Connectors (Conjunctions)

‫המכללה האקדמית אשקלון‬
‫‪English for Academic Purposes‬‬
‫לשימוש פנימי ולצורכי לימוד בלבד‬
Parts of Speech
Word Formation
Guessing Word Meaning by Using Context Clues
Phrasal Verbs
Vocabulary Word lists by Category
What Are Connectors?
Connectors by Category
Connectors Practice
Looking for Information
Reading Faster
Techniques of Skimming and Scanning
Simple & Compound sentences
Noun Modifiers
Complex Sentences
Adjective Clauses
Main Ideas
Patterns of Organization
Boys' Misbehavior May be Misunderstood
Redistributing Resources in Education
Surprising Search Patterns
Profiting from Pupils
The Secret Power of Pets
Gestures Offer Insight
A New Menu to Heal the Heart
Understanding Children from Other Cultures
The Wal-Mart Way Becomes Topic A in Business Schools
Saying “The End” Doesn’t Mean It’s All Over
Revenge and Those Who Seek It
Preventing Movie Piracy
Peer Attitudes towards Adolescent Participants…
Africa: Money doesn’t Seem to Help
Online Media Exposes Ecology Stories
In Pursuit of Thinness
US: Baby-boomers Cause Start-up Explosion
Brewing up Health Benefits for Coffee
A Social Conscience
The Crisis of Women's Homelessness in Canada
Coming to Attention
The Effects of Divorce on Children
Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits
Language Skills Appearing in Reading Passage Exercises
Language Skill
Boys' Misbehaviour
Surprising Search Patterns
The Secret Power of Pets
Understanding Children
Surprising Search Patterns
Preventing Movie Piracy
In Pursuit of Thinness
Parts of Speech/
The Secret Power of Pets
Gestures Offer Insight
Understanding Children
Peer Attitudes towards Adolescent Participants
Baby Boomers
Little/A little
Adding "s"
The Secret Power of Pets
Gestures Offer Insight
Passive Voice
A New Menu to Heal the Heart
Saying "The End"
Peer Attitudes towards Adolescent Participants
Sentence Structure
Peer Attitudes towards Adolescent Participants
Statistics & "scientific /
medical" terminology
Brewing up the Health Benefits of Coffee
Adjective Clauses
Revenge and Those Who Seek It
(June 2009)
The PASS GRADE for the course and ALL exams is 60
The INTERNAL MARK will include no fewer than 4 (FOUR) exams:
3 or 4 regular exams and one sample final
TOTAL: 4 or 5 TESTS, all internal
The student may only take an extra exam if s/he missed an earlier one.
Homework should be set each week. The teacher may determine the type and amount of classwork
to be counted in the homework grade.
- 10%
(A class exercise, where the teacher may draw the students’ attention to significant points in the
text; the questions are to be completed under test conditions):
2 guided readings should be given each semester. YOU MAY DROP A GRADE IF THE
STUDENT HAS 4 grades - annual courses (3 – semester courses)
The final mark consists of the internal grade (60%) and the final test (40%).
A minimum grade of 50 is required on the final test before calculations of the final mark can be
The passing grade in all English courses at Ashkelon Academic College is 60.
‫הסבר חלוקת ציון בקורסי אנגלית‬
‫ציון הקורס מרוכב מציון כיתה – ‪ 60%‬וציון מבחן סופי – ‪.40%‬‬
‫ציון כיתה‪ :‬ציון זה אינו "מגן"‪ ,‬אלא משקף את רמת הידע של הסטודנט ומוכנותו להמשיך‬
‫לרמה הבאה‪.‬‬
‫להלן הרכב ציון כיתה‪:‬‬
‫מבחנים פנימיים במהלך הקורס מהווים ‪ 80%‬מסך ציון הכיתה‪.‬‬
‫על הסטודנט להשלים את כל המבחנים הפנימיים טרם סיום הקורס‪.‬‬
‫כל המבחנים (‪ 5‬או ‪ 6‬מבחנים‪ ,‬בהתאם לדרישות הרמה) כלולים בחישוב הציון הסופי‪.‬‬
‫אין מבחן "שיפור ציון" פרט לרמת "מתקדמים"‬
‫שיעורי בית‪ ,‬השתתפות בשיעורים‪:‬‬
‫תרגילים בכיתה ובחנים‪:‬‬
‫חובות הסטודנט‬‫צייון עובר‪ 60 :‬לכל המבחנים‪ ,‬ולקורס בכלל‪.‬‬
‫חובת נוכחות בכל השיעורים‪ .‬אסור להעדר מיותר מ‪ 4-‬שעות שבועיות בסמסטר בקורס שנתי ומ‪ 8-‬שעות שבועיות (שני‬
‫מפגשים) בקורס סמסטריאלי‪ .‬סטודנט שנעדר פעמים רבות לא יקבל ציון כיתה (שערכו ‪ 60%‬מהציון הסופי) או שלא יוכל‬
‫להמשיך את קורס האנגלית באותו סמסטר‪/‬שנה‪.‬‬
‫כללי יסוד‬
‫איחורים לשיעור מכל סיבה שהיא לא מקובלים‪ .‬סטודנט לא יוכל להכנס לכיתה אחרי ‪ 10‬הדקות הראשונות של השיעור‪ .‬לכן‪,‬‬
‫ייחשב הדבר כהעדרות‪.‬‬
‫דפוסי התנהגות לא מקובלים‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬יציאה מוקדמת מהשיעורים‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬דיבור בפלאפון בזמן השיעור‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬אכילה ושתייה בשיעור‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬אין אפשרות להחליף קורס חוץ מאשר בתקופת השינויים‪ .‬סטודנט חייב להשאר באותו קורס אליו הוא נרשם‪ .‬לכן‪ ,‬כל‬
‫שעות הקורס צריכות להתאים לסטודנט‪.‬‬
‫שיעורי בית‬
‫שיעורי בית יינתנו באופן קבוע‪ .‬יש להשלים את שיעורי הבית עד לשיעור הבא‪ .‬אם הסטודנט נעדר משיעור מכל סיבה שהיא‪,‬‬
‫עליו ליצור קשר עם סטודנט אחר מהקבוצה ולהתעדכן לגבי שיעורי הבית‪ .‬סטודנט כזה יראה למרצה את שיעורי הבית מיד‬
‫בשובו לכיתה‪.‬‬
‫אם הסטודנט יודע שלא יוכל להבחן בבחינה שנקבעה במערכת‪ ,‬עליו להודיע למרצה מראש‪ ,‬כך שיינקטו הצעדים המתאימים‪.‬‬
‫אם הסטודנט לא נכח במבחן‪ ,‬מחובתו להסביר את העדרותו למרצה‪.‬‬
‫סטודנטים עם צרכים מיוחדים‬
‫כל הסטודנטים עם צרכים מיוחדים (תוספת זמן‪ ,‬השמעת השאלון על גבי קלטת‪ ,‬עולים חדשים עד ‪ 5‬שנים בארץ‪ ,‬בני ‪)+40‬‬
‫חייבים להמציא את המסמכים המתאימים מבר אילן במהלך השבועיים הראשונים של הקורס‪.‬‬
‫על הסטודנט לרכוש את הגרסה החדשה של הספר‪ .‬אסור להשתמש בספרים ישנים‪.‬‬
‫חל איסור מוחלט על שימוש בכל סוגי מילוני "עט" (בסיגנון ‪ ) QUICKTIONARY‬גם בכיתה וגם במבחנים‬
Parts of Speech
What is a Noun?
A noun is a word that names a person, animal, place, thing, idea, or concept.
What is a Verb?
A verb is a word that shows action or being. Whatever you are doing can be expressed by a
A sentence can have only one word as long as that word is a verb. Play! Stop! Run!
What is an Adjective?
An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun or a pronoun.
An adjective describes or modifies a noun and usually appears before that noun.
Adjectives usually answer three questions about the nouns they describe:
1. What kind of?
I found a red rose in the cave. --
2. How many?
Three tickets, please. --
3. Which one(s)?
I would eat these muffins. --
What is an adverb?
An adverb is a part of speech that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, another
adverb, clause, or sentence.
Adverbs answer the questions "How?", "When?", "Where?", "Why?", "In what way?", "How
much?", "How often?", "Under what condition", "To what degree?"
The easiest adverbs to recognize are those that end in -ly. Some adjectives end with -ly
also but remember that adjectives can modify only nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify
everyting else.
An adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence.
In order to guess at the meaning of an unfamiliar word or to look it up in a dictionary, it is
necessary to know whether it is a noun, verb, adjective or adverb. This is an exercise that
can help you.
A] Identify the nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences. (Be ready
to explain what clues helped you):
The piggle poggled a ponch pouchily.
The very seebled siclemere was sickling its stam.
Never mankle a moumish with your moup.
A denble berdement tobbled its worned penter.
Hunking hominously, the normet honkled a few hamps.
B] Rewrite the following nonsense sentences using meaningful words. First, identify the
nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs:
Don’t crunge that quoop!
May I plong another redlin into the murking rodget?
I broke my bloggers on a flooten klip.
The little widget narked our spong.
Her musky plips have plinten on the blip.
____________ dibbledumps griggled mibly galong the cloop.
Some ______________
_____________ dedlyitches digged and badled grupp the
You can interpret the following headlines in two different ways. What makes the difference
in each pair of sentences?
Student Protests Increase
Record 16,000 for March
New York Presses Return to Work
Students Attack Ankara Daily
Karl Marx Remains in Highgate
The following underlined phrases have been translated into Hebrew. Find a translation error
in each of them and correct the translation.
1. Men’s employment rate is increasing every year.
‫עבודת הגברים מעריכות‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
2. Medicine was traditionally a male preserve.
‫באופן מסורתי זכר משמרים‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
3. Average wage rates for women are lower than for men.
‫קצבי השכר הממוצע‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
4. Productivity of labor and capital is reported every year.
‫יצרנות של עבודה ועיר הבירה‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
5. More women than men train as doctors and lawyers.
‫יותר נשים מגברים מאלפים כרופאים ועורכי דין‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
6. Poor investment returns made him lose all his money.
‫השקעה גרועה חוזרת‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
7. Women have paid jobs outside the home.
‫נשים שילמו עבור עבודות‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
8. This company is offering parental leave.
‫מציעים להורים לעזוב‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
9. This plan is a sounder base for long-term growth.
‫בסיס יותר קולי לגדילה ארוכת טווח‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
10. Populations age very quickly.
‫גיל האוכלוסיות‬
Correct translation: _________________________________________________
en, em
in (im,il,ir)
Usual meaning
both, two, double
together with
negative, from
cause to be
out of, from
beyond, outside
among, between
bad, wrong
very small
wrong, in the wrong way
above, beyond, too much
again, back
above, more than
across, over
beyond, very
antibiotics, antiwar
enable, empower
overhead, overtired
renew, reread
submarine, subtitle
Here are two lists of prefixes expressing numbers. One list comes from Latin and the other
from Greek. Which words do you know with these prefixes?
One uni_mono
Four_quart _tetra
Can you understand the underlined words in the following sentences?
Try and answer the questions!
1. How many wheels does a monocycle have?
2. Why is a uniform called a uniform?
3. Have you ever heard a string quartet play?
4. What are the sports in a triathlon competition?
5. How many decades has Israel existed?
6. When will the next millennium be?
7. Which U.S. government offices are located in the Pentagon?
8. How old is a nonegarian?
9. Why is an octopus called an octopus?
10. How many languages can a bilingual person speak?
11. What is the name for a person who can speak three languages?
12. In 2009, which country beat Israel in the semi-final of the Davis Cup tennis
Sometimes the stem of the word also contains meaning:
ped (pod)
spire (spir)
Usual meaning
chief, rule
order, world
great, big
disease, suffering
see, look
podiatrist, pedicure
inscription, scribe
vivid, “Viva!”
able (ble, ible)
er, or
ic, ical
ious, ous, uous
ism, ist
Usual meaning
capacity for, ability to
capable of being
possessing the quality of
state, condition of
quality of
to make
condition or act of
action or state
state or condition
recipient of an action
to make
person or thing who / that
language of
characterized by, having the
quality of
to make
state, condition
quality or condition of
like, with the quality of
like, full of, having the quality of
like, somewhat
action, state
person who
disease of, condition resulting from
to make
act or state of
without, lacking
like, In the manner of
quality, state, condition
science, study of
state, condition,
like, full of
feeling of
resistant to
quality, state of
state, condition
in the direction of
in the direction or manner of
having the quality of, some what
learnable, edible
religious, various
Prefixes and Suffixes: Exercise
Guess the meaning of the word in bold, according to your knowledge of prefixes and
1. He was sitting uncomfortably in his seat on the train. _______________
2. There was a greenish light coming from the window. _______________
3. He's lost his book again. I don't know where he has misplaced it this time.
4. You shouldn't have done that! It was very thoughtless of you.
5. He didn't pass his exam. He was unsuccessful for the second time.
6. The team that he supported were able to win the championship.
7. There is a very high likelihood that they will be late. _______________
8. I couldn't find any weakness in his theory. _______________
9. He wants to be a mathematician when he grows up. _______________
10. You need to be a highly trained economist to understand this report.
11. The road was too narrow, so they had to widen it. _______________
12. He was accused of falsifying the documents. _______________
13. They had to tranquillize the lion before they could catch it. _______________
14. He needed to regulate the temperature. _______________
15. I think that you should reconsider. It may not be the best thing to do.
16. You need a combination of motivation, organization and revision to learn
English. _______________
17. It is very uneconomical to run air-conditioning with the door open.
18. His arrival has been expected for the last half an hour. _______________
19. She looked at her reflection in the mirror. _______________
20. He decided to study journalism at university. _______________
21. The film was surprisingly good. _______________
22. There was the need for postwar construction when the fighting stopped.
23. The new manager was very efficient and businesslike. _______________
24. The party was disastrous, everything went wrong. _______________
25. I told the waitress,”I think that there has been a misunderstanding, I didn't order
this.” _______________
Guessing Word Meaning by Using Context Clues
One of the most useful strategies for dealing with unknown words is to determine whether
the meaning of the unknown word is important for understanding the text.
