале суда.
48) Полицейский рассказывал, когда и где был задержан подозреваемый.
Там сейчас проводится перекрёстный допрос (cross-examination) и
опрашивают свидетелей.
49) Дело об ограблении слушалось с участием присяжных заседателей
(trial of jury).
50) Уголовное наказание применяется только по приговору суда.
51) Никто не считается виновным пока не доказана вина. (unless proved
52) Виновного приговорили к тюремному заключению на 6 месяцев и
штрафу в £400.
53) Серьёзные дела слушаются в Королевском суде (The Crown Court).
54) Умышленное убийство (malicious) считается особо тяжким
55) Международный суд (the International Court of Justice) находится в
Гааге и состоит из 15 судей. Эти судьи избираются путём
независимого голосования.
56) Теневая экономика (Black economy) – это та часть экономики, которая
не контролируется обществом и скрыта от налоговых и других
государственных органов.
57) Для сбора данных о создаваемом продукте применяются различные
процедуры тестирования.
58) За многие годы существования рынка экономистами разработана (to
work out) солидная теоретическая база распространения товаров.
59) Реклама – это информирование потребителя о товаре. Реклама
оплачивается конкретным спонсором. К настоящему времени
разработан механизм планирования рекламы.
60) Потребитель приобретёт товар у торгового агента, которому он
больше доверяет. Покупка будет совершена, если это выгодно (to be
expedient) потребителю.
61) Коммерческая деятельность (Commercial activity) базируется на
исследованиях рынка.
62) Конкурентоспособность предприятия (Competitive capacity of an
enterprise) осуществляется при правильном управлении финансовыми
63) Анализ финансовой деятельности предприятия проводится по данным
бухгалтерского отчёта.
Unit 7. Voice
64) Сделка (Transaction) – элемент рынка. Условия сделки, как правило,
поддерживаются и охраняются законодательством.
65) В ходе производственной деятельности отмечают доходы/расходы,
которые влияют на прибыль.
66) Если фирма занимается оптовой торговлей, анкеты распространяются
среди клиентов (дистрибьюторов, владельцев магазинов, дилеров).
67) Маркетинговый тест проводят перед внедрением на рынок нового
продукта (услуги), чтобы оценить, как он будет принят.
68) Продажа будет осуществляться так: снимки товаров помещаются в
каталог, который рассылается (distribute) потребителям и реализуется
в магазинах.
69) Стратегии маркетинга включают конкретные программы действий,
которые дадут ответы на следующие вопросы:
 Что будет сделано?
 Когда это будет сделано?
 Кто это будет делать?
 Сколько это будет стоить?
70) Чтобы увеличить сбыт продукции, управляющим рекомендуется
разработать план соответствующих мероприятий.
Oral Activity
The teacher sets the situation first. Sarah Ford, the well-known
millionaire’s daughter, was kidnapped yesterday. Then he/she asks the
students to look at the cues below and, working in groups of three, to prepare
the story in 2 minutes using the passive. Each group then reports its story to the
class. Students decide which group’s story is the best and has the fewest
Sarah Ford kidnapped/yesterday. threatening calls made/before.
Sarah seen/last/park. same day/letter sent. Sarah released/as soon
as/kidnappers given £300,000. police informed/immediately. all areas
searched/since yesterday. nothing found/so far.
1. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form.
There is an old castle in Norwich which (1) (to believe) to be haunted. It
(2) (to call) North Castle and it (3) (to say) that ghosts can (4) (to see) there at
night. The castle (5) (to build) 400 years ago and (6) (to own) by two old ladies
Unit 7. Voice
who (7) (to believe) to be witches. One day, long ago, they both disappeared
and they (8) (never/to see) again. In 1985 the castle (9) (to buy) by a
businessman and (10) (to convert) into a luxurious hotel. The castle (11) (to
visit) by quite a few guests every year and special groups (12) (to organize) to
watch for ghosts. It has been a long time some any ghosts (13) (to see), but one
night a trick (14) (to play) on some visitors by a local couple, who dressed up as
the two “witches”. They (15) (to see) by a guest who said she (16) (to frighten)
almost to death. The couple apologized the next day, and (17) (to tell) never to
visit the castle again, certainly not in the middle of the night dressed up as
Professor Higgins, who (18) (to award) a major science prize last month, (19)
(to invite) to take part in a conference which (20) (to hold) in London last week.
He (21) (to meet) at the airport by a driver who, unfortunately, (22) (to give) the
name of the wrong hotel to take the professor to. A large reception (23) (to
organize) for the professor and at least 200 eminent scientists (24) (to invite) to
meet him that evening. The poor professor, however, (25) (to leave) at a small
hotel in a rather bad area, and when he asked to speak to the Head of the
Conference Committee, he (26) (to tell) to try somewhere else because he (27)
(not/to hear off) there. Luckily, later that evening, the driver (28) (to send) to
the hotel where the reception (29) (to hold), and when he (30) (to ask) what he
had done with the professor, everyone realized that a mistake (31) (to make).
The professor says that if he (32) (ever/to send) another invitation to a
conference, he hopes it (33) (to organize) more efficiently.
2. Fill in by or with.
34) “The Old Man and the Sea” was written … Ernest Hemingway.
35) Radium was discovered … Pierre and Marie Curie.
36) My desk was covered … papers.
37) The safe was blown open … dynamite.
38) “The Gold rush” was directed … Charlie Chaplin.
39) The house was painted … a new kind of paint.
40) The cake was made … dried fruit.
41) The safe was blown open … the robbers.
42) The photos were taken … a very cheap camera.
43) “Imagine” was composed and sung … John Lennon.
3. Transform from Active into Passive.
44) Police use trained dogs to find drugs.
45) A lifeguard rescued the drowning boy.
Unit 7. Voice
An electrician is repairing our water heater.
A defense lawyer will represent you.
They clean the rooms daily.
Customs officers searched her suitcases.
Hijackers were holding the plane passengers hostage.
A gas leak has caused the explosion.
An eyewitness gave the police a full report.
The government has increased the tax on cigarettes.
They will launch the product in May.
The Scots make the best fudge.
The teacher sent him out of the classroom.
They will have finished the work by tonight.
Her parents made her clean the room.
The horrible old man was slowly poisoning the dog.
Which building are they going to knock down?
4. Rewrite the sentences. Use have something done.
61) Her hair was cut by her best friend.
62) Tony’s car will be taken to the garage tomorrow.
63) Jane’s bag was stolen last night.
64) Paul’s jaw was broken in a boxing match.
65) They are fitting our new carpet tomorrow.
66) His passport has just been stolen.
67) Their house is decorated every year.
68) Our rooms were cleaned by our mother this morning.
69) Sally’s wedding dress is going to be made next month.
70) My salary is deposited in my bank account every month.
