BO 6 MANAGEMENT SKILLS 1 LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION Leadership Definition: The ability to influence people to achieve a common goal. It involves: planning, organisation and control (management activities) Styles of leadership 1. Autocratic Features: no trust uses fear does not consult no delegation control freak Advantages fast needed for certain jobs (army) needed where there is a wide span of control good control Disadvantages valuable opinions ignored overloaded manager poor motivation little staff development high turnover 2. Democratic Features seeks views delegates trusts encourages persuades Advantages good ideas = better decisions not overloaded well motivated staff staff developed low turnover Disadvantages slow decisions doesn’t suit low skilled jobs or army or wide span of control 3. Laissez-faire or Spectator or Free Rein Features staff decide (empowerment) little interference almost total delegation teamwork supervision rotation Advantages: high motivation managers free to do other things good ideas staff developed very low turnover Disadvantages staff must be highly trained a lot of experienced staff needed Loose control Motivation Definition: the skill of getting people to work, to the best of their ability, towards achieving the goals of the business. Importance Greater quantity Greater quality Positive atmosphere Enhanced reputation Greater innovation and creativity Maslow’s Theory of Motivation Hierarchy of needs. When one level of need is satisfied, then the next level above it becomes the dominant-motivating factor in a person's behaviour. Physiologcal needs. Safety needs (security) Social acceptance needs. (friendship, company) Esteem needs (status, respect) Self- actualisation. (realising our potential) Higher needs V lower needs. Everything we do is motivated by needs. There is a hierarchy of needs and as each need is satisfied, another becomes important: Maslow’s theory important because; recognises that money is not the only motivation teaches managers other ways of unlocking potential workers are motivated by higher order needs McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory X managers (autocratic) appeal to lower order needs and believe: workers lazy and need a ‘controller-manager’ workers not ambitious and avoid responsibility workers need threats and incentives workers dislike change workers need to be told what to do all the time McGregor believe staff resent this approach, become unco-operative, and do as little work as they can. This reinforces the manager’s view. Theory Y managers (democratic or laissez-faire) believe; workers enjoy working, if it is interesting workers can be encouraged to change workers can be involved in decision making (facilitator-manager) workers can be trusted workers can be motivated by higher order needs This should lead to better motivation, intrepreneurship, and low turnover of staff and improved industrial relations.