So how do you know if a word is important or not? Here are a few guidelines to help you
If you cannot understand the main idea without understanding a word, then it
is important.
If the word is in the title or one of the subtitles, it is probably important.
If the word is the subject or main verb of a sentence, it may be important.
If the word is repeated several times, it may be important.
In these cases there are three vocabulary strategies that can be helpful:
A. using the context surrounding the word to guess its general meaning (context
B. analyzing the parts of the word to guess its probable meaning (structural
C. using a dictionary to look up its exact meaning.
A. Context Clues
Guessing the meaning of a word from the other words around it, the context, is perhaps
the most useful vocabulary skill that readers can have. The ability to use the context clues
to guess, or infer, what that word means in a general sense will serve you well in almost
every reading situation. Using these clues to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words
will help you in the following ways:
It saves time because you don't have to look the word up in the dictionary.
It gives you a good sense of how a word is actually used.
When you meet an unknown word, do not stop your reading to look up the word in the
dictionary just yet. You can use different types of context clues as follows: definition,
restatement, examples, contrast, cause and effect relationships, modifier and
1. Definition:
The easiest way to guess the meaning of an unknown word is by looking at “definition”,
which is given in the sentence by a signal that comes right after or before it.
These signals include:
o verb “to be” (is, am, are….)
o means / mean…..
o that is …..
o to be called / is,
o are called …..
o refer to ……
o to be said to (is/ are said to …..)
o punctuation marks; comma ( , ) , dash ( - ) .
For example: The time of the year when days and nights are the same length all over the
earth is called the equinox. (The equinox = The time of the year when days and nights are
the same length all over the earth.)
2. Restatement:
In sentences, there are usually phrases or clauses that repeat the idea of the unknown
word. In other words, the phrase says the same thing as the unknown word.
The unknown word may follow these signal words.
o or
o that is ( to say)
o in other words
o punctuation marks such as , ( ) - - .e.g. :
For example: All students showed apathy – a lack of interest – in doing exercises on such
a hot day. (Apathy = a lack of interest…)
3. Examples:
In some sentences, we can guess the meaning of the unknown word by the example given
in the sentence.
The signal words that show that the sentence is giving an example are:
o Such as
o For instance
o For example
o Like
o Especially
o As
o E.g.
o Including
o Punctuation marks such as - , ; : (
For example: Vehicles such as trucks, buses and cars are not allowed in the park.
4. Contrast:
In some sentences, we find two words with opposite meanings. If we know the meaning of
one word, we will be able to guess the meaning of the other word.
The signals commonly used in the sentences are:
On the other hand
Even though
In spite of
In contrast
On the contrary.
For example: Melvin was usually on time; yet this morning he was tardy.
5. Cause and Effect (Result) relationship:
Cause and Effect are the relationship between sentences and clauses, which are “cause”
and “effect” to each other.
The following are signals of the cause and effect relation:
o because / because of
o so, so that
o due to
o therefore
o as a result
o consequently
o since.
For example: Linda got drenched during the rainstorm because she left her umbrella at her
6. Modifier:
Looking at the modifier in the sentences is another way to guess the meaning of the unknown
words. Modifier gives a clearer understanding of the unknown word in a sentence by using
additional or extra meanings.
Usually the modifiers are adjective clauses beginning with – who, which, where, what, and
that. For example: Mr. Smith was a racist, who believed his race was better than the others.
(A racist is …a person who believed his race was better than the others ……)
7. Explanation:
Some signals can give the explanation of the unknown words:
o e.g.
o In other words
o This is because
o The reason for this is that
o It means that
o The cause of this is that
o One of the reasons is
o This can explain that
For example: The police suspected him, but he had an alibi. He was visiting his friends in
France when the robbery was committed in Bangkok.
B. Structural Clues
1. We use Structural Clues to determine the type or grammatical category of the new word.
This tells us the kind of meaning to infer or look for. For example, if you are told that kneaf is
a verb, then the sequence, “the sploony urdle kneafed” will begin to make structural sense.
You know that urdle must be a noun, since a gap between “the” and a verb must be filled by
a noun. You will figure out that sploony is probably an adjective because it is positioned
before the noun.
Follow these steps:
Look at the unknown word and decide its part of speech. Is it a noun, a verb, an adjective, or
an adverb? Look at the clause or sentence containing the unknown word. If the unknown
word is a noun, what does this noun do, or what is done to it? And what adjectives describe
it? What verb is it near? If it is a verb, what noun or nouns does it go with? Is it modified by
an adverb? If it is an adjective, what noun does it go with? If it is an adverb, what verb is it
2. We also use structural clues to break the unknown word into its prefix, root, and suffix, if
For example: un-break-able
Using Context Clues
Exercise 1
Are the underlined words in the following sentences important or unimportant? Do
you need to understand these words in order to understand the entire sentence?
Leo ate so much fettuccini that he could not eat another bite. He felt like his stomach would
Is fettuccini important? yes/no
Is explode important? yes/no
Exercise 2
Use the context to determine the correct meaning of the underlined words:
1. We have rather lofty expectations for you, son. You will attend college. You will become
rich and famous. You will be elected president of the United States before you turn forty.
a. high
b. shaky
c. small
d. lowly
2. We walked slowly down the trail with great trepidation. No one who had gone this way
had ever been heard from again. Had they simply found a better place to settle on this dark
planet? We doubted that.
Which word is a synonym of “trepidation”?
a. movement
b. worry
c. enjoyment
d. laughter
3. The signal from the cable is too strong for our television. We’ll have to use a filter to
attenuate it. When you attenuate something, you ______.
a. watch it carefully
b. take good care of it
c. make it be less d. get past it
4. “If you knew the gravity of the situation, you wouldn’t be laughing,” Mr. Farmer said quietly.
He didn’t have to say more to get everyone’s attention. What does “gravity” mean in this
a. a force that draws different objects toward each other
b. seriousness
c. humor
d. enjoyable, or comfortable
5. Her cardinal rule is this: Be kind to others! She believes that everything else in life will fall
properly into place if one follows that rule. What is “cardinal” here?
a. main, or most important
b. red
c. like a bird
d. not worth remembering
6. The owner of the restaurant wouldn’t allow Samantha to walk through the door. “I’m
sorry,” she said, “but you started a food fight the last time you were here. You may not have
ingress to my restaurant!” What does “ingress” mean in this selection?
a. a kind of bird that lives by the sea
b. any food that can be thrown
c. a good price for a meal
d. the right to enter
7. I looked at the plans for your new house. This is earthquake country. You need to fortify
the frame or you’ll have a disaster with the first tremor.
a. shake
b. build
c. strengthen
d. destroy
8. Helen’s attitude toward dealing with criminals has changed over the years. She used to
believe that everyone can change and deserves a second chance. She now believes that
some crimes are so heinous that those responsible should be shown no mercy.
a. guilty
b. terrible
c. accidental
d. unimportant
9. There may be some parts of my plan to arrest the thieves that should be changed. But I
feel very strongly that renting the apartment over their headquarters is the linchpin of the
scheme. We must do that immediately!
a. part that everything else depends on
b. piece of metal used to connect things
c. place where people live
d. a computer designed for police work
10. Amy was feeling low. Every business she tried lost money or made only pennies a day.
Her newest idea was selling chocolate-covered baby shoes. She was convinced that it would
be a lucrative business. Her friends tried to warn her that it was not a certain road to riches.
a. tasting great with vanilla ice cream
b. helping young feet to grow correctly
c. showing no careful thought
d. bringing in a lot of money, or profit
11. To carry out his economic programs, Roosevelt had to contend with a Supreme Court
that was deeply opposed to those programs.
a. travel
b. surrender
c. struggle
d. join
12. Being unable to write clearly is a liability in a business career. In business, one must
often express opinions and ideas in writing.
a. drawback
b. surprise
c. necessity
d. penalty
13. Indigenous life forms—the cactus and the camel in the desert, the polar bear and the
seal in the Arctic, and so on—are suited to their environment in very specific ways.
a. native
b. dangerous
c. extinct
d. recent
14. There is an optimum way to approach each kind of exam question. For a multiplechoice item, for example, first eliminate any clearly wrong answers. For an essay question,
jot down an outline first.
a. inconvenient
b. best
c. annoying
d. time-consuming
15. Studies indicate that a predisposition to schizophrenia is inherited. People who are
schizophrenic are more likely than others to have schizophrenic children.
a. tendency
b. understanding
c. fear
d. avoidance
16. Manic depression is an emotional disorder in which the patient alternates between
feeling delightfully euphoric and being plunged into deep gloom.
a. overjoyed
b. bored
c. exhausted
d. curious
17) The thought of eating a rat is abhorrent to most people.
a. fun, lively
b. horrible, repugnant
c. delicious, tasty
d. sweet, sugary
18) You can trust the salesmen at that store because they always conduct business in an
aboveboard manner. What does aboveboard probably mean?
a. honestly, openly
b. sneaky, dishonest
c. horrible, repugnant
d. strange, unusual
19) Petra has so many friends because she is a gregarious person.
a. introverted, self-contained
b. shy, quiet
c. friendly, outgoing
d. rude, hostile
20. Kathy was looking for a strong but light material to use for making her water jugs.
Unfortunately, she chose noodelite. It proved to be too porous to hold jelly.
a. is good for holding things that you pour
b. protects you in pouring rain
c. allows liquids to flow through it
d. is necessary for making bowling balls
21. The hill was too arduous for us to climb. We had to walk our bicycles up the hill.
a. tall, sharp
b. fun, exciting
c. easy, not challenging
d. difficult, steep
22. Fortunately, the dizzy spell was transient. He was able to continue playing within
seconds and had no trouble winning the match.
a. it sounds like a train
b. it is quite harmful
c. it helps you win
d. it doesn't last long
23. When they heard the good news about the court’s decision, the angry crowd cheered
and then began to disperse. “It looks like everyone is going home,” one reporter stated.
Which would be the opposite of “disperse”?
a. come together
b. smile
c. fly like a bird
d. sing
24. Marsha is really an introvert. When I took her to Jason’s party, she sat in a corner
without speaking to anyone. All she did was eat most of the snacks. The only reason she
hangs out with me is because I never try to force her to be sociable. She would never forgive
me if I introduced her to anyone.
a. friendly
b. hungry
c. unclean
d. shy
25. There is a legal battle raging and the judges are concerned that time is running out.
Lawyers are being asked to expedite the matter by getting their paperwork in early.
a. quicken
b. agree on
c. sue
d. discuss
Exercise 3
A. Each sentence or paragraph contains an underlined word. Use the context to figure
out the meanings of the word.
* I don’t think the runners can sustain their fast pace throughout the entire race. __________
* This course will encompass every fact I know about the art of toe painting. You will be an
expert when you are done. . __________
* Eddie’s face still smarts hours after being hit by the tennis ball. . __________
* The dictator tried to mollify the angry crowd with promises of better living conditions and
more rights. . __________
* Andy and Sandy have many opposite traits. Andy is an amiable character while Sandy isn’t
even slightly friendly. . __________
* True learning requires thinking. Indoctrination requires the absence of thought. Don’t allow
yourself to be indoctrinated. . __________
* Your cantankerous uncle won’t let us play ball in his lot. He says that children are all pests.
B. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
I might be letting my young son watch too much television. I am certainly watching too
many of his programs. They can really be perplexing as they force you to ponder the
mysteries of life. For example, when Franklin (the turtle) wanted a pet, his parents didn’t want
it to be a frog. They felt that frogs belong in a pond. Isn't that where turtles belong? And why
is it that Little Bear’s animal friends can all talk and behave like people, but his friend Emily
has a dog that can only bark and fetch? Tell me that isn’t a mystery!
Dog lovers can be reassured by Kipper and his friends. These dogs are very human.
However, the only time they wear clothes is when they put on bathing suits to go swimming.
I’m confused!