71) Our grass is cut by the gardener.
72) My window was broken during the storm.
73) His photograph will be taken by his friend.
74) His case was carried to the car by the chauffeur.
75) Their windows are cleaned once a month.
5. Translate into English.
76) Магнитофон сейчас ремонтируют. Подождите, пожалуйста.
77) Этой картиной всегда восхищаются.
78) Эта статья будет переведена к завтрашнему утру.
79) Когда мы вернулись, дверь уже была заперта.
80) Сорок человек пригласили на свадьбу.
81) Книги будут возвращены в библиотеку через несколько дней.
Unit 7. Voice
Когда мы познакомились, мне уже предложили новую работу в банке.
Над тобой будут смеяться, если ты наденешь эту кепку.
Нам показали фильм до того, как он пришел.
Произведения этого писателя переводились на многие языки мира и
издавались во многих странах.
86) Мне рассказал об этом случае мой друг.
87) Художественный музей сейчас ремонтируют. Он будет открыт в
конце месяца.
88) Не беспокойтесь! О ваших детях позаботятся.
89) Ему посоветовали обратиться в полицию.
90) Этот кинотеатр уже построили к тому времени, как мы переехали в
этот город.
91) Его оштрафовали, т.к. он перешел улицу на красный свет.
92) Им только что отправили телеграмму.
93) Он был оскорблен (обижен); на него совсем не обращали никакого
94) Когда мы прибыли, этот вопрос ещё не обсуждался.
95) Письмо вручили Анне в день её отъезда.
96) Я прочёл в газете, несколько недель тому назад, что господина
Иванова назначили вице-президентом компании.
97) Эти телевизоры производят на одном из японских предприятий.
98) Говорят, что он опытный юрист.
99) Почему собрание отменили? – Его не отменили, а перенесли на
100) Этот роман посвящается сестре писателя.
Total: 100/_____
Unit 1
1. 2) C 3) S 4) D 5) C 6) C 7) D 8) D 9) D 10) S
2. 2) C 3) C 4) S 5) P 6) P 7) P 8) P 9) S 10) C
3. 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
4. 1) mispronounce 2) rearrange 3) uncover 4) belittle 5) devalue 6) overfeed
7) disconnect 8) enrich
She put up with the loss.
Don't give up! Try again!
He gave up smoking a year ago.
Their family has broken up (split up).
When did the was break out?
Watch out!
Speak up, please.
Let's break off and have some tea.
I'll look after you child.
What are you looking for?
1. 2) A 3) A,M 4) A 5) M 6) M 7) A, M 8) A 9) A, M 10) A, M
2. 2) T 3) I 4) I 5) I 6) T 7) I 8) T 9) I 10) I
1. 2) Pr. Ind. 3) Past Cont., Past Ind. 4) Pr. Ind., Fut. Ind. 5) Fut. Cont. 6) Fut. Cont.
7) Pr. Perf. Cont. 8) Fut. Ind. 9) Fut. Perf. Cont. 10) Pr. Perf. 11) Pr. Ind.
2. 1) D 2) A 3) D 4) A 5) B 6) C 7) B 8) A 9) B 10) C 11) A 12) B
Unit 2
Entry Test
1. 1) C 2) B 3) D 4) A 5) C 6) A 7) A 8) C 9) D 10) C 11) A 12) D 13) B 14)
C 15) D 16) B 17) C 18) D 19) A 20) D 21) C 22) A 23) D 24) D 25) C 26) D
27) C 28) D 29) D 30) C 31) A 32) C 33) D 34) B 35) D 36) B 37) D 38) C
39) D 40) B
2. 41) go 42) celebrated 43) were 44) didn't … go/ did … not go; was; had 45)
Does … know; studied; was; doesn't remember 46) Did … rain; was 47) will … be
ready 48) had 49) will /shall phone; leave 50) will be 51) Will … snow; am; will
be 52) help; will finish 53) arrives 54) comes; will/shall have; will … be; comes
55) don't come 56) will phone; comes 57) was 58) will be 59) Do … return 60)
will come; Does … come 61) get 62) am not busy; will join 63) will leave; does …
leave 64) were; were not 65) don't know 66) will not be; will be 67) did … go 68)
did … have; was 69) will go; rains 70) do … begin 71) is 72) got 73) leaves; packs
74) Is … married; has; got married 75) misses; will fail 76) liked 77) will not rain
78) did … spend; was 79) takes 80) will go; has
It often rains here at this time of the year.
If it rains tomorrow, we won't go for a walk.
Did it rain last weekend? – Yes, it did.
Where were you at 7 o'clock yesterday? I phoned you but you were not at home.
When do you usually have dinner? – At 3. But yesterday we had dinner at 5.
My friend will come to visit us tomorrow. – When did you see him last? – A
year ago.
87) Will you be at home tomorrow evening? – Yes, I will. I'll return from my work
at 7. I always come home at 7.
88) She visits her parents twice a month. I'll talk to her before she leaves.
89) How many lessons will you have tomorrow? – Six. We always have six lessons
on Mondays.
90) Do you know this man? – Yes, I do. We studied at the same school. – When was
it? – Ten years ago.
91) As a rule children spend much time in the open air in summer.
92) Last year he trained much to take part in the competitions.
93) I don't know yet if I'll go to Moscow next week.
94) Why didn't you phone me yesterday? – I was very busy. We had a meeting.
95) Do you know how old she is? – She was twenty last month.
96) If he doesn't take a taxi, he'll miss his train.
97) Last winter was very cold. It snowed almost every day.
98) Who usually helps you to do your homework? – My elder sister does.
99) When will you be in London again? – I don't know exactly, but I think I'll go
there in a month.
100) The other day Kate met her former classmate. She was glad to see her because
they saw each other ten years ago last time.
Progress Test
1. 1) C 2) D 3) B 4) D 5) B 6) B 7) C 8) D 9) C 10) B 11) B 12) B 13) C 14)
D 15) B 16) A 17) D 18) C 19) B 20) С 21) В 22) С 23) B 24) С 25) B 26) В
27) B 28) B 29) B 30) D 31) C 32) D 33) A 34) C 35) A 36) B 37) B 38) C 39)
D 40) B
2. 41) has; had 42) did … miss; was 43) will not catch 44) were; was 45) enters;
will be 46) will pass 47) Did … watch; didn't like; was 48) does … do; is; works;
produces 49) Did … invite; enjoyed; had 50) are; will sign 51) Did … meet;
arrived; was; went 52) will not snow; will go 53) Is; gets 54) was; is not 55) would
attend; prevented 56) do … take; depends 57) Are; was; missed 58) Will … go; am;
finish; will join 59) Does … rain; rains; is 60) Did … go; went; spent 61) has; will
leave; knows 62) teaches; is 63) leave 64) is; goes; will go 65) were; met 66) does
… do; visits; live 67) did … do; stayed; was 68) will celebrate 69) will … be; will
be 70) is; has; takes 71) is; will put on 72) is glad; come 73) liked 74) did … finish
75) Is … ready; will be ready 76) would buy 77) Did … swim; were 78) likes 79)
arrives 80) was; managed
81) Many people like winter though from time to time frosts are severe and it often
82) Who left the book in the desk yesterday? – John did. Sometimes he is very
83) The other day Mike got a driving license. He hopes if he has enough money, he
will buy his car in a couple of months.
