CH 12 Review

Review Chapter 12
Define (Matching)
Taxonomy: branch of biology that names
and groups organisms according to their
characteristics and evolutionary history
Phylogeny: evolutionary history of the
Systematics: organizes the diversity of
living things in the context of evolution and
uses several lines of evidence to construct a
phylogenetic tree
Morphology: study of the internal and
external structures of organisms
Cladistics: uses shared derived characters to
establish evolutionary relationships
Cladogram: ancestry diagrams made by
means of cladistic analysis
Dichotomous key: series of paired
statements that describe physical
characteristics of different organisms
Use binomial nomenclature
Linnaeus’s system used two kingdoms:
plant and animal
First name: genus
Second name: species
Example: Homo sapiens : Homo is genus
and sapiens is species
Name the levels of classification (S.A.)
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order,
family, genus, species
Name the six kingdoms and a
characteristic of each. (S.A.)
Archaebacteria: unicellular, lives in harsh
environments, prokaryote
Eubacteria: unicellular, lives all around us,
Protista: most are single celled, some
multicellular, very different from each other,
Fungi: heterotrophic unicellular and
multicellular eukaryotes that absorb
nutrients from dead organic matter
Plants: multicellular and use
photosynthesis, eukaryote
Animals: multicellular heterotrophs, that
moves around in their environment,
Name the domains (S.A.) and the
kingdoms(Domain is the short name)
 Archaea: Archaebacteria kingdom
 Bacteria: Eubacteria kingdom
 Eukarya: Protista, fungi, plants, and
Short Answer
A classification system is important in order
to name organisms and to see how
organisms are related and evolved.
Common names are confusing.
Domains were added to show the three
evolutionary lines which were discovered by
RNA analysis.