Speaking of dogs, could Pluto ever be Goofy’s pet? I don’t get it! What did the great Mr.
Disney have in mind? And this is gross! The other day we watched a very nice little pig
setting up a picnic. One of the foods was a big ham. Could it have been a soy ham? Is there
such a thing? I hope so! Another thing that bothers me: What if Elmo isn’t real? He can’t be a
mere puppet! He’s got a better attitude than most people. I just keep wondering.
I think we’ll turn off the TV and go out for a walk. Maybe we’ll run into that mouse who
dresses well but certainly doesn’t speak as clearly as the average bear.
1. Which word is a synonym of “perplexing”?
a. boring
b. confusing
c. humorous
d. itchy
2. Which word is a synonym of “ponder”?
a. avoid
b. remember
c. consider
d. distant
3. The author thinks it’s “gross” when __________.
a. a pig has a picnic because pigs are dirty animals
b. a pig eats soy beans because soy beans give pigs gas
c. a pig eats ham because ham is too expensive for farm animals
d. a pig eats ham because ham is made from pigs
4. The author probably __________.
a. believes that Elmo is a real live creature
b. wishes that Elmo were a real live creature
c. feels that Elmo is a very annoying creature
d. won’t let his son watch Sesame Street
5. The author is implying that __________.
a. there’s a TV mouse that should speak more clearly
b. TV mice should not wear good clothes
c. bears can really speak more clearly than mice
d. watching television is better than playing outdoors
C. Use the context to help you understand the underlined words
1. Your fifteen-year-old sister’s manners are deplorable. You should have been there when
she ate at our house the other night. She kept reaching across the table for everything
without even excusing herself. She burped a dozen times and looked like she was really
proud of her achievement. And when we had ice cream sundaes for dessert, she ate hers
with her fingers.
What does “deplorable” mean?
a. awful
b. deeply thoughtful
c. cute or pleasing d. enjoying good food
2. Randolph is certainly resilient. He lost a fortune when his business failed but now he’s
wealthy again. After spending a month in the intensive care unit of the hospital, he’s as
healthy and strong as ever. And after all those rumors ruined his reputation, he’s managed to
once again be a highly respected member of the community.
What does “resilient” mean?
a. sneaky
b. having a lot of money
c. free of sickness
d. able to bounce back or recover
Examine the verbs in the following sentences:
1. The goal of the study was to collect the kind of information that does not usually
turn up in accident reports … (para. 3)
2. In one instance, a young woman, lost in a suburb, pulls into a driveway and begins dialing
a cell phone resting in her lap. (para. 7)
3. … the study found that drivers were overconfident or very poor at predicting when it was
safe to look away from the road to perform another task. (para. 16)
The word combinations marked in bold are called “phrasal verbs”. In a phrasal verb, a verb is
followed by a preposition, which changes its original meanings.
Note the differences in meaning:
turn up
turn out
turn on
turn somebody in
pull ahead
pull back
pull into
pull off
look look after
look away from
turn on
turn off
pull together
look down on somebody/something
look for
Use the dictionary to define the phrasal verbs in the following sentences:
1. The news of her resignation soon got about. ____________________
2. Elderly people cannot keep up with all the changes in computer technology.
3. The thieves made off in a stolen car. _____________________
4. Have you noticed how he is trying to get in with the boss? ______________________
5. I cannot go along with you on that point. _______________________
6. He was done over by a gang after a football match. ______________________
Reading Comprehension:
cause, reason
result, effect
according to
purpose, aim, goal
‫ גורם‬,‫סיבה‬
writer, author
passage, text
global reading
intensive reading
event, happening
‫קטע קריאה‬
‫קריאה גלובלי‬
‫לקרוא ברפרוף‬
‫לקרוא במבט‬
‫קריאה אינטנסיבית‬
‫מילות קשר‬
convict (v)
convict (n)
‫גזר דין‬
‫בית כלא‬
‫בית סוהר‬
‫נטייה לפשע‬
‫ נער‬,‫קטין‬
‫עונש קנס‬
‫הוציא להורג‬
commit a crime
counsel for defense
‫חף מפשע‬
‫לבצע פשע‬
‫עורך דין‬
‫פסק דין‬
‫חבר‬,‫שווה מעמד‬
‫דעה קדומה‬
‫קהל רב‬/‫המון‬
peer pressure
‫שכבה חברתית‬
‫סוציו אקונומי‬
‫לחץ חברתי‬
‫ פחד עמוק‬,‫פוביה‬
‫אנטי חברתי‬
‫אדם מופנם‬
crazy, lunatic
c onf orm
conditioned response
‫רגשות עזים‬
‫לנהוג בהתאם‬
‫לא נורמאלי‬
‫אח או אחות‬
‫בן או בת זוג‬
‫רגשות אשם‬
wants, wishes
control group
variable (dependent)
variable (independent)
double blind
analysis (n)
record (v)
‫קבוצת ביקור‬
‫משתנה תלוי‬
‫משתנה בלתי תלוי‬
‫עיוור כפול‬
‫ אנליזה‬,‫עיבוד‬
‫ להתבונן‬,‫לצפות‬
‫ להקליט‬,‫לרשום‬
‫ להראות‬,‫להצביע על‬
tables, charts
‫ מוכיח‬,‫מראה‬
‫לקבוע כהנחה בסיסית‬
‫ להצביע‬,‫קול‬
‫ראש ממשלה‬
‫להשתלט על‬
left wing
right wing
)‫ מתנקש (פולחני‬,‫רוצח‬
‫פתק הצבעה‬
‫בן ברית‬
prime minister
free enterprise
per capita
income, revenue
‫יוזמה חופשית‬
‫ לנפש‬,‫לגולגולת‬
‫ תעריף‬,‫שער‬
‫ עלות‬,‫מחיר‬
‫שפל כלכלי‬
merchandise, goods
wages, salary
‫ לשווק‬,‫שוק‬
‫ פירעון‬,‫תשלום‬
‫ משכורת‬,‫שכר‬
‫ כמות‬,‫סכום‬
‫ קניין‬,‫נכס‬
‫ אגרה‬,‫שכר טרחה‬
Vocabulary – Useful Verbs
to interpret
to reduce
to increase
to appear
to persist
to improve
to prove
to inform
to perform
to determine
to estimate
to deny
to persuade
to admire
to succeed
to challenge
to consider
to observe
to establish
‫ לבסס‬,‫לייסד‬
to realize
to acquire
to display
to attempt
to be exposed to
to develop
to recognize
to respond
‫ לענות‬,‫להגיב‬
to achieve
What are connectors?
Connectors are linking words or phrases that connect two ideas, facts, events, etc. They join
the ideas but also signal what is coming next, e.g. a contrasting fact or a purpose. These
signals help the listener or reader understand the connection between ideas.
Connectors can also help answer questions, as you will see in the following examples:
Typical questions
1. Question:
What two things are contrasted in paragraph 4?
Unlike money, there is an endless supply of social reinforcers.
“The Principle of Reinforcement”
2. Question:
The article tells us about the basic functions of any society. They are:
Paragraph 2: The essential function of every society- large or small- is to do a better
job than any individual can do of providing the necessities of life…
Paragraph 3: Over and above the function of providing the necessities of life, society
develops a shared set of goals.
Paragraph 4: Finally, every society functions in ways that attempt to guarantee that
the society itself will survive.
“The Functions of Society”
3. Question:
Why do we tend not to change our ideas about masculine and feminine talk:
Because we think that language also should be divided into masculine and feminine,
we have become very skilled at ignoring anything that will not fit our preconception…
“Don’t Talk, Listen!”
4. Question:
In what way is paragraph 20 related to paragraph 19?
a. Paragraph 20 repeats what was said in paragraph 19.
b. Paragraph 20 questions what was said in paragraph 19.
c. Paragraph 20 expands on what was said in paragraph 19.
d. Paragraph 20 contradicts the main idea of paragraph 19.
Text: Paragraph 20
Angela Parker has found that not only do males talk more in class, but that both sexes
believe that ‘intellectual argumentation’ in the classroom is a masculine activity.
“Don’t Talk, Listen!”
on the other
on the contrary,
yet, still
in fact,
(even) though
in spite of
in contrast to
in the
same way
as … so
instead of
Cause and Effect/Result
because (of)
as a result, result in
as a result of
lead to
result from
as a consequence of
thus / hence
owing to
bring about
due to
thanks to
on account of
such as
in addition (to),
as well as
in other words
for example
for instance
in fact,
that is
not only…but also
first, second, third
: -- ( )
1. Contrast
Contrast connectors show that two things are different from each other OR that something in
the text is different from what we expect it to be.
a. Last year's profits amounted to ten million whereas the previous year's profit was eight
b. We have not yet received our order in spite of the fact that we contacted you a month
Contrast connectors:
on the other hand,
on the contrary,
yet, still
in fact,
(even) though
in spite of
in contrast to
instead of
2. Comparison
Comparison connectors show that two things are similar. You should understand which two
things are being compared, and what is similar about them.
a. Just as flowers need rich soil, we need nutritious food.
b. Both amateur and professional musicians need to practice every day.
Comparison connectors:
in the
same way
as … so
3. Cause and effect/result
a. Since he wanted to pass the test, he studied all night long.
b. The company needs to expand its international business. We therefore recommend the
opening up of new markets in Asia.
Cause and Effect/Result Connectors:
because (of)
as a result, result in
as a result of
lead to
result from
as a consequence of
thus / hence
owing to
bring about
due to
thanks to
on account of
4. Addition/Reinforcement
a. The refunds are substantial. In addition, they are easy to claim.
b. She wants to be a high level manager as well as being a loving mother.
Addition/Reinforcement Connectors:
in addition (to),
as well as
in fact,
not only…but also
first, second, third
5. Explanation/Example
a. He is studying ergonomics, namely, the design of equipment to best suit
the worker.
b. Many composers, such as Beethoven and Mozart, created music, which
will be remembered for many generations to come.
Explanation/Example Connectors:
such as
in other words
for example
for instance
that is
: -- ( )
Underline the connector and answer the questions.
1. The interest rate in Israel is 4%, whereas in Canada it is only 2%.
What is being contrasted? ____________________________________
2. Despite difficult trading conditions, the company made a considerable profit.
What was unexpected? _______________________________________
Why? ______________________________________________________
3. On the one hand, reorganization will reduce salary costs but on the other hand, it will
increase administrative costs.
Two different aspects of ________________________ are being contrasted.
4. Even though it was raining, I didn’t get wet.
Did the speaker expect to get wet? __________
5. While my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at home for my vacations.
Who is being contrasted? _______________________________
What is the difference? _______________________________
6. Jerry passed the exam first time; however, I had to retake it three times.
What did the speaker expect? _____________________________________
7. Unlike Americans, who form orderly lines to wait their turn, Israelis tend to rush together,
especially when they have been waiting for a long time!
Who is being contrasted? __________________ and __________________
What is the difference between them? ______________________________
8. The fire spread all through the factory even though sufficient fire precautions had been
What should have happened? ________________________________________
Why? _________________________________________
Underline the connector and answer the questions.
1. Similarly to the cat’s need for freedom and independence, some people are very private
and minimize their communication with others.
Who/what is being compared? _____________________ and __________________
What is similar about them? They both _____________________________________
2. Like their predecessors, the modern-day Pueblo Indians believe that they are one with
the forces of nature.
Who is being compared? _________________________ and ___________________
What is similar about them? They both _____________________________________
3. Both the human beings deprived of socialization and monkeys raised in isolation,
demonstrate retarded emotional, social, physical and intellectual development.
Who is being compared? _________________________ and __________________
What is similar about them? They both ____________________________________
4. People who move to a foreign country may be compared to the newly-wed, since like the
latter, they experience the sense of euphoria which is often remote from the reality.
Who is being compared? _________________________ and ___________________
What is similar about them? They both _____________________________________
5. Human beings are similar to tea bags, whose strength is tried as they get into the hot
What are people compared to? __________________________________________
What does this comparison teach about human nature?
6. In a recent study, men were found to be more aggressive and more competitive than
Women are ______________________ and ______________________ than men.
7. As intelligence, personality seems to stem from a combination of genetics and
What are the things being compared? ________________ and ________________
What is similar about them? They both ____________________________________
8. Just as reflexology alleviates people’s tensions, acupuncture calms down the nervous
system and reduces the stress of everyday life.
Complete the sentence: Both ________________ and ____________________
Are the following words used to compare or to contrast ?
1. likewise _____________
2. although_____________
3. unlike_____________
4. similarly_____________
5. however_____________
6. in contrast _____________
7. on the other hand _____________
Cause and Effect
Exercise 1: Choose the correct answer.