84) Yesterday I came to Martha but nobody was at home. Do you know where she
is? – She went on a business trip the day before yesterday. She will be at home
in a week.
85) If it does not stop snowing, we won't go to the skating-rink tomorrow.
86) He said he would read the book as soon as he passed his exams.
87) I am sure he won't go home until he discusses this question with the manager.
88) When he was young he used to spend his weekends in the country. Now more
and more often he prefers to stay at home.
89) What time does he usually finish his work? – At 5. They will have a meeting
tomorrow, so he'll come home at 8.
90) When did your father start up his own business? – Half a year ago. – What do
they do? – They sell furniture.
91) I began to play chess when I was seven. – Who taught you? – My father did. He
plays chess well.
92) Nick said that he would phone us as soon as he met John at the airport.
93) If your tea is not sweet enough, add some sugar.
94) Why don't you want to go on the excursion with us on Saturday? – We'll go to
the country with our friends if it doesn't rain.
95) Henry will be in London in two days. He'll discuss financial questions with our
96) The other day Max finished his new novel. He hopes his readers will like it.
97) How often does your father play tennis? – Twice a week now. When he was
young he used to play tennis almost every day.
98) Kate won't go to school tomorrow, if she doesn't feel better.
99) When did Martha come back from the South? – The day before yesterday. –
Who met her at the station? – Her brother did.
100) The film starts at 7. Now it's a quarter to 7 but Mark is not here yet. He is late
again! If he isn't here in five minutes, we won't wait for him.
Unit 3
Entry Test
1. 1) С 2) A 3) B 4) B 5) C 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) A 10) B 11) D 12) C 13) B 14)
A 15) A 16) B 17) B 18) B 19) C 20) B 21) B 22) B 23) B 24) B 25) A 26) B
27) A 28) A 29) B 30) B 31) C 32) A 33) D 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) A 38) A
39) C 40) A
2. 41) has been 42) haven' t seen 43) will have finished 44) had gone 45) had left
46) will have risen 47) hadn't phoned 48) will have gone 49) has gone 50) hasn't
cut 51) will have been 52) have never sailed 53) has played 54) had met 55) had
come back 56) have borrowed 57) will have cooked 58) has lost 59) hasn't taken
60) will have examined 61) hasn't had 62) had given up 63) had already bought 64)
haven't worn 65) have been; haven't typed 66) has visited 67) has never heard 68)
had lost 69) will have watched 70) will have done 71) had learnt 72) had been 73)
had I finished 74) will have saved 75) had planned 76) haven't seen 77) hadn't
come 78) Will your guests have gone 79) will have picked 80) had written
We have had wonderful sunny weather for the last some days.
I am sure they won't have read this book by the fixed date.
She asked me where I had bought that book.
Hardly had the family rented a house when they began to look for a new one.
By 3 o'clock my elder brother had already returned from school.
They'll have finished the experiment by winter, won't they?
It is the third time you have been late for this week.
The lecturer announced that the population of the city had reached 1 million.
They will have seen all the sights of the city by the evening.
I have never seen her so angry before.
My younger sister has just returned from London.
This house is very old. The workers will have removed it by the time you return
to the town.
93) When I came to Warsaw, John had already left for London.
94) We'll have done this exercise by 2 o'clock and then we'll go to the park together.
95) The workers have already finished to repair this house. Has anybody moved into
it yet?
96) What will you have managed to do by the time I come?
97) They will not have written the test by the return of the teacher.
98) I hope they will have bought the TV set by the end of the week.
99) Jane wasn't hungry. She had just had breakfast.
100) My friends will have come home after holidays by the 1st of September.
Progress Test
1. 1) B 2) A 3) B 4) A 5) A 6) B 7) C 8) B 9) A 10) B 11) B 12) B 13) B 14)
A 15) A 16) B 17) C 18) A 19) A 20) A 21) B 22) A 23) B 24) A 25) C 26) A
27) A 28) A 29) A 30) A 31) A 32) A 33) A 34) B 35) A 36) A 37) A 38) B
39) D 40) C
2. 41) will have had 42) will have finished 43) have already built 44) will have
done 45) will not have landed 46) have lost 47) will have found 48) had left 49)
will have saved 50) will have invited 51) had we gone 52) has drunk 53) had
served 54) has gone 55) will have made 56) has saved 57) had finished 58) will
have given 59) Has anybody seen 60) have been 61) had she come 62) has never
seen 63) had completed 64) has never flown 65) will have built 66) had been 67)
will have booked 68) had left 69) Have you got; have borrowed 70) will have
attended 71) has entered 72) will have got 73) will not have arrived 74) had eaten
75) had finished 76) will have stayed 77) had left 78) will have made 79) has
happened 80) had already learnt
81) If I continue to sit on a diet, I will have lost 10 kilograms by the end of the
82) She has been looking happy since she returned from the journey.
83) Yesterday I advised my friend to apply to the company to get a job there, but he
had already done it.
84) By Monday Bill will have recovered and will begin his work.
85) It is hot and it hasn't rained for more than a month. I hope that the weather will
have changed by Monday.
86) No sooner had John managed to represent everybody his new friend than
everybody recognized him at once.
87) I have known him for almost 18 years. He hasn't changed at all.
88) I'll be back in 2 hours. I hope that by this time you'll have finished the
89) How many years have they been married? – For 10 or 11 years, I don't
remember exactly.
90) Hardly had the secretary come up to the phone to call the police when the
robbers appeared in the office again.
91) Because of the snow-fall the train will have come to the station by 1o o'clock in
the evening.
92) She hasn't phoned me since she found a new job.
93) We had prepared everything long before they came.
94) Who has broken this cup? – I don't know, I haven't been to the kitchen since
95) When we approached the house, the sun had already set.
96) He was very disappointed because by 3 o'clock he had answered only to the half
of the letters.
97) I'll have finished this work by the end of the week.
98) As soon as the Sales Manager entered the office, he informed his subordinates
about his forthcoming business trip to Japan.
99) Tomorrow I am going to the country for 2 weeks. By the evening I will have
packed all the things and everything will be prepared for the trip.
100) The builders will have repaired the building by Christmas.
Unit 4
Entry Test
1. 1) C 2) B 3) D 4) C 5) A 6) B 7) D 8) C 9) A 10) B 11) C 12) B 13) D 14)
A 15) D 16) A 17) D 18) C 19) B 20) B 21) C 22) D 23) C 24) A 25) D 26) A
27) D 28) A 29) C 30) A 31) C 32) D 33) C 34) D 35) C 36) B 37) A 38) C
39) B 40) D
2. 41) are … looking 42) was trying; were 43) will be having 44) was doing 45) is
losing 46) will be sleeping; come 47) were … doing; was reading 48) is making;
am laying 49) am using 50) will be relaxing 51) didn't understand; were talking 52)
is … doing; is listening 53) was wearing 54) will be preparing 55) am not speaking
56) will not be working 57) are travelling 58) was doing; was reading 59) is talking;
is playing 60) will be taking 61) are … crying 62) was waiting 63) is … thinking;
is thinking 64) will be enjoying 65) are playing 66) was raining 67) is shining; are
singing 68) will be skiing 69) are … going; am going 70) were playing 71) is
coming 72) recognize 73) was landing 74) will be repairing 75) is sleeping 76)
were … watching 77) will be playing; are skiing 78) am watching; is playing 79)
were … doing; was washing 80) am looking
81) Don't phone her now. I think she is still sleeping.
82) While the adults were playing volleyball, the children were swimming in the
83) Hurry up! The train leaves in half an hour. If we are late, our trip will fail.
84) He'll be working in the reading-room the whole day tomorrow.
85) She doesn't see that we are looking at her as she is talking on the phone.
What were you doing when I phoned you? – I was watching TV.
What are your plans for the weekend? – I am going to visit my parents.
Don't be late. She'll be waiting for you in the library at 11.
She is always talking in class.
Yesterday I was coming back home rather late. It was getting dark and it was
91) He is very busy and doesn't hear what we are talking about.
92) I don't think I'll still be looking through the papers when you come.
93) We are going to buy a new TV-set next week.
94) The lecture was very interesting and everybody was listening to the teacher with
95) While the gymnasts are getting ready for their next exercise, the referees will be
discussing their results.
96) The sun was setting, it was getting dark. The rain began. We hurried home.
97) She was still packing her things when the taxi came.
98) The Ivanovs have a son. They are celebrating his birthday next week. He'll be
99) Mr Smith will be signing a contract with our new partners at this time tomorrow.
100) Kate was playing the piano when the phone rang.
Progress Test
1. 1) C 2) B 3) D 4) C 5) A 6) D 7) A 8) C 9) D 10) B 11) C 12) B 13) D 14)
A 15) C 16) B 17) D 18) A 19) D 20) B 21) C 22) D 23) A 24) B 25) A 26) D
27) A 28) D 29) C 30) B 31) D 32) B 33) D 34) A 35) C 36) B 37) D 38) A
39) D 40) C
2. 41) are … doing; are planning 42) was working 43) will be wearing 44) were …
doing; was typing 45) is learning; am looking 46) are swimming; will be sunbathing
47) is driving 48) was moving 49) is staying 50) will be doing; will be having 51)
wasn't raining 52) will be sleeping 53) is handling 54) were discussing 55) is
knocking 56) Will … be working 57) are … using 58) was standing; was waiting
59) will be writing 60) is putting 61) is … doing; is making 62) was redecorating
63) is packing 64) are airing 65) Was … raining; was raining 66) will be typing 67)
is getting 68) was chasing 69) will be looking 70) am tasting 71) were repairing
72) is investigating 73) will be typing 74) was … crying 75) will be fishing; are
swimming 76) are talking 77) will be doing 78) were waiting 79) was wearing 80)
is drawing; is playing
81) While the students are making up the dialogues, the teacher will be checking up
their tests.
82) He came when we were still discussing the plan of our trip.
83) It's very noisy here. I don't hear what they are talking about.
84) He won't be at home after 6 tomorrow. He'll be playing football with his friends.
85) Tonight Tom is leaving for London to take part in the conference. His train
leaves at 9.
86) When we were walking in the park, the rain began. We hurried home as we
hadn't an umbrella.
87) I'm sure when we come he'll be still preparing for the exam.
88) Do you know why she is crying?
89) This time tomorrow they'll be returning home from the South.
90) The secretary was typing some documents when a visitor came in.
91) I don't know whom she is talking with. Maybe she is one of her pupils.
92) We were going to spend last weekend in the country but the rain began and we
stayed at home.
93) Mark will be working on his new script tomorrow after dinner. He wants to
finish it in a week.
94) Why is it so cold here? – I am airing the room.
95) They were boating when the storm broke out.
96) While we are skating they will be playing snowballs.
97) You look serious. What are you thinking about?
98) We are leaving for the Crimea tomorrow morning. We are going to stay there
for two weeks.
99) The schoolchildren are playing volleyball in the gym while it is raining.
100) We were having dinner when the postman brought us a telegram.
Unit 5
Entry Test
1. 1) A 2) A 3) A 4) B 5) C 6) A 7) A 8) B 9) B 10) A 11) B 12) A 13) A 14)
C 15) C 16) C 17) B 18) B 19) C 20) A 21) C 22) B 23) A 24) A 25) A 26) A
27) A 28) A 29) A 30) A 31) C 32) A 33) A 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) A 38) B
39) A 40) A
2. 41) will have been reading 42) had been working 43) had been working 44) has
been using 45) had been standing 46) will have been preparing 47) has been raining
48) has been digging 49) had been smoking 50) had been trying 51) have been
watching 52) had been dancing 53) will have been dealing 54) had been trying 55)
has been sounding 56) will have been repairing 57) had been digging 58) will have
been driving 59) have been living 60) will have been lying 61) had been working
62) will have been cleaning 63) had been trying 64) have been smoking 65) have
been trying 66) had been making 67) had been raining 68) will have been working
69) has been ringing 70) have been looking 71) has been flying 72) will have been
waiting 73) will have been celebrating 74) has been studying 75) have been driving
76) will have been living 77) had been cheating 78) had been waiting 79) will have
been resting 80) had been living
81) The teacher has been delivering this lecture for half an hour already since he
came into the hall.
82) She had been trying to translate this article for 3 hours already when Catherin
came and helped her.
83) When I woke up, I looked at the watch: I had been sleeping for 3 hours.
84) By our arriving home Mary will have been waiting for us for nearly 2 hours
85) John had been repairing the car for an hour already when Mary asked him for
86) By September I will have been preparing for passing the exams for some months
87) They have been taking the exams for some days already, but haven't passed a
single yet.
88) We had been watching TV for some hours already when it stopped raining.
89) When I returned home, Mother said that the children had been sleeping since 9
90) She had been wandering in the forest for about an hour when she understood
that she had lost her way.