1. The traffic was heavier than usual, __________ we were late for our appointment.
a. owing to
b. because
c. as a consequence of
d. so
2. The company made a loss last year and _______________ did not pay a dividend.
a. since
b. therefore
c. consequently
d. result in
3. _____________ my computer froze, I had to restart it.
a. Due to
a. Because
b. As a result of
c. Owing to
4. I couldn't get my car to start again, _________________ the battery was dead.
a. so
b. due to
c. because
d. as a result of
5. _______________ technology is advancing, the company will have to spend more money
on upgrading its systems.
a. Because of
b. Since
c. As a result of
d. Therefore
6. He had a difficult childhood, _________________his parents’ financial problems.
a. therefore
b. as a result
c. as a consequence of
d. since
7. Temperatures were very high during the trip and ______________ damage in the food
a. this resulted in
b. therefore
c. as a result
d. because
8. She said you'd know where the camera was _______________ you were the one who
put it away.
a. however
c. because
b. although
d. in spite of
Exercise 2:
Read the sentences and answer the Cause and Effect questions that follow:
1. Nature definitely intended that adults should nap in the afternoons because just as we
have a significant drop in body temperature and alertness at night, we also have a similar but
smaller drop in the middle of the day. This is why most of us feel particularly tired between 2
and 4 p.m.(14:00 – 16:00).
Why do most people feel tired between 2 and 4 p.m.?
2. The Piraha people see themselves as different from and better than other people around
them. Everything they do is aimed to prevent them from being like anyone else. This is the
reason why they have survived as Piraha, while other tribes around them have been
absorbed into Brazilian culture.
What happened as a result of Piraha’s distancing themselves from other people and
3. The variety of cell-phone designs has expanded greatly in the past couple of years as the
need for phones with large color screens has grown considerably. This growth is due to
cellphone owners’ increasing use of computer services such as surfing the Internet and
downloading games.
Complete the sentences:
As more and more cellphone owners are using the Internet services,
_________________________________________. As a consequence,
4. Occasional liars, which most of us are, really don’t like to lie, but do so every now and then
to avoid an unpleasant situation or because they don’t want to admit something bad or
List the two reasons occasional liars may tell lies:
5. The face-to-face, in-person apology is a “killer”. Many people do not like it because they
must see the person’s expressions, reveal theirs, and probably receive a verbal reply.
Why do people call a face-to-face approach a “killer”?
Because the people who apologize in person
hurt the other person’s feelings
feel as though they killed somebody
find it very difficult emotionally
feel extremely excited
6. Past generations in China never saw dogs because residents could not afford pets and the
Communist Party viewed the idea as something that did not fit in with their ideology. Thus,
many Chinese with little canine experience are deathly afraid of bigger dogs and do not, for
example, recognize that different breeds can have different personalities.
a. What are the two reasons past generations in China were not familiar with dogs?
1. _______________________________
2. _______________________________
b. What is the consequence of this past experience?
Exercise 1: Choose the correct answer.
1. Oxford is one of England's great medieval cities. ____________, it has been an
international center of learning since 1167.
a. For example
b. Furthermore
c. As well as
d. Apart from
2. It's often cheaper and quicker to travel by train than by bus or car.
__________ , on long journeys it is more comfortable.
a. So
b. Also
c. Similarly
d. Except for
Not only his love to literature and painting, ________________ his sensitivity to
everything beautiful led him to opt for arts as his major field of study.
a. in addition
b. but also
c. although
d. because of
4. According to research studies, moderate exposure to sun is very beneficial. First, it
improves the mood and reduces depression. _______________, it supplies vitamin D,
which is responsible for maintaining of proper levels of calcium in the body.
a. However
b. Nevertheless
c. As a result
d. Second
5. _______________ damaging the exceptional views, tourists often damage the economy
and the well-being of the local residents.
a. Besides
b. Moreover
c. Consequently
d. Yet
6. In order to improve their reading comprehension skills, students should strengthen their
vocabulary and learn the proper use of the dictionary. ________________, they ought to
practice their guessing skills, i.e. understanding the word in the context.
a. As well as
b. Still
c. Hence
d. Moreover
Exercise 2:
Read the sentences and answer the questions that follow
1. Hearing loss as a result of the exposure to loud music through headphones is a gradual
process. It cannot be detected before it is too late. It can take up to five years of exposure
before tests can detect it. What is worse, hearing loss is permanent.
What are the two negative results of listening to loud music through headphones?
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________
2. Forest Schools, a Scandinavian idea that was imported into the U.K. in the 1990s, is now
taking off around the country. Many fortunate children from all over the U.K. are now
discovering that time spent exploring the woods is good for both the body and the soul. In
addition to getting fresh air, children improve their self-esteem, exercise and get a whole new
set of skills.
How many specific advantages of Forest Schools are mentioned in the paragraph? ____
3. Now the city of San Francisco is trying to stop fortune-telling frauds. According to the new
law, fortune-tellers are required to possess a business license and pay about $500 for a
permit. Moreover, fortune-tellers are required to post rate-cards and a phone-number for
List the requirements fortune-tellers have to obey.
a. ________________________________________
b. ________________________________________
c. ________________________________________
4. In China, once a woman is married, she is expected to live with her husband’s family,
performing household chores and caring for her in-laws. Not only do her parents lose her
services, but also they are usually expected to bear the cost of the wedding as well as
provide a dowry of cash and other gifts.
Apart from taking upon themselves the wedding expenses, what other disadvantages are
there for the parents whose daughter gets married?
a. _______________________________________
b. _______________________________________
5. Despite the dangers they present, the modern-day pirates are difficult to eliminate. Often
their host countries tolerate them, attracted by the prospects of increased exports and
reduced unemployment, or by the bribes paid to the government officials. In addition,
counterfeiters are clever. Sometimes they register brand names in their own countries before
the legitimate companies can do so. Then they either sell their goods by exploiting the
reputation of the brand names or force the legitimate companies to buy them out.
What are the reasons for the difficulty to eliminate modern-day piracy?
Complete the sentences:
It is difficult to stop commercial piracy because the pirates are ________________ and
because piracy brings about _______________ advantages to the host countries.
Explanation / Example
Exercise 1: Choose the correct answer.
1. John is a diligent student. _____________, he studies seriously.
a. Also
b. In other words
c. Because
2. Susan is highly talented in the arts and music. ___________ does she compose music,
she also writes the lyrics.
a. Even so
b. For instance
c. Not only
d. Moreover
3. Tropical fruit ______________ papaya, mango and pineapple are both attractive looking
and palatable.
a. either
b. but
c. such as
d. i.e.
4. Linguistics _____________ the study of language is taught in all the major universities in
a. such as
b. For example
c. or
d. since
5. Lotem is very confused about his last argument with Adi. _________________, he doesn’t
know whether he should apologize or let the things cool down a little.
a. In other words
b. For instance
c. On the other hand
d. While
6. Many nontraditional instruments _________________ the sitar, gamelan and oud are
generally not played in the classical orchestra.
a. including
b. also
c. due to
d. thus
Exercise 2:
Read the sentence and answer the questions that follow
1. Academic cheating, or plagiarism, is becoming easier in the Information Age. However, it
is also becoming easier to catch plagiarism. For instance, when students take an exam
on-line, some colleges use a program that takes control of the computer’s operating system
during the test.
What is plagiarism? __________________________________
What does the example presented in the paragraph illustrate?
2. Scientists are discovering that dolphins are far from the happy, peaceful creatures that
humans think they know. There is emerging evidence that wild dolphins can be cold-blooded
killers. For example, in Scotland a scientist watched an adult dolphin repeatedly pick up its
young in its mouth and smack it against the water over and over until it sank from view.
The example of a dolphin killing its offspring shows that _______________________
3. Female infants speak sooner, have larger vocabularies and rarely demonstrate speech
defects. Stuttering, for instance, occurs almost exclusively among boys.
Complete the sentence:
Stuttering is an example of ______________________, which are more frequent among
4. One of the common ways to deal with a conflict is withdrawal, namely, physical or
psychological removal from the situation. Withdrawal is negative because it neither eliminates
nor attempts to manage the nature of the conflict. For instance, when Tom withdraws
physically, Mary may follow him to the basement, where the conflict will be resumed.
What is withdrawal?
The example of Tom and Mary shows that a positive way to deal with conflict would be
______________ or ____________________________________________________
5. Food preferences are the most familiar aspect of ethnocentrism. Every culture has
developed preferences for certain kinds of food and drink, and equally strong negative
attitudes towards others. For example, Americans feel that eating a meal of horse or snake
meat is repugnant, while in South Asia the majority of adults don’t drink milk. Similarly,
people in India would never eat cow meat, since a cow is considered a holy animal there.
Give one example of a food or drink that is acceptable in one culture and rejected in another.
PRACTICE: All connectors
Identify the KIND of connector for each sentence below:
While aggregate demand rose, the level of employment actually fell.
Furthermore, confidence in the economy dropped during the crisis.
Share prices increased dramatically, thus encouraging further investment. _________
Secondly, the paper will consider reasons for this phenomenon.
One factor, for instance, taxation, may be responsible.
Due to monetary controls, inflation was not significant.
Similarly, other Asian economies experienced rapid growth at the time.
Read the following sentences. Underline connectives and indicate what kind of relationship
they express. Choose from the possibilities below:
Cause and result
At the end of the year, a business fair will be held at which leading Israeli companies will
present their products. Several large corporations such as Intel, Elscint, Rafael, Domino’s
Pizza and the Postal Service have appointed experts to act as consultants at the event.
The Rambam stated that "conflicts between science and religion result from
misinterpretation of the Bible _________
Drug abuse among teenagers is increasing at an alarming rate. While the experts have
many explanations for this dramatic increase, there is little they can do to solve the problem.
People have traditionally prepared for vacations abroad by reading guidebooks. Today
Internet provides an additional way of planning trips abroad _________
Squash, a racket-and-ball game played by two people inside a small four-walled court
can involve tremendous physical exertion. But fitness alone is not enough -- agility, hand-eye
coordination and speed of reaction are also very important. _________
During basic training, infantry soldiers sometimes end up with stress fractures or
overuse injuries. These are caused in part by the new recruits' exaggerated motivation to
prove they can do above-and-beyond what is asked. _________
Like food producing companies, cosmetic firms are now required to list an expiration
date on their products. _________
Internet allows you to see the whole world in the comfort of your own home. The user
can, for example, call up the Tokyo subway routes or “sail” in the Bay of Hong Kong without
rising from his/her armchair. _________
The pressure from global competition and the increasing demands of consumers have
led more and more Israeli businesses to adopt higher standards of service. _________
10. Although the alcohol industry denies targeting young people in the promotion
of its products (they only use adults in the commercials), alcohol commercials often
run during programs that young people are likely to see. _________
Circle the correct answer.
1. Yael was embarrassed _________ she didn’t know the answer to a very
simple question.
a. due to b. despite c. because d. though
2. _________ her embarrassment, she didn’t leave the restaurant.
a. Although b. In spite of c. Even though d. Because
3. We didn’t pay much for the shirts _________ they were made of good quality
a. even if b. although c. as d. despite
4. Alon managed to fall asleep _________ the noise outside his window.
a. in spite of b. because of c. even though d. though
5. _________ his friend’s advice, he joined the rival company.
a. Although b. Despite c. Because d. Besides
6. Merav decided to stay at home _________ her illness.
a. because of b. because c. although d. since
7. _________ he had prepared for the test, he did not pass it.
a. Despite b. Although c. Because d. Owing to
8. _________ Leon liked science so much, he decided to study it at the
a. In spite of b. Owing to c. Although d. Since
9. _________ unforeseen circumstances, the concert was cancelled.
a. Due to b. Because c. Although d. Despite
10. It was late; _________, Dina agreed to help her friend.
a. moreover b. nevertheless c. besides d. in addition
11. He had promised to come on time; _________, he arrived late.
a. therefore b. but c. although d. however
12. Cindy decided to go sailing _________ she loved the feel of the wind on her
a. although b. since c. despite d. because of
Fill in the blanks with a suitable connector.
1. She woke up late this morning. _________________, she did not miss the bus.
2. She woke up late this morning. __________________, she missed the bus.
3. She woke up late this morning. __________________, she had to wait until her
daughter was ready.
4. It suddenly began to rain. __________________, I had an umbrella.
5. He is a good teacher. __________________, he is not the best teacher in the
6. We all enjoyed the movie. __________________, we all enjoyed being at the
7. __________________, I was very excited about learning in high school. Later, I
became less excited.
8. Look at the way he is looking at me. __________________ he loves me.
9. First we went to Danny. __________________, we went to Dana’s place.
10. He loves Geography very much. __________________, his grades
are quite low.
Following are six short textbook excerpts. Circle the best answer that describes
the relationship indicated by each underlined transition.
The relentless pressures athletes experience may lead them to distance themselves
from their studies.
The sentence expresses a relationship of
a. time
b. cause and effect
c. illustration
Since 1820, more than fifty million people came to live in the Unites States, including
some three million slaves who came against their will.
The relationship indicated by the transition is one of
a. addition
b. time
c. comparison
The number of women in the workforce has increased steadily since the turn of the
century due to factors such as World War II, a troubled economy, a high divorce rate, and
the women's movement. Yet a pattern of gender inequality on the job continues.