91) My friend will have been learning German for a year the day after tomorrow.
92) By the time I have cooked dinner, my friends will have been having rest for
some hours.
93) He had been learning French for 6 years when he entered the college.
94) The students have been doing these exercises for an hour already.
95) Brian had been waiting for about 5 minutes when Kate came.
96) She had been sleeping for an hour or for an hour and a half when her brother
97) By 5 p.m. Steve will have been repairing his car for 3 hours.
98) In half a month John will have been studying biology for a year.
99) How long have you been studying at this Institute? – Since I moved to this town.
100) I wonder, how long have my friends been living in St.Petersburg.
Progress Test
1. 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) C 5) B 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) A 10) A 11) C 12) D 13) B 14)
B 15) A 16) B 17) A 18) C 19) C 20) A 21) A 22) C 23) C 24) A 25) A 26) D
27) A 28) C 29) A 30) B 31) A 32) B 33) A 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) B 38) A
39) A 40) A
2. 41) had been serving 42) has been searching 43) will have been learning 44) has
been practising 45) had been collecting 46) has been working 47) Has he been
arguing 48) had been looking 49) will have been waiting 50) has been raining 51)
has been looking 52) will have been continuing 53) had been living 54) have been
waiting 55) will have been looking 56) has been sleeping 57) had been looking 58)
had been using 59) have been watching 60) had been waiting 61) will have been
looking 62) has been painting 63) had been reading 64) will have been working 65)
have been growing 66) had been living 67) had been painting 68) had been flipping
69) had been mending 70) will have been ringing 71) will have been waiting 72)
will have been trying 73) will have been trying 74) has been looking 75) will have
been sitting 76) have been waiting 77) has been working 78) will have been having
79) will have been having 80) have been doing
81) He has been working at the book for 3 hours already. He has never worked so
hard. .
82) By the time I finish the translation, my friends will have been waiting for me for
about an hour already.
83) They had been speaking for about 2 hours, then he said suddenly that he wanted
to see somebody of his friends, and went away.
84) I have been trying to find you all the morning. What have you been doing?
85) Tomorrow I will have been preparing for my test for a month.
86) At last you have come. We have just been talking about you.
87) By the time I come tomorrow, the meeting will have been lasting for about an
hour already.
88) Their firm had been working at a new project for some months when their
competitors learnt about it.
89) He has been learning French since he was 3, but he hasn't learnt it so far.
90) By June when his friends come to visit him, my friend will have been taking the
exams for 2 weeks already.
91) He has been preparing for the exam the whole week and he has read very many
books on this subject.
92) In a month he will have been working as a director of the enterprise for a year.
93) John has been collecting stamps since he was 6. He has collected 1000 stamps
94) They had been sitting together for a long time. Jack was the first to break
95) Where have you been? I have been waiting for you at the library since 9 a.m.
96) By the end of the day Ann will have been working at her report for a very long
time already.
97) The telephone had been ringing for some minutes already when he finally woke
98) She has been reading the book for 3 days and she has read 130 pages already.
99) By Monday the police will have been looking for the robbers for some weeks
100) By the director's coming Mr Brown will have been working in his office since
Unit 6
Entry Test
1) С 2) С 3) D 4) A 5) B 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) C 10) A 11) B 12) B 13) D 14) D
15) B 16) C 17) C 18) D 19) A 20) B 21) A 22) A 23) B 24) B 25) B 26) B
27) A 28) D 29) C 30) B 31) D 32) C 33) D 34) A 35) C 36) A 37) C 38) A
39) C 40) A 41) B 42) B 43) B 44) C 45) D 46) B 47) C 48) A 49) B 50) C
51) He will leave 52) He is leaving 53) He will leave 54) He left 55) He will have
left 56) I haven't seen him 57) I haven't seen him 58) I didn't see him 59) I will not
(won't) see him 60) I will not (won't) see him 61) I haven't seen him
62) He made a report 63) He had made a report 64) He has made a report 65) He
made a report 66) This film enjoys popularity 67) This film has been enjoying …
68) This film has been enjoying … 69) The children had got tired 70) The children
have got tired 71) The children got tired 72) The children have got tired 73) We'll
set off 74) We'll have set off 75) We'll set off 76) We'll set off 77) He has gone to
the airport 78) He had gone… 79) He went 80) He had gone
81) is eating 82) are sleeping 83) was fixing supper 84) you have just told me 85)
I'll finish the job 86) she comes 87) I returned home 88) When did you see 89) she
hasn't phoned me 90) He will have been working
91) I wonder, if it is still raining. – Yes, it has been raining since morning.
92) Hardly had we opened the door when the phone rang and John said that he had
already returned.
93) He has been working here since he finished University. – When was it? – 10
years ago.
94) Lately my husband has been very busy. We'll go to the theatre if he is free
tomorrow. I've already bought the tickets.
95) He went home only after he had talked to the director.
96) You have been translating this article for 3 hours already, but haven't finished
yet. Will you have finished by 7 o'clock?
97) Are you writing a letter to your parents? Do you often write them? I'll wait until
you finish.
98) Where were you yesterday evening? – Why are you asking? Did you phone me?
99) Our Granny is coming to see us tomorrow.
100) Have you had dinner? – Not yet. I'll go to a café in half an hour.
1.1. The Present Indefinite – the Present Continuous
Entry Test
1. 1) What does he do? 2) is 3) Does he like... 4) am thinking 5) What is he
doing? 6) is sleeping 7) sleeps 8) think 9) is having 10) is getting 11) don't return
12) goes 13) When is he leaving? 14) is having 15) passes 16) will be 17) Why
are you looking...? 18) do you understand me? 19) are giving 20) invite 21) is
playing 22) seems 23) Why don't you believe? 24) am telling 25) Do you know...
26) Where does he work? 27) is always complaining 28) am 29) washes up 30)
doesn't like 31) are 32) is coming 33) wants 34) go 35) come 36) are sleeping 37)
switch on 38) are you planning 39) When does your train leave? 40) do you travel?
41) The weather is nice today. The sun is chining and birds are singing. Do you like
42) It's always warm here at this time of the year. I come here every autumn.
43) Why aren't you listening to me? What are you thinking about? Do you
understand me?
44) As a rule we meet twice a month on Sundays. It's Sunday today. We are sitting
in the garden and talking.
45) My son doesn't like milk, he prefers tea.
46) How do you usually get to your work? – As a rule, I drive. It takes me half an
47) Why does she look so tired? – She always works much.
48) What are you looking for? – I'm looking for my keys. I always lose them.
49) A good teacher never cries at his pupils.
50) Why are you always crying at your little brother?