The relationship of the second sentence to the first sentence is one of
a. contrast
b. cause and effect
c. illustration
As a result of exposure to the various chemicals dumped at Love Canal, nearby
residents have an excessive number of serious illnesses, a high incidence of miscarriages,
and an unusual number of children born with birth defects.
The sentence expresses a relationship of
a. addition
b. illustration
c. cause and effect
Speech style affects a speaker’s apparent trustworthiness. For instance, researchers
Gordon Hemsley and Anthony Doob found that if, while testifying, videotaped witnesses
looked their questioner straight in the eye instead of gazing downward, they impressed
people as more believable.
The relationship of the second sentence to the first is one of
a. contrast
b. illustration
c. cause and effect
Every society shapes its children in the image of its own culture. In ancient Sparta,
young boys were taught discipline, obedience, physical prowess, and self-denial through
harsh treatment and deprivation. However, in nearby Athens, parents raisedtheir sons to be
artistically sensitive and broadly educated as well as athletic.
The relationship of the last sentence to the one before it is one of
a. time
b. addition
c. contrast
The four connectors below have been removed from the textbook passage
below. Read the passage carefully to see which connector logically fits in each answer
Note: You may find it helpful to check each connector after you insert it into the
as a result
Some experts guess that in ten to fifteen years, 10 million workers in the United States will be
involved in teleworking, that is, staying at home (7) _____________________ working with
their corporations or clients through their modems or FAX machines. This work arrangement
is especially helpful for convalescing employees, handicapped workers, and parents of small
or otherwise home-bound children. But (8)_____________________ teleworking’s clear
advantages, some homeworkers miss the stimulation of co-workers: (9)
_____________________ some companies require homeworkers to spend a designated
amount of time in the office. (10) _____________________ homeworkers are afraid that they
may be forgotten come production time. Teleworking seems to be most successful when the
worker is self-motivated, has definite reasons for preferring to work at home, and has a
specific task to do, or when the situation is temporary.
Looking for Information
Which question is answered by each of the underlined words or phrases?
Example: Bacteria are the simplest organisms found in most natural environments
Answer: WHAT?
Bacteria can replicate quickly by simply dividing in two.
We should work together to improve the situation.
In most competitions, the first three places win a prize.
As a result of these investigations, researchers…
It is in this space that…
The occurrence of unexpected events such as…
AIDs was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
Knowledge continues to grow at a faster pace than it did during the post-war years.
If the question asks why
If the question asks what or who
If the question asks what happened
If the question asks when (time)
If the question asks when (under
what circumstances)
If the question asks how
If the question asks where
the answer is a reason
the answer is a person or thing involved
the answer is a result / effect
the answer is a date or other time expression
the answer is the condition necessary to obtain
a result
the answer is a description
the answer is a place
Reading Faster
Almost every reader can learn to read faster without sacrificing comprehension. Aside
from saving time on homework assignments and doing better on tests, fast readers usually
comprehend more than slow readers. Slow, word-by-word readers often miss the meaning of
what they are reading because they are focusing on the individual words rather than on the
meaning of the sentence. If words are perceived in isolation, they lose their connection to the
“message” the author is trying to convey. To receive the message in a sentence, the
individual words must be seen in a context. Good readers focus on the ideas of sentences
and paragraphs rather than on words in isolation.
How can you improve your reading rate?
Don’t read one word at a time. Try to “see” several words at a time.
Don’t translate each word. Focus on the idea in the sentence.
Don’t use your finger or pencil to point to each word. If you like to point, center your
pointer in the middle of the column and run it down the column as you read. This will
help “pull” your eyes along faster and train them to take in more words at a single
Don’t move your lips or say the words to yourself as you read. Talking is slower than
reading. If it is difficult to break this habit, try commenting to yourself about the ideas in
the passage. For example, “That’s a good idea”, or “This must be the answer to the
question,” or “This can’t be true.”
Concentrate on speeding up. In the beginning, don’t worry about comprehension. Try
reading a passage as fast as you can. Reread it more slowly if necessary. By
alternating very fast and slower rates, your “slow” rate will gradually improve.
Practice is important. Try to spend 10 or 15 minutes every day practicing fast reading.
Make sure you practice on easy material. You won’t be able to read fast if the level of
difficulty is high.
The exercises in this section are intended as an introduction to read faster. They range from
very short and simple passages to longer articles similar to unseen tests. Your teacher will
help you use them to focus on various skills and techniques, but if you really want to read
faster, you will have to practice on your own as well.
Techniques of Skimming and Scanning
Readers of academic texts have to carry out different reading tasks. They may
want to find a single detail or one idea
need to get a general impression of the content of the article,
need to have an exact understanding of the writer’s argument and supporting evidence.
The techniques that are explained in this section will help you to become a more efficient
Scanning for a Specific Detail
If we need to find a specific item of information, for example a date, a figure, a name, or a
title, we can do so by scanning the paragraph (page) that is by letting our eyes wander over
the text. We can locate the information we are looking for without reading all the text. The
form of the symbol (capital letters, numbers, punctuation) can help us to focus on the detail
that interests us.
Read the questions and see how quickly you can find the answers in the passages that
follow. Look for clues that help you to find the information.
Passage A
What were the export and import figures for the United States in 1974?
Which countries are the largest buyers of U.S. goods?
From which countries do the imports come?
What percentage of goods entered the United States duty free in 1974?
The United States carries on trade with most of the nations of the world. In 1974, its exports
were valued at approximately $98 billion and its imports at $100 billion. The leading exports
are industrial and electrical machinery, chemicals, grain, aircraft and motor vehicles. Canada
and Japan are the largest single-country customers, buying about 30 percent of the total.
Some of the principal imports are coffee, sugar, tea, petroleum and fuel oil, textiles and motor
vehicle products. They come from Europe, Latin America, Asia and Canada. For years, the
United States has been following a policy of promoting world trade by lowering tariffs. This
has gradually reduced U.S. duties on imports so that in 1974, 2 percent of all goods entered
the country duty free.
Passage B
Who does the author quote to introduce the main point?
Which four books are mentioned?
Who are the authors?
When were the last three books published?
“Not acid, speed or junk but school is the most destructive drug in America today”. This is
Anatole Broyard’s summation of the theme of Ivan Illich’s Deschooling Society. This
revolutionary concept is being heard more and more in a series of reevaluations of the school
system. In three books published in the 1960s, we find some of the forerunners of Illich: How
Children Fail by John Holt, Compulsory Miseducation by Paul Goodman, and Death at an
Early Age by Jonathan Kozol. The three provide us with a comprehensive view of educational
trends from Holt’s private school to Goodman’s public school to Kozol’s segregated public
school in Boston. All three recognize a failure in the educational system that has perpetrated
a heinous crime on the minds and hearts of America’s children.
Scan the next paragraph to find the following information.
The name of Laurence Stern’s novel.
The year in which the first parts of the novel were published.
The way in which the book is described by different critics.
Laurence Stern was an English novelist who went far beyond the literary expression of the
eighteenth century. Tristram Shandy, whose first parts were published in 1759, is an example
of a book that defies categorization. Thought to be “merely a satire” by a leading critic of the
time, a “sentimental journal” by a fellow writer, an “epic of Rabelaisian proportions” by a
group of distinguished scholars, we are forced to consider it as all of these and more. The
scope of Tristram Shandy invites the scholar to read more and classify less. It will be our task
to analyze various aspects of Stern’s novel to determine its romantic elements and thus see it
as a precursor to the nineteenth-century Romantic revolution.
Skimming to Extract Specific Information
We use the technique of skimming when we are looking for specific information that is not
marked by visual clues or for an idea that is embedded in the text. In such cases, we want to
locate the position of the information so we will know at which point to begin close reading.
Skimming is a more thorough than scanning.
If we are reading to find the answer to a specific question, the words that appear in the
question (or synonyms of these words) will probably be in the text. We let our eyes wander
over the text until we locate words that express the ideas phrased by the question. We then
read that part of the text carefully.
Check off () the questions that are directly answered in the passage that follows them. Note
that the same concept (idea) may be named differently in the question and in the text
(synonyms or paraphrasing may be used).
What factor has hampered the study of humanities?
How is literature different from the fine arts?
What are two possible ways of viewing literature?
Which position does the author take?
The study of the humanities has always been hampered by its abstract terminology.
Literature, as distinct from the fine arts, deals exclusively with words. Lacking the visual
aspect of painting and the audio aspect of music, it remains an ambiguous entity that is
constantly being redefined. Definitions of literature often reflect two extreme positions. There
are those who see literature as a form of art, as a way of translating experience and others
who see it as a social document.
The following are the first lines of several paragraphs of a text. Your purpose in reading this
text is to learn more about the specific differences between animal and human behavior.
Skim the passage to decide where to begin reading more closely. Check off () the sentence
that most likely marks the end of your skimming and the beginning of close reading.
The Scientific Method and the Puzzles of Nature
The greatest of all the accomplishments of twentieth-century science has been the discovery
of human ignorance.
It is the admission of ignorance that leads to progress, not so much because the solving of a
particular puzzle leads directly to a new piece of understanding but because the puzzle -- if it
interests enough scientists -- leads to work….
College students and, for that matter, secondary school students should be exposed very
early to the big arguments currently going on among scientists….
There is, for one, the problem of animal awareness. One school of ecologists devoted to the
study of animal behavior says that human beings are unique in the possession of
consciousness, differing from all of the creatures in being able to think things over, capitalize
on past experience and hazard informed guesses about the future. Other lower animals
cannot do such tings with their minds….
The point about this argument is not that one side or the other is in possession of a more
powerful array of convincing facts -- quite the opposite….
This brings me to a second example of unsettlement in biology. This is the matter of chance
itself and the role played by blind chance in the arrangement of living things on the planet….
Your purpose in skimming the first lines of the following text is to learn about the present-day
economic policies and their rationale. Check off () the sentence that marks the end of your
skimming and the beginning of close reading.
Economic Policy
In their professional lives, as distinct from their personal lives, economists rarely take a firm
stand on the economic policy that should be followed by the country….
Many times, unclear thinking is expressed in jargon, expressions so impressive to laypersons
that they believe any recommendations to be scientifically proven and justified.
Economists often make value judgments, claiming, for example, that mass unemployment is
“bad” and tariffs on foreign imports are “good.”…
Here we intend to show the kind of policies that present-day economists prescribe and how
far these policies can be justified scientifically….
Economists make their recommendations to the government whose task is to implement or
reject proposals….
Skimming for the Main Ideas in a Text
Skimming is a useful technique when we want to find out quickly what the text is about. On
the basis of the information that we get from skimming a text and reading only a minimal
number of sentences, we can usually predict the main ideas and the content of the article.
Although not all the texts are organized in the same way, we can find clues that help us.
To skim an article for the main ideas, one should
1. Read the title and subtitle carefully.
2. Read the beginning of each paragraph or the first and last paragraphs of an article or
3. Look for the following words or expressions (they are usually used to introduce important
 I/we think / believe / argue / suggest / support / agree / disagree…
 The principal advantage / disadvantage / objection…
 The problem / task / hypothesis / premise / point…
 The results indicate / show / prove…
 The crucial facts / effects / difficulties / outcomes…
Read the questions below and see how quickly you can find the answers in the text that
1. In which paragraph does the writer compare attitudes in the past with attitudes in the
present? _____
2. In which paragraph does the writer state his idea? _____
3. In which paragraph does the writer explain the objection to his idea? _____
4. In which paragraph does the writer present the advantages to his idea? _____
5. Which of the following alternatives best summarizes the writer’s argument?
a. Conditions nowadays are much better than they were a hundred years ago.
b. Everybody should receive a minimum amount of money for subsistence for a
limited period whenever they want it.
c. If people were to receive money for no reason, nobody would want to work.
d. The main advantage of the writer’s plan would be to improve interpersonal
The Right to All to a Guaranteed Subsistence
A hundred years ago, it was a widely-accepted belief that no one had the responsibility for his
neighbor. It was assumed and scientifically “proved” by economists that the laws of society
made it necessary to have a vast army of poor and jobless people in order to keep the
economy going. Today, hardly anybody would dare to voice this principle. It is generally
accepted that nobody should be excluded from the wealth of a nation, either by the laws of
nature or by those of society. The rationalizations which were current a hundred years ago,
that the poor owned their condition to their ignorance, lack of responsibility -- briefly to their
“sins”, are outdated. In all Western industrialized countries, a system of insurance has been
introduced which guarantees everyone a minimum of subsistence in case of unemployment,
sickness and old age. I would go one step further to argue that even if these conditions are
not present, everyone has the right to receive the means to subsist. Practically speaking, that
would mean that every citizen could claim a sum, enough for the minimum of subsistence,
even though he is not unemployed, sick or aged. He can demand this sum if he has quit his
job voluntarily, if he wants to prepare himself for another type of work, or for any personal
reason which prevents him from earning money, without falling under one of the categories of
the existing insurance benefits; in short, he can claim his subsistence minimum without
having to have any “reason”. I would suggest, however, that it should be limited to a definite
period of time, let us say two years, so as to avoid the fostering of a neurotic attitude, which
refuses any kind of social obligation.