1.3. The Present Prefect – the Present Perfect Continuous
Entry Test
1. 1) have been reading 2) haven't finished 3) has been playing 4) has been learning
5) has been 6) have been playing 7) haven't played 8) have you known 9) have
always been 10) has never let me down 11) has been looking 12) hasn't succeeded
13) has worked 14) has lived 15) has been 16) has bought 17) has been dreaming
18) What have you been doing 19) have been repairing 20) haven't repaired 21)
Have you found 22) has gone 23) has waited 24) has been raining 25) have been
reading 26) haven't eaten 27) Have you had 28) has cooked 29) hasn't talked 30)
has been busy 31) has been discussing 32) has come 33) Who has she brought 34)
has been talking 35) has he been working 36) has he been married 37) has travelled
38) has written 39) haven't discussed 40) has been
41) Mother has been talking on the phone for an hour.
42) Mum, have you cooked dinner? – Not yet. – But you have been cooking it for 4
hours already.
43) I haven't seen her today. We haven't met lately, she has been working a lot.
44) Where have you been all this time? I have been looking for you since morning.
Have you brought my book?
45) I've just recollected I haven't sent a telegram to my parents yet.
46) He has been working for this company for 8 years. Since when has he been
working there? – Since he graduated from the University.
47) He has worked for this company for 8 years. He has always been a good
48) I have known her since childhood. We have been friends for more than 30 years.
She has always been a devoted friend.
49) The guests have been sitting at table for more than 3 hours and the children have
already had supper.
50) My friend's mother has worked at school for 50 years and my friends has been
teaching children for 10 years.
2.1. The Past Indefinite – the Past Continuous
Entry Test
1. 1) was sitting 2) understood 3) was looking 4) when were you 5) Did you like
it? 6) was 7) studied 8) had 9) came 10) was fixing 11) was watching 12) left
13) where were you 14) What were you doing? 15) I was getting ready 16) we
were lying 17) lived 18) went 19) Did you enjoy 20) phoned 21) said 22) was
having 23) knocked 24) was 25) spoke 26) didn't know 27) when did you see 28)
were drinking 29) was playing 30) came 31) were watching 32) didn't notice 33)
When did you take 34) Was it raining? 35) was 36) liked 37) Did you go 38)
Where were you? 39) knew 40) said
41) -Why didn't you call me yesterday? What were you doing? – I was writing an
42) You were at the theatre last Sunday, weren't you? – Yes, I was. And I liked the
performance a lot.
43) He started working for this company some years ago.
44) Yesterday after dinner we had an important sitting. From 12 to 2 we were
discussing a new contract.
45) – Where were you after school? – I was at a computer club. – What were you
doing there? – Plying computer games.
46) He graduated from the University in June. A week later he found a good job.
47) I saw her the other day. And when did you see her last (time)?
48) It was midnight when the train arrived at the station. Who met you? – My
brother did.
49) I wonder what you were doing yesterday after supper. I wanted to invite you for
a walk, but you weren't at home.
50) Did you have a good time in Italy?
2.2. The Past Indefinite – the Present Perfect
Entry Test
1. 1) have just returned 2) Did you go 3) did you learn 4) Have you ever been to
5) have been 6) haven't see 7) came 8) Have you had 9) had 10) haven't met 11)
left 12) haven't heard 13) have known 14) have you known 15) has gone 16) saw
17) went 18) Has he ever been 19) have accepted 20) have been 21) liked 22)
stopped 23) has rained 24) has happened 25) has always been 26) has returned 27)
has worked 28) When did you see 29) haven't met 30) has been 31) Have you
found 32) put 33) When did they buy 34) haven't repaired 35) haven't met 36) has
changed 37) changed 38) died 39) learnt 40) When did .... take place
41) Have you ever been abroad? – Yes, I have. – When was it for the first time? – I
was in Poland three years ago.
42) I have already finished the work. I finished it last Monday.
43) I have never met such a beautiful woman before.
44) I have known him since he began to work for our country.
45) Lately he hasn't phoned me. Last time he phoned me several months ago.
46) Has anything happened? – My dog has fallen ill.
47) At last you've come. Where have you been for all this time? Nick has waited for
you for 3 hours. He left half an hour ago.
48) My Granny has been dead for 4 years. He died at the age of 82.
49) He hasn't been to his native town since he entered the University.
50) Since what time have you lived here? – Since we got married.
2.3. The Past Indefinite – the Past Perfect
Entry Test
1. 1) arrived 2) had left 3) didn't see 4) came 5) had gone 6) had worked 7) left 8)
had never been 9) wanted 10) had met 11) didn't remember 12) had gone 13) saw
14) was 15) had invited 16) had worked 17) was 18) had I opened 19) rang 20)
had had 21) got 22) entered 23) said 24) was 25) if she had ever seen him before
26) When did you get 27) wrote 28) had just returned 29) wanted 30) didn't
recognize 31) hadn't met 32) had changed 33) had eaten 34) got 35) said 36) liked
37) used to 38) gave it up 39) hadn't smoked 40) hated
41) I was sure I had never met this man before.
42) Hardly had entered the house when it started to rain.
43) I didn't see her yesterday and she didn't phone me. When I came to the office she
had already gone. Her friend told me she had fallen ill.
44) When he read her last letter he understood he had left her for ever.
45) She said she had never been to Italy and wanted to visit this country.
46) He had a cup of tea, switched on the TV-set and sat down into his armchair.
47) I knew she hadn't come because she didn't want to meet Nick.
48) He was hungry because he hadn't eaten since morning.
49) Did Jane go to the theatre with you yesterday? – No, she didn't. She said she had
already seen the ballet.
50) When he returned home an hour later, his wife had already come home from
3.1. The Future Indefinite (shall/will+Infinitive) – the going to form
Entry Test
1. 1) is leaving 2) will fly 3) will spend 4) will meet 5) are planning 6) will they go
7) are having 8) will go 9) are waiting 10) is coming 11) will stay 12) will fly 13)
will be 14) will she celebrate 15) will go 16) What are the children doing? 17) are
playing 18) will take 19) When will we have supper? 20) is cooking 21) will
phone 22) will decide 23) will spend 24) is coming 25) will ask 26) will refuse
27) are playing 28) will go 29) will be 30) will join 31) when will you send 32) is
always finding faults 33) is she always complaining 34) is having 35) is the girl
crying 36) will sign 37) are you sitting 38) am waiting 39) will let 40) will explain
41) Why are you sitting here in the dark? – The children are sleeping.
42) We are leaving tomorrow. We are planning to spend a week at our friends' in the
43) She'll be 20 in a year. She'll marry Nick and they'll be very happy.
44) What are you going to do tomorrow evening? – Nothing special. I'll very glad if
you come to see us.
45) If the weather is nice tomorrow, I'll take the children to the park. I'm sure they'll
like it.
46) Are you busy? – Yes, I'm translating an article. – Are you translating it for
Nick? You are always translating for him. When will he make his translation
47) Are you crying? – No, I am not. I'm laughing. When you read this book you'll
laugh, too.
48) Will you be present at the meeting tomorrow? – Sure The director will get angry
if I don't come.
49) We are having a meeting tomorrow. We always have meetings on Mondays.
Will you come? – Yes, I will.
50) I'll call you before I leave.
3.3. The Future Perfect Continuous – the Future Perfect
Entry Test
1. 1) will have gone 2) will have fixed 3) will have been waiting 4) will have been
standing 5) will you have chosen 6) will have taken 7) will have left 8) will have
eaten 9) will have been standing 10) will have been waiting 11) will have found
12) will have been trying 13) will have done 14) will have been doing 15) will have
bought 16) will have informed 17) will have been waiting 18) will have repaired
19) will have been repairing 20) will have been working 21) will have been married
22) will have finished 23) will have been sitting 24) will have been dead 25) will
have been away 26) will have discussed 27) will have finished 28) will have been
living 29) will have given 30) will have been thinking 31) will have been learning
32) will have been able 33) will have been trying 34) will have achieved 35) will
have been learning
By the end of the month they will have moved to their new flat.
They will have been living in this house for 40 years by the end of the year.
By the time you return we will have fixed supper.
Are you sure you'll have finished the work by 7?
You will have been translating the article for 4 hours by 7 o'clock.
By next year they'll have been married for 40 years.
By the time the manager comes the secretary will have looked through the
43) I'm afraid they'll have finished the work before we join them.
44) We hope they'll have received our letter by the end of the week.
45) Are you sure you'll have packed the things by 6?
46) By the evening I'll have been trying to find Ann for 6 hours, but her phone
doesn't answer.
47) I'll have read your book by tomorrow.
48) He'll have been repairing his car for half a year by May.
49) Will you have moved by Christmas?
50) I hope you'll have been ready by 6.
Progress Test
1) have been driving 2) has never stopped 3) caught 4) was driving 5) was 6) was
going 7) had telephoned 8) left 9) was waiting 10) saw 11) followed 12) stopped
13) told 14) tried/ was trying 15) had landed 16) was waiting 17) didn't want 18)
said 19) would have 20) have never violated
21) has had 22) started 23) found 24) had disappeared 25) hasn't seen 26) bought
27) hadn't had 28) crashed 29) have continued 30) sat 31) had finished 32) was
wearing 33) had bought 34) spent 35) arrived 36) discovered 37) had broken 38)
had stolen 39) has done 40) hopes
41) put 42) sold 43) was looking 44) bought 45) wanted 46) talked 47) had sold
48) returns 49) will receive 50) built 51) designed 52) took 53) will like
54) want 55) bought 56) put 57) was raining 58) let 59) had sold 60) wouldn't
replace 61) had worn 62) don't want 63) aren't 64) send
65) was raining 66) woke 67) rains 68) planned 69) decided 70) missed 71)
arrived 72) arranged 73) had been waiting 74) got 75) had started 76) went 77)
work/ am working 78) have been sitting 79) haven't done 80) feel 81) have had
82) went 83) rained/was raining 84) will book
85) was 86) failed 87) gave 88) had been shining 89) gave 90) has become 91)
92) has got involved 93) was 94) went 95) studied 96) had 97) had been
representing/ had represented 98) has been writing 99) hasn't finished 100) will
Unit 7
Entry Test
1) C 2) A 3) C 4) C 5) A 6) B 7) D
8) D 9) C 10) C 11) A 12) D 13) A
14) B 15) D 16) A 17) C 18) C 19) A 20) A 21) C 22) A 23) A 24) D 25) B
26) D 27) A 28) D 29) A 30) C 31) C 32) A 33) B 34) B 35) A 36) A 37) C
38) B 39) A 40) C
41) will be discussed 42) was sent; had been found 43)was destroyed 44) has been
recorded 45) have been approved 46) was disqualified 47) will be published 48) was
taught/has been taught 49) has been cooked 50) had been made 51) were forced 52)
was handed 53) will be punished 54) have just been finished 55) were being baked
56) is being fixed 57) were destroyed 58) have been taught 59) was being opened/had
been opened 60) has been published 61) was constructed 62) is being typed 63)
are/were given 64) have just been allowed 65) will be published 66) would be
repaired 67) had been shown 68) has been repainted 69) is greatly impressed 70) was
being moved 71) was not invited 72) will be arrested 73) had been spent 74) had been
involved 75) was being carried 76) is checked 77) will be blown 78) are being
mended 79) have been told 80) was being painted
81) The parcel will have been delivered by your arrival.
82) Don’t make noise! A dictation is being written in this room.
83) I have been advised to visit Moscow.
84) The witness is being questioned now.
85) Ann was invited to spend the month of August in Germany.
86) Don’t leave your bicycle outside. It will be stolen.
87) She was taught music in childhood.
88) The book had already been discussed when we entered the room.
89) Switch on the TV-set. It has just been mended.
90) All (the) exams will have been passed by the end of June and we’ll return home.
91) The airport was closed as it had been snowing heavily the whole week.
92) Wait, please! The last student is being examined now.
93) When I left (went out of) the shop, I discovered that my bicycle had been stolen.
94) The tourists were pleased as their programme had been well-planned.
95) I wonder, what is being built in the centre of the city.
96) This man was arrested because he had tried to rob a bank several times.
97) When was this picture painted?
98) The letters will have been sent before you come.
99) My brother was being interviewed when I came in.
100) The door had been locked, when we returned.
Progress Test
1) is believed 2) is called 3) is said 4) be seen 5) was built 6) was owned 7) were
believed 8) were never seen 9) was bought 10) was converted 11) is visited 12) are
organised 13) were seen 14) was played 15) were seen 16) was frightened 17) were
18) was awarded 19) was invited 20) was held 21) was met 22) had been given/was
given 23) had been organised 24) had been invited 25) was left 26) was told 27) had
been heard of 28) was sent 29) was being held 30) was asked 31) had been made 32)
is ever sent 33) will be organised
2. 34) by 35) by 36) with 37) with 38) by 39) with 40) with 41) by 42) with 43) by
44) Trained dogs are used to find drugs. 45) The drowning boy was rescued by a
lifeguard. 46) Our water heater is being repaired by an electrician. 47) You will be
represented by a defence lawyer. 48) The rooms are cleaned daily. 49) Her suitcases
were searched by Customs officers. 50) The plane passengers’ hostages were being
held by hijackers. 51) The explosion had been caused by a gas leak. 52) A full report
was given to the police by an eyewitness./The police were given a full report by an
eyewitness. 53) The tax on cigarettes has been increased (by the government). 54)
The product will be launched in May. 55) The best fudge is made by the Scots. 56)
He was sent out of the classroom. 57) The work will have been finished by tonight.