This may sound like a fantastic proposal, just as, I think, our insurance system would have
sounded to people a hundred years ago. The main objection to such a scheme would be that
if each person were entitled to receive minimum support, people would not work. This
assumption rests on the fallacy of the inherent laziness in human nature; actually, aside from
neurotically lazy people, there would be very few who would not want to earn more than the
minimum, and who would prefer to do nothing rather than work.
However, the suspicions against a system of guaranteed subsistence minimums are not
unfounded from the standpoint of those who want to use ownership of capital for the purpose
of forcing others to accept the work conditions they offer. If nobody were forced to accept
work in order not to starve, work would have to be sufficiently interesting and attractive to
induce one to accept it. Freedom of contract is possible only if both parties are free to accept
and reject it; in the present capitalist system this is not the case.
But such a system would not be only the beginning of real freedom of contract between
employers and employees; its principal advantage would be the enhancement of freedom in
interpersonal relationships in every sphere of daily life.
Sometimes someone will try to tell you something without coming right out and saying it. He
will imply it. When you understand what is implied, you infer. Sometimes you can infer the
truth even when the speaker or writer isn’t trying to be helpful. That’s called “reading between
the lines.”
A. See if you can infer an implied or hidden message in each of the following
Turner almost wished that he hadn’t listened to the radio. He went to the closet and grabbed
his umbrella. He would feel silly carrying it to the bus stop on such a sunny morning.
1. Which probably happened?
a. Turner realized that he had an unnatural fear of falling radio parts.
b. Turner had promised himself to do something silly that morning.
c. Turner had heard a weather forecast that predicted rain.
d. Turner planned to trade his umbrella for a bus ride.
“Larry, as your boss, I must say it’s been very interesting working with you,” Miss Valdez
said. “However, it seems that our company’s needs and your performance style are not well
matched. Therefore, it makes me very sad to have to ask you to resign your position effective
2. What was Miss Valdez telling Larry?
a. She would feel really bad if he decided to quit.
b. He was being fired.
c. He was getting a raise in pay.
d. She really enjoyed having him in the office.
No, Honey, I don’t want you to spend a lot of money on my birthday present. Just having you
for a husband is the only gift I need. In fact, I’ll just drive my old rusty bucket of bolts down to
the mall and buy myself a little present. And if the poor old car doesn't break down, I’ll be
back soon.
3. What is the message?
a. I don’t want a gift.
b. Buy me a new car.
c. The mall is fun.
d. I’ll carry a bucket for you.
Bill and Jessica were almost done taking turns choosing the players for their teams. It was
Jessica’s turn to choose, and only Kurt was left. Jessica said, “Kurt.”
4. We can infer that ________
a. Kurt is not a very good player.
b. Jessica was pleased to have Kurt on her team.
c. Kurt was the best player on either team.
d. Jessica was inconsiderate of Kurt’s feelings.
B. For each passage, check () the three statements that are most logically supported by
the information given.
Although many citizens think of American business as corporate giants like General
Motors and IBM, small businesses – defined by the government as any with 100 employees
or fewer – are a significant part of the economic scene. Fully one-half of the labor force is
employed by small businesses. Small businesses encompass everything from coffee shops
to dry cleaners, from law firms to dog-walking services. However, several factors are
common to almost all small businesses. Lack of capital is often a problem. Further, small
businesses are particularly vulnerable to fluctuations in the marketplace. Even given these
problems, however, hundreds of thousands of businesses are found each year. These
businesses seem to fit well with the American ideal of independence. (One part of this ideal,
however, is hard work, including far more than forty hours of work per week.)
_____ a. The health of the American economy depends in large part on the success of small
_____ b. The author feels the government should provide financial backing to small
_____ c. A large majority of owners of small businesses are good judges of the amount of
capital their business will need to get a good start.
_____ d. Running a small business generally requires more time than working for one.
_____ e. The author feels that people who start a small business are probably partly
motivated by the desire to be independent.
The nursing profession grew out of religious and charitable activities of early
hospitals. Religious orders of nuns (‫ )נזירה‬took on the care of the sick and the poor. By the
latter half of the 1800s, however, increasing numbers of nonreligious personnel were
employed to perform various custodial functions in hospitals. Since the jobs required no
formal training, and were deed to be menial labor, many poor and uneducated women
entered the field. This heritage has contributed to the undeservedly low prestige the
profession of nursing has long endured. The professionalization of nursing – the emergence
of professional standards, education and nursing organizations – received impetus from the
activities of Florence Nightingale and her organization of nurses during the Crimean War.
Nightingale sought to strengthen cooperative ties between physicians and nurses. Today
most nurses earn a Bachelor of Science degree in nursing in a four-year college degree
program and many go on to secure Master Degrees in specialized areas.
_____ a. Like nurses, doctors of the 1800s were not well respected.
_____ b. Florence Nightingale believed medical treatment would improve if doctors and
nurses worked together.
_____ c. It is much more difficult to become a nurse today than it was in the 1800s.
_____ d. The view of nursing as a woman’s field has an historical basis.
_____ e. Florence Nightingale must have wanted to become a doctor.
Sentence Structure
Simple sentences:
The two main "actors" in the simple sentences are the subject and the verb (or the predicate).
Once you recognize them, you should be able to understand the main idea of the sentence.
The subject tells us who or what the sentence is about and the verb tells us what the subject
does or what happens to the subject.
The girl runs.
In this sentence, "girl" is the subject and "runs" is the verb (predicate).
The little red-headed girl runs towards her friends.
In this sentence both the subject (girl) and the predicate (runs) are expanded by the addition
of different descriptive words. However, the basic meaning (the main idea) remains the
Compound sentences:
Compound sentences are two or more simple sentences that are connected with
and, or, but.
Some Israeli youth prefer to begin their college or university education right
after the army service, and some young people prefer to go on a long postarmy trip first.
In this compound sentence, there are two simple sentences connected by “and”.
Each of these sentences contains a subject and a verb.
Sentence 1: Some Israel youth =subject; prefer to commence = verb
Sentence 2: some young people = subject; prefer to go = verb.
Identifying Subjects and Verbs
What do subjects look like?
The subject of the sentence will answer the question "Who?" or "What?". The subject can be
a single word, like in the following sentences:
John often comes late to class.
On Saturdays, she never gets up before 9 o'clock.
Before giving a test, the teacher should make sure that the students are wellprepared.
The subject can be a group of words:
My friend and I both have a dog named Spot.
Many parts of the Asian coastline were destroyed by a tsunami in 2004.
To interrupt when someone is talking is not polite in North American society.
Sitting in a tree at the bottom of the garden was a huge black bird with long blue tail
Note: The subject is not always at the beginning of the sentence.
2) What do verbs look like?
Verbs tell us what is happening to the subject. Verbs can be one word:
The size of his house amazed me!
Her grandchildren bring a lot of joy to her life.
Verbs can be a group of words:
I should have taken my umbrella to work today.
Dinner was being served when we arrived at the house.
Exercise 1:
Find the subject and the verb in the following sentences. Underline the subject once
and the verb twice.
1. Some countries oblige all young people to serve in the army for a certain period of time
immediately after they leave school.
2. Accidents occur frequently in the state of New Jersey.
3. Most people have some sort of phobia.
4. The bright lights and the colored signs of the fast food restaurants always tempt us
to go in.
5. Many sports are closely connected to specific countries and cultures.
6. Parental obsession with winning leaves young athletes feeling frustrated and
7. In the year 2002, Bollywood sold one million tickets more than Hollywood did.
8. The dangerous viruses "GoKar", "Redesi-B" and "Admirer" were transmitted by
9. Children throughout the ages have always gone into the woods to light fires, sleep
in tents and climb trees.
10. Teachers in America today are using rap – the street-smart, rhyming creations of
Shakur, Geto Boys, and others -- to teach history and English.
Subject/Noun Clauses
The subject can be a "clause" -- starting with the words who, which, when, how, what, where,
why, or whose.
How you spend your money is your own business.
What that man did was wrong.
Note: We can see that these are subject clauses because they have no question marks at
the end.
The following words also mark subject clauses: whoever, whatever, whichever, whether.
Whoever wants ice cream should come inside now.
Whether she succeeds on this test could change her life.
Exercise 2:
Find the subject and the verb in the following sentences. Underline the subject once
and the verb twice.
1. Whoever ate my lunch is in big trouble.
2. How you will finish all your homework on time is a puzzle to me.
3. The coldest time of year is in the winter.
4. That the museum cancelled the lecture disappointed me.
5. Traveling in Europe in the winter can be very unpleasant.
6. Last night I finished my homework, cleaned my bedroom, and spoke to my
friend on the phone.
7. The location for the party can be wherever you want.
8. The newest worker on the team should not have spoken so confidently about
the project.
9. To retire at age 50 is something we can all hope for.
10. What was said in the argument doesn't matter any more.
Adjectives, which are single words, come before the nouns they describe. We can have
many different adjectives one after the other.
The very tall young man joined the basketball team.
Sometimes adjectives look like verbs:
The depressing movie made me cry all night long.
Be careful of falling rocks in this area!
There were so many crying babies on the flight to Toronto.
verb +
These adjectives describe what the nouns are doing.
We need to get our broken window fixed quickly.
The forgotten package was picked up by the cleaners.
The talented piano player performed at the concert hall.
V3 form
of verb
These adjectives describe the state (‫ )מצב‬of the nouns.
Note the difference between each pair of words, and translate to Hebrew.
1. a confusing teacher _________________________
a confused teacher _________________________
2. a frightening monster ________________________
a frightened monster _________________________
3. a shocked psychologist _______________________
a shocking psychologist _______________________
Noun Modifiers
Nouns can be modified by adjectives, or by other nouns. When two or more nouns are next
to each other in a sentence, the first one(s) act(s) as an adjective and describe the last noun
of the sequence.
A horse race is a race where horses compete with each other.
A race horse is a horse trained for racing.
Exercise 1: Read the following sentences. Underline noun modifiers and
circle the nouns they describe.
A mystery story keeps you in suspense until the end.
My second-floor neighbor is a sleep-walker. I saw him walk around at night.
The blood-stained murder weapon was forgotten at the scene of the crime.
A new book review was highly recommended by our teacher.
The prison officials allowed prisoners to keep cats.
I wrote a letter to the central government office.
O’Henry’s short stories have become world famous for their witty, sparkling humor.
Who do you think will be the next world chess champion?
We decided to meet at Hyde Park corner at eight o’clock.
10. The shabbily dressed woman walked down the street with a shopping cart full of old
11. The article describes the traditional medical practices that are passed from generation
to generation.
12. The Royal Ballet Company dancers are well-known for their excellent performing skills.
13. Thousands of first time voters will take part in the coming elections.
14. Eilat is a popular tourist attraction in Israel.
15. Joseph Rotbolt, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, gave the $1 million prize money to the
French Peace Organization.
Exercise 2
Read the sentences and answer the questions by circling the correct answer:
You should visit the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-on-Avon. What should
you visit?
a) Shakespeare’s memorial.
b) the theatre
c) the memorial in Stratford-on-Avon
The course in English Language History, which I took at university, was very interesting.
Which course was very interesting?
a) in English language
b) in the history of English
c)in the history of England
My little sister is afraid of ghost stories. What is my sister afraid of?
a) ghosts
b) stories about ghosts
c) stories told by ghosts
Prado is Spain’s biggest picture gallery. What is Prado?
a) the biggest city in Spain
b) a very big picture
c) an art gallery
His travel company offers an unforgettable wine-tasting tour of the Chianti country.
What does the travel company offer?
a) a tour to taste wines
b) unforgettable wines
c) unforgettable Chianti country
The audience warmly greeted the world-famous opera singers. Who or what was
warmly greeted by the audience?
a) the well-known singers b)the famous opera c) the singers from all over the world
Their lavish wedding was followed by a fairy-tale honeymoon cruise along the Chao
Phya river. What followed the wedding?
a) a fairy tale about a honeymoon b) reading fairy tales c) a cruise along the river
Complex sentences:
A complex sentence is the main clause and the subordinate clause/s together.
In order to simplify a complex sentence, we should be able to recognize the parts it
is made of, namely, the main clause and the subordinate clause/s.
A subordinate clause may appear in the following forms:
1. Adjective clauses
2. Reduced adjective clauses
3. Dependent clauses
The adjective clauses and the reduced adjective clauses usually separate between
the subject and the verb. It is, therefore, essential to recognize them to understand
the idea of the sentence.
Adjective clauses:
My aunt Linda, whose son is working with refugees in Africa, now lives in Israel.
The girl who was riding a bicycle said hello to me.
The town where I lived in my childhood had a population of only 5,000 people.
Pay attention to the following words, which may indicate an adjective clause:
1. who (refers to person)
2. which (refers to an object or an animal)
3. that (replaces who and which)
4. whose (shows possession)
5. where (refers to place)
6. when (refers to time)
Exercise 1: Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Then circle the word the
clause modifies. Put a box around the main verb.
EXAMPLE: The book that was missing had turned up at last.