58) She was made to clean the room. 59) The dog was slowly being poisoned by the
horrible old man. 60) Which building is going to be knocked down?
61) She had her hair cut. 62) Tony will have his car taken to the garage tomorrow.
63) Jam had her bag stolen last night. 64) Paul had his jaw broken in a boxing match.
65) We are having our new carpet fitted tomorrow. 66) He has had his passport
stolen. 67) They have their house decorated every year. 68) We had our rooms
cleaned this morning. 69) Sally is going to have her wedding dress made next month.
70) I have my salary deposited in my bank account every month. 71) We have our
grass cut. 72) I had my window broken during the storm. 73) He will have his
photograph taken. 74) He had his case carried to the car. 75) They have windows
cleaned once a month.
The tape-recorder is being repaired now. Wait, please.
This picture is always admired.
The article will have been translated by tomorrow morning.
When we returned the door had already been locked.
40 people have been invited to the wedding.
The books will be returned to the library in a few days.
When we first met, I had already been offered a new job at a bank.
You’ll be laughed at if you put on this cap.
We had been shown a movie before he came.
The works of this writer have been translated into many languages and have
been published in many countries.
86) I was told about the incident by a friend of mine.
87) The Art Museum is being repaired now. It will be opened at the end of the
88) Don’t worry! Your children will be taken care of.
89) He has been advised to call upon the police.
90) The cinema had been built by the time we moved to the city.
91) He was fined because he crossed the street when the red light was on.
92) They have just been sent a telegramme.
93) He was offended because he was taken no notice of.
94) When we arrived, the problem/question was still being discussed.
95) The letter was handed to Ann on the day of her departure.
96) I read in the paper a few weeks ago that Mr Ivanov had been made the vicepresident of the company.
97) These TV-sets are made by a Japanese firm.
98) It is said that he is an experienced lawyer.
99) Why has the meeting been cancelled? – It hasn’t been cancelled, it has been
postponed to Thursday.
100) This novel is dedicated to the writer’s sister.
1. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л. Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Грамматика
английского языка (на англ. яз.). – Ленинград: Просвещение, 1973.
2. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л. Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Сборник
упражнений по грамматике английского языка. – Ленинград:
Просвещение, 1973.
3. Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. – Longman, 1997.
4. Azar, Betty Schramper. Fundamentals of English Grammar. – New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1985.
5. Berry, R. Collins Cobuild English Guides Articles. – Harper Collins
Publisher, 1993.
6. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Exploring Grammar in Context.
– Cambridge University Press, 2000.
7. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Grammar Reference and
Practice. – Cambridge University Press, 2000.
8. Carton-Sprenger, J., Greenhall, S. Flying Colours. – Heineman, 1992.
9. Craig, Ruth Parle. 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar. – New York:
Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1986.
10.Collins Cobuild Student's Grammar. Practice Material by Dave Willis.
Self-study edition with answer keys: – The University of Birmingham,
11.Collins Cobuild English Grammar. – Birmingham: Harper Collins
Publishers, 1994.
12.Evans, V. FCE use of English. – Express Publishing, 2000.
13.Super Review: English Language. – New Jersey: Research and Education
Association, 2000.
14.Murphy, Raymond. Essential Grammar In Use. A self-study reference
and practice book for elementary students of English. – Cambridge
University Press, 1997.
15.Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. A self-study reference and
practice book for intermediate students – Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press – Moscow: English Language Open Doors, Cultural and
Business Centre, 1988.
16.Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and
practice book for intermediate students. – Cambridge University Press,
17.Thomson, A.S., Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford
University Press, 1986.
18.Thomson, A.S. and Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar.
Exercises. – Oxford University Press, 1990.
19.Vince, M. Intermediate Language Practice. – McMillan Heinemann,
20.Vince, M. Advanced Language Practice. –Heinemann, 1994.
21.Fowler, H.W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. – Greenwich
House, 1983.
22.Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – Longman Group
Limited, 1978.
23.Longman Language Activation. – Longman Group UK Limited, 1995.
24.Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Second Edition. International
Student's Edition. – Oxford University Press, 1996.
Chapter 7. VERBS
Unit 1. General Information ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…..…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 1. Meaning and creation of verbs .....…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. Kinds and forms of verbs ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 3. The category of tense: general information ...…...…...…...….
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....…...….
§ 1. The Present Indefinite ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…......
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. The Past Indefinite ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 3. The Future Indefinite ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Review exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…......
Progress Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Unit 3. Perfect Tenses ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…....
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…....…..
§ 1. The Present Perfect ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…....…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. The Past Perfect ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 3 The Future Perfect ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Review exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…......
Progress Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Unit 4. Continuous Tenses ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
§ 1. The Present Continuous ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. The Past Continuous ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 3. The Future Continuous ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…....…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Review exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Progress Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses ..…...…...…...…...…...….....
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
§ 1. The Present Perfect Continuous ...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. The Past Perfect Continuous ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
§ 3. The Future Perfect Continuous ...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Review exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Progress Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison ...…...…...…...…...….....
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
§ 1. Ways of expressing the present ...…...…...…...…...…...…......
1.1. The Present Indefinite – the Present Continuous ...…...…
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
1.2. The Present Indefinite – the Present Perfect ...…...…...…
1.3. The Present Perfect – the Present Perfect Continuous .....
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. Ways of expressing the past ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...
2.1. The Past Indefinite – the Past Continuous ...…...…...…..
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
2.2. The Past Indefinite – the Present Perfect ...…...…...….....
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
2.3. The Past Indefinite – the Past Perfect ...…...…...…...….
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 3. Ways of expressing the future ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
3.1. The Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive) – the going
to form ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
3.2. The Future Continuous – the Present Continuous ...….....
3.3. The Future Perfect Continuous – the Future Perfect ...….
Entry Test...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Review Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Progress Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Unit 7. Voice. English Tenses in the Passive Voice ...…...…......
Entry Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…..
§ 1. General information ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 2. Indefinite tenses in the Passive Voice ...…...…...…...…...…..
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 3. Continuous tenses in the Passive Voice ...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 4. Perfect tenses in the Passive Voice ...…...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 5. Special Passive constructions. Verbs with two Passive
constructions ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 6. Personal and Impersonal constructions ...…...…...…...…...…
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 7. Passive Voice/ Causative form ...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 8. Phrasal, prepositional verbs and phraseological units in
Passive structures ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…......
Exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
§ 9. Extracts for translation from Russian into English ...…...……
§ 10. Tense and Voice in Written Texts ...…...…...…...…...….....
Review exercises ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Progress Test ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Keys ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....
Bibliography ...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...…...….....