1. Only people who have experience with lions and tigers need apply.
2. The carton that contained the dishes was undamaged.
3. A trapper who knew the woods well led the rescue party.
4. Grandpa still has the first dollar that he ever earned.
5. The author dedicated the book to his uncle, who had been kind to him.
6. The beggar whom the poor farmer helped was really the king.
7. We need a treasurer who can add and subtract.
8. The judges awarded the prize to the girl who made the dragon kite.
9. The page that has the brownie recipe on it is too smudged to read.
10. Alicia finally met the woman whom she had admired for so long.
Reduced adjective clauses:
The man responsible for the administration of the hospital refused to consider
the request.
The man who is responsible for the administration of the hospital refused to
consider the request.
How can we identify reduced adjective clauses?
There are some patterns to look for:
1. noun + adjective
The neighbor (who is) responsible for my children is not at home.
2. noun + V+ing
The movie (which is) playing at the mall is sold out.
3. noun + V3
The equipment (that was) broken yesterday cost a thousand dollars
Exercise 2: Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Then circle the word the
clause modifies. Put a box around the main verb.
EXAMPLE: Factories polluting the environment must be closed or controlled.
1. In some countries, people producing trash are punished.
2. Follow the instructions given in the user’s guide to use your cassette player wisely.
3. The scientists researching the causes of climate change are making progress.
4. The photographs taken of the Earth were wonderful.
5. The strategy planned to control pollution in Tehran is effective.
6. Acid rain created by burning of gas, oil, and coal destroys forests.
7. Factories burning coal and oil help increase pollution.
8. Farming produces another greenhouse gas called methane.
9. Global warming caused by human activities has serious effects on people’s health.
10. Trash believed to be useless can be burned to produce energy.
Note: Sometimes the information provided in the clauses is essential, while at
other times it may be ignored.
Consider the following examples:
Monotheism is the belief that [there is only one God].
In this sentence the subordinate clause marked by [ ] provides essential
Steinberg, who [is an expert on proper dietary practices] has found that [the
Rambam had very specific guidelines on how we should maintain our health
through proper diet and exercise].
While the information in the first clause is completely minor, the second clause
provides the message of the sentence, from which we learn about the Rambam.
Sometimes commas are very important to the meaning of the sentence.
Consider this example:
The bananas, which are green, are not ready to be eaten.
The bananas which are green are not ready to be eaten.
In the first sentence, the information between the commas is minor, but in the
second sentence the same words provide an important condition about which
bananas can be eaten, and which cannot.
1. a. My brother, who is a tour guide, has shown me all around Israel.
b. My brother who is a tour guide has shown me all around Israel.
Which sentence implies that I have more than one brother? _____
2. a. The children, who ran in the house, wanted to eat ice cream.
b. The children who ran in the house wanted to eat ice cream.
Which sentence implies that all the children wanted to eat ice cream? _____
Dependent clauses:
A dependent clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb of its own,
but is NOT the main part of the sentence; it explains or expands the main clause.
Dependent clauses start with connectors.
As [inflation rises], people spend less money because [the price of everyday
items goes up].
"People spend less money" is the main clause of the sentence.
In the following sentences underline the main clause once and the subordinate
clause twice. Then answer the comprehension questions that follow.
1. If children do not have words to use, their minds are, inevitably, a jumble of
responses to which they can react only emotionally, often with frustration.
a. Under what conditions do children’s minds become a jumble of responses?
b. What happens when the children’s minds become a jumble of responses?
2. Women should achieve more status and power in the medical media, so that it
reflects the real variety of women’s social roles.
What is the purpose of the women’s aspiration to achieve more status and power
in the medical media?
3. Hunting was transformed from a means for survival into a leisure activity, which
enabled men to gather together socially and satisfy their need for the excitement of
hunting and killing animals.
When hunting became a leisure activity, men could ______________
4. When Martin Luther King, Jr. and the movement he led guided mass
demonstrations in Alabama in 1963, clashes between black demonstrators and
police using police dogs and fire hoses were reported around the world.
What information about the mass demonstrations in Alabama reached the media?
5. Although Al Capone (America’s best known gangster) was responsible for the
murder of many of those who stood in his way, he was the first to open soup
kitchens which gave free lunches to the poor after the stock market crashed in
1929 and he contributed clothes and food to the needy.
What are the two acts of generosity associated with Al Capone?
a. _______________________________________________________
b. _______________________________________________________
6. Because of the success of the animal zealots in the general public, who do not
necessarily understand the scientific implications, support for so called “animals
rights” has become “politically correct”.
a. The general public supports/doesn’t support animal activists.
Why? ______________________________________________________
b. What is the result of this? ____________________________________
7. In several countries, addicts can go to “injection rooms” where they can use
drugs in a clean environment, without fear of catching diseases caused by sharing
Complete the sentence:
Since sharing needles may lead to _________________ (one word), drug addicts
in several countries can use _______________________.
8. Physically handicapped children benefit from art because their motor control
improves as they attempt to make more delicate movements with their hands and
as they gradually impose more control upon themselves.
a. In what way do physically handicapped children benefit from art?
b. When does the motor control improve? _______________________
What is Passive Voice?
Verbs are said to be either active voice (The committee approved the new policy) or passive
voice (The new policy was approved by the committee).
In the active voice, the subject and verb relationship is straightforward: the subject is a be-er
or a do-er and the verb moves the sentence along.
In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence is neither a do-er nor a be-er, but is acted
upon by some other agent or by something unnamed (The new policy was approved).
Why are some sentences written in the Passive Voice?
1. We don't know who did the action in the sentence.
My wallet was stolen last night. (We don’t know who stole the wallet.)
2. When the agent ("doer") is unimportant:
The new students’ centre was completed last week. (We don't need to know who built
the centre in order to understand the meaning of the sentence.)
3. When the agent ("doer") of the action is obvious from the context:
I was born in March of '55. (Everyone knows that my mother bore me)
4. To emphasize (put importance on) the recipient (receiver) of the action:
a. Only Jane was injured in the accident; everyone else was unhurt.(we want Jane to
be the subject of the sentence and at the beginning to emphasize her importance)
b. Erina was chosen as best student. (The teacher who chose Erina is not what we
want to emphasize.)
5. To make general statements, announcements, and explanations:
a. Something should be done about the traffic jams in this town.
b. Customers are asked not to smoke.
c. The computer is turned on, then the disk is inserted into the drive.
Formation of the Passive Voice
The Passive is formed like this: Passive Subject + To Be + V3
If the agent ("doer") is important, use "by":
Example (Active Voice): Tim Wilson wrote "The Flight to Brunnswick" in 1987.
Changes to: "The Flight to Brunnswick" was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson.
Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive.
The following chart includes sentences changed from the active to the passive in the main
Time Reference
They make Fords in
Fords are made in Cologne.
Susan is cooking dinner.
Dinner is being cooked by
Present Continuous
James Joyce wrote
"Dubliners" was written by
James Joyce.
Past Simple
They were painting the
house when I arrived.
The house was being painted
when I arrived.
Past Continuous
They have produced over
20 models in the past two
Over 20 models have been
produced in the past two
Present Perfect
They are going to build a
new factory in Portland.
A new factory is going to be
built in Portland.
Future Intention with
Going to
I will finish it tomorrow.
It will be finished tomorrow.
Future Simple
Present Simple
Note that the tense (time reference) is now identified by the form of the addition of the
"to be" verb.
Identifying the Passive Voice
Read the following article. Circle all verbs in the Passive Voice.
Travel Chaos This Weekend
A £100m engineering programme means that sections of three of the busiest railway
lines will be closed over the August bank holiday weekend.
All trains between Reading and London have been cancelled until 0500 BST on
Tuesday. Extra trains have been scheduled from Waterloo. Services between London and
Stansted airport will be disrupted on Sunday, while trains from London to Birmingham New
Street will be diverted around Coventry and Birmingham International on Saturday and
The head of the railway company said, ‘The choice has to be made when to do the
work, and I recognise that some people are going to be inconvenienced this weekend.’ ‘The
bank holidays are three-day weekends, and, when major works are being done, it gives us
the opportunity to do these efficiently and at a reduced cost.’
A representative of the Rail Passengers Council said that passengers had not been
informed of the plans. He told our reporter that increased disruption could be accepted if
people thought that it was being planned efficiently.
Read these sentences. Are they in the Active or Passive Voice?
The instructions have been changed.
People must not leave bicycles in the driveway.
She will have to be taught how to swim.
This car was manufactured in Japan by Toyota.
They were cooking dinner when I arrived.
Why aren't the exercises being finished on time?
Last year 2,000 new units had been produced by the time we
introduced the new design.
They are going to perform Beethoven's Fifth Symphony next
Casual clothes must not be worn.
10. $400,000 in profit has been reported this year.
11. The test will be given at five o'clock this afternoon.
12. Students are required to wear uniforms at all times.
13. They have finished the new product design.
14. This rumor must have been started by our competitors.
15. The students will finish the course by July.
16. They are repairing the streets this month.
17. All work will have been completed by five o'clock this
18. We were told to wait here.
19. You should take care when working on electrical equipment.
20. Lunch was being served when we arrived.
The following paragraphs have main ideas that may appear at various places within the
paragraph. Identify the main idea of each paragraph by filling in the correct sentence number
in the space provided. Fill in two numbers in the one case where the main idea appears
1 People's ideals of beauty often change over time. 2 During part of the sixteenth
century, for example, very high foreheads were considered beautiful. 3 Women sometimes
plucked their eyebrows and shaved off part of their hair in order to make their foreheads look
higher. 4 A little later, Queen Elizabeth I of England wore a solid inch of make-up on her
face. 5 Standards of beauty in former times were thus sometimes very different from our
standards today.
Main idea(s): _________
1 The entertainment world has a history of discrimination against black performers. 2
For many years, for instance, radio listeners tuned in to Amos 'n' Andy, a popular situation
comedy about two black men. 3 But the actors who played Amos and Andy were both white.
4 In those same years, before the start of the civil-rights movement, talented black singers
were hired to dub in movie songs for white actresses who couldn't sing. 5 The singers'
names, however, could never appear in the movie credits.
Main idea(s): _________
1 About 20,000 robots are already working in American factories, with General Motors
being the largest user. 2 Including all fringe benefits, it costs GM about twenty-five dollars an
hour per autoworker. 3 However, a robot does the same work -- with no days off, no
complaining, and no mistakes -- at a cost of five to six dollars an hour. 4 In addition,
international competition will force us to use more and more of the money-saving robots. 5
Japan is already using over four times the number of robots in the workplace as America
does. 6 Economic reasons in and out of our country make the rapid growth of robot labor in
America likely.
Main idea(s): _________
1 In 1967, the Age Discrimination Act made it a federal policy to prohibit the firing of
employees because of their age before they reached the required retirement age. 2 In 1978,
Congress extended the mandatory retirement age from 65 to 70 in business, industry, and
the federal government. 3 In 1986, Congress voted to ban mandatory retirement for all but a
few occupations, such as police officers, firefighters, and airline pilots, where safety is an
issue. 4 Federal laws now prohibit employers from firing older workers, who have seniority
and higher salaries, just to save money. 5 The rights of older workers in our society, then,
continue to strengthen.
Main idea(s): _________
1 For a year or so in the 1950s, the Hula Hoop (a hoop twirled around the body)
became a popular fad. 2 Millions were sold, and Hula Hoop makers who got in on the fad
became rich. 3 The ones who got in too late, though, were stuck with thousands of Hula
Hoops that no one wanted. 4 The same thing happened in the 1970s and 80s with mood
rings and pet rocks. 5 In promoting a fad, timing and imagination are everything. 6 For
example, the Walt Disney Company once found itself stuck with warehouses of unwanted
coonskin caps after a fad for Daniel Boone caps died down. 7 But the company solved its
problem by making a TV show about Davy Crockett, who also wore a coonskin cap. 8 The
show became popular and Disney was able to sell the rest of its coonskin caps as Davy
Crockett caps.
Main idea(s): _________
The following paragraphs have main ideas that may appear at various places within the
paragraph. Identify the main idea of each paragraph by filling in the correct sentence number
in the space provided. Fill in two numbers in the one case where the main idea appears
1 When Chevrolet began to sell its Nova cars in Latin America, hardly anyone would
buy them.2 The company finally learned that Spanish speakers read the car’s name as the
Spanish phrase “no va," meaning "doesn't go"! 3 Like Chevrolet, many American companies
have learned the hard way that they need to know their customers’ language. 4 When PepsiCola ran its "Pepsi gives you life" ads in China, the consumers laughed. 5 The company had
not translated its slogan quiet right. 6 In Chinese, it came out as "Pepsi brings your ancestors
back from the dead.”
Main idea(s): _________
1 Successful movies breed imitations. 2 For example, in the early
1970s, the shark-attack movie Jaws was a great popular success. 3 Soon other movies
imitated Jaws; they featured attacks by killer whales, grizzly bears, and even swarms of killer
bees. 4 A few years later, the success of the adventure movie Raiders of the Lost Ark led to
other movies that were attempts to cash in on the same sort of adventure story. 5 The hugely
successful Vietnam rescue adventure, Rambo, was also followed by a series of similar
movies. 6 Clearly, successes tempt producers to make imitations rather than to create films
with fresh ideas.
Main idea(s): _________
1 Profound changes have reshaped American family life in recent years.
2 In a decade, divorce rates doubled. 3The number of divorces today is twice as high as in
1966 and three times higher than in 1950. 4 The rapid upsurge in the divorce rates
contributed to a dramatic increase in the number of single-parent households -- or what used
to be known as broken homes. 5 The number of households consisting of a single woman
and her children has tripled since 1960. 6 A sharp increase in female-headed homes has
been accompanied by a startling increase in the number of couples cohabitating outside of
marriage. 7 The number of unmarried couples living together has quadrupled since 1970.
Main idea(s): _________
1 Usually we think of best as a stronger claim than merely better. 2 But in advertising,
best and better don't mean what they do in everyday life. 3 In advertising law, you can call a
product better only if it really is better than competing products. 4 But to call a product best
you only have to show that it is as good as the others. 5 If all the products are equally good,
then according the law, they are all the best. 6 If a headache pill is said to contain the best
pain reliever, this just means that it is as good as the pain reliever in other pills.
Main idea(s): _________
1 What does it take to achieve extraordinary success? 2 Educational psychologist
Benjamin Bloom did a study of high achievers and found that drive and determination, not
great natural talent led to their success. 3 The study included America’s top performers in six
fields: concert pianists, Olympic swimmers, sculptors, tennis players, mathematicians, and
research neurologists. 4 Development of Bloom’s subjects began when parents exposed the
child to music, swimming, scientific ideas, and so forth –“ just for fun". 5 At first many of the
children were quite ordinary in their skills. 6 One Olympic swimmer, for instance, remembers
repeatedly losing races as a ten-year-old.7. At some point, however, the children began to
get recognition for their abilities and pursued them more actively. 8 After more successes and
encouragement, the youngsters began "living" for their talent. 9 Most spent many hours each
day practicing their skills. 10 This continued for many years before they reached truly
extraordinary heights of achievement.
Main idea(s): _________
The following textbook passages use a combination of patterns of organization (as is often
the case in all types of writing). Circle the letters of your answers to the questions about the
A. 1 Japanese children go to school year-round, including half-days of classes on Saturdays. 2
Admission to Japanese universities is based entirely on competitive examinations. 3 Test scores
literally make or break the college aspirations of young people, whether they are rich or poor. 4
Students prepare frantically for these all-important examinations, and parents often see that their
children are well prepared by enlisting the services of tutors to supplement regular classroom
study. 5 Despite placing enormous pressure on adolescents, the Japanese educational system
produces impressive results. 6 In a number of academic areas – most notably mathematics and
science – Japanese students outdistance students of all other industrial societies, including the
United States.
The main idea of the passage is
a. sentence 1
b. sentence 2
c. sentence 3
4. sentence 5
The results of the Japanese educational system are explained in
a. sentence 1
b. sentence 2
c. sentence 4
d. sentence 6
B. It’s been a long time since Johann Sebastian Bach, the eighteenth-century German
composer, last wrote any music. But listeners can be forgiven if they briefly mistake music
created by Kemal Ebcioglu for Bach’s work. Ebcioglu devised a computer program that writes
harmonies remarkably similar to Bach’s. Ebcioglu analyzed Bach’s music and came up with 350
rules that govern harmonization. The resulting program displays what is known as artificial
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to computer programs capable of doing things that require
intelligence when done by people. Artificial intelligence is based on the fact that many tasks –
from harmonizing music to medical diagnosis – can be reduced to a set of rules applied to a body
of information. AI is valuable in situations where speed, memory and persistence are required. In
fact, AI programs are better at some tasks than humans.
1. Overall, this passage
a. lists a series of steps in the process of creating artificial intelligence
b. discussed the causes and effects of the rules governing harmonization
c. illustrates, defines and explains artificial intelligence
d. lists events in the history of artificial intelligence
2. The first paragraph
a. illustrates “artificial intelligence”
b. compares the music of Ebcioglu’s program with Bach’s music
c. briefly describes the process Ebcioglu used in creating his program
d. does all of the above
C. 1 When Charles Dickens told the story of the French Revolution in his classic novel A Tale of
Two Cities, he based much of his tale on solid historical fact. 2 History books mention the
wastefulness of nobility; in like manner, Dickens tells of a French nobleman who required four
servants just to bring him a cup of hot chocolate.
3 History books detail the sorry conditions of the prisons; similarly, Dickens writes of dreadful
diseases that overcame prisoners, who often died before their sentences could be carried out. 4
But the most memorable features of A Tale of Two Cities are the characters, which are Dickens’s
own creations and have little to do with history. 5 The villain Madame Defarge, for instance,
never really existed. 6 And history does not mention the heroic Sydney Carton or his famous
1. Which sentence best expresses the implied main idea of the paragraph?
a. Dickens based much of A Tale of Two Cities on historical fact.
b. History books and A Tale of Two Cities both tell about the wastefulness of nobility at the
time of the French Revolution.
c. The most memorable of A Tale of Two Cities are its characters.
d. While A Tale of Two Cities is strongly based on the historic record of the French
Revolution, its memorable characters are entirely Dickens’s creations.
2. The paragraph both (circle two letters)
a. defines and illustrates
b. compares and contrasts
c. lists examples
d. narrates a series of events
D. 1 Although some evidence exists that women experience more minor illness than men,
women outlive men by an average of more than seven years. 2 Sociologists and others have
proposed various explanations for why women outlive men. 3 Some of the explanations take into
account differences in lifestyle, diet, activity level and social circumstances between men and
women. 4 Some analysts, for example, point to the fact that more men smoke cigarettes and
engage in risky behavior (drinking too much, participating in dangerous sports, driving too fast
and until recently men experienced more of the stresses and strains of the workplace and of the
breadwinner role. 5 Other analysts maintain that certain genetic factors make women, in a sense,
psychologically or medically superior to men. 6 Female hormones, for example, seem to play a
role in protecting premenopausal women from heart disease and women seem less prone to high
blood pressure than men.
8. The main idea of the paragraph is
a. sentence 1
b. sentence 2
c. sentence 3
d. sentence 4
9. According to this paragraph, genetic factors are possible causes/effects.
10. Which outline best represents the organization of the paragraph?
a. Possible reasons for why women outlive men
b. Differences in lifestyle and social circumstances
c. Genetic differences
Reference Words: Words that refer to other words in the text are called Reference Words.
They can be used individually or as groups of words, sentences or groups of sentences. The
reference word usually points to something/someone mentioned earlier (before) in the text,
however, it can sometimes refer to something that comes later (after) it
 The party was to take place on Saturday, however it was cancelled because of the
The word ‘it’ refers back to the party.
 Here are the people I want you to meet. ‘They’ will be able to help you in your work.
The word ‘they’ refers back to people.
In order to see if you have understood the reference word, substitute the reference word with
the word you think it points to and see if the meaning is clear in the sentence in context.
A reference word can also continue an idea.
 Yesterday it rained very heavily all day. This caused flooding in the Southern part of
the country.
Here is a list of the more common reference words:
1. he/she, it, they
 Miriam is an English teacher, she teaches in Ashkelon College.
2. one (ones)
 Many books are uninteresting, but the one about the Rambam is fascinating.
 Chocolates are very delicious, but the ones with cherry liqueur are the most delicious.
3. this (these) that (those)
 There are people who are always prepared to denigrate other people’s opinions. This
does not seem to be very fair.
4. so
 I think that to learn a language, you have to spend many hours reading, writing and
speaking. Some students don’t think so.
 Millions of people all over the world know that smoking is harmful, but they do so
5. such(+noun)
 Almost everybody watches television, however, to watch television for hours is such a
waste of time.
6. there, then
 My schooldays were some of my happiest days, there I learnt some valuable lessons
in cooperation.
 When someone in the family dies, then one’s friends are very supportive.
7. the former, the latter
 Mr. Cohen and Mr. Levi are computer programmers. The latter has won many prizes.
Exercise 1
Find the reference of the underlined words.
1. When we visited Luxembourg, we were surprised to see how beautiful it is. Everywhere
its streets are wide and clean.
it ______________________ its ________________________
2. Recent research shows that Israel has one of the lowest scores in mathematics. This
presents a serious problem in our schools. The students there are not getting to their
this_____________________ there ______________________
3. Cigarettes are obviously bad for your health, so why do so many people get addicted to
them? Many young people die of drug overdose, but it doesn’t stop them from
them ___________ it _____________ them______________
4. Walking is good for you. Walkers are usually healthier and thinner than people who just
sit and watch television. According to the latest research, they are also happier.
they _________________________
5. Many people are renovating their homes. They are putting in new bathrooms, kitchens
and floors. Such renovations are very expensive.
Such ___________________________________
6. Politicians earn very large salaries. They are representatives of the people and should be
examples to them. However, they do not always do the job expected of them.
They ______________
them _________________
7. In London, in the Underground the stations and trains are often old and dilapidated. In
the Metro in France, the stations and trains are modern and clean. The former is also
quite a fire hazard according to the newspapers.
former ______________________
8. Children learn the most important life lessons from their families. It is there that they also
learn honesty, diligence and kindness that can help them or other values that can ruin
their lives.
there __________________ they _____________________
9. Malnutrition is rife in Third World countries. Many African countries are known by this
this term ___________________
10. My parents told me that it is important to save money from my salary. I also think so.
so ___________________
Boys' Misbehavior May be Misunderstood
Redistributing Resources in Education
Surprising Search Patterns
Profiting from Pupils
The Secret Power of Pets
Gestures Offer Insight
A New Menu to Heal the Heart
Understanding Children from Other Cultures
The Wal-Mart Way Becomes Topic A in Business Schools
Saying “The End” Doesn’t Mean It’s All Over
Revenge and Those Who Seek It
Preventing Movie Piracy
Peer Attitudes towards Adolescent Participants…
Africa: Money doesn’t Seem to Help
Online Media Exposes Ecology Stories
In Pursuit of Thinness
US: Baby-boomers Cause Start-up Explosion
Brewing up Health Benefits for Coffee
A Social Conscience
The Crisis of Women's Homelessness in Canada
Coming to Attention
The Effects of Divorce on Children
Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits
Boys' Misbehaviour May be Misunderstood
by Natalie Angier
Until quite recently, the tautology "boys will be boys" summed up everything parents
needed to know about their Y-chromosome bundles. Boys will be very noisy and obnoxious.
Boys will tear around the house and break precious objects. They will swagger and boast and
lie and not do their homework and leave their dirty underwear on the bathroom floor.
But they will also be adventurous and brave. When they fall down, they'll get up, give a
cavalier spit to the side and try again.
Today, the world is no longer safe for boys. A boy being somewhat too boyish risks
finding himself under the scrutiny of parents, teachers, guidance counselors, child therapists
 all of them on watch for the early symptoms of a medical syndrome, a behavioral disorder.
Does the boy disregard authority, make sneering comments in class, and push other kids
around and miss school? Maybe he has a conduct disorder. Is he fidgety, impulsive,
disruptive, easily bored? Perhaps he is suffering from ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder) the most frequently diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. Does he prefer
computer games or idleness to homework? He might have dyslexia or another learning
"There is now an attempt to pathologize what was once considered the normal range
of behavior of boys," said Melvin Konner of the Departments of Anthropology and Psychiatry
at Emory University in Atlanta. "Today, our childhood heroes like Tom Sawyer and
Huckleberry Finn surely would have been diagnosed with both conduct disorder and ADHD,"
And both, perhaps, would have been put on Ritalin, the drug used for treating attention-deficit
To be fair, many children do have genuine medical problems like ADHD, and they
benefit enormously from the proper treatment. Psychiatrists insist that they work very
carefully to distinguish between the merely uncontrolled child, and the child who has a
serious, organic disorder that is disrupting his life and putting him at risk for all the demons of
adulthood: drug addiction, shiftlessness, underemployment, criminality and the like.
At the same time, some doctors and social critics cannot help to notice that so many of
the childhood syndromes now being diagnosed in record numbers affect far more boys than
girls. Attention deficit disorder, said to afflict 5 percent of all children, is thought to be about
three to four times more common in boys than girls. Dyslexia is thought to be about four
times more prevalent in boys than girls; and boys practically have the patent on conduct
disorders. Furthermore, most of the traits that brand a child as a potential syndromeur just
happen to be traits associated with young males: aggression, rowdiness, restlessness, loudmouthedness, rebelliousness. Nevertheless, none of these characteristics is exclusive to the
male sex, of course.
Perhaps part of the reason why boyish behavior is suspect these days is Americans'
obsessive fear of crime. "We're all really terrified of violence," said Dr. Edward Hallowell, a
child psychiatrist at Harvard. "Groups of people who have trouble containing aggression
come under suspicion." And what group has mote trouble containing aggression than males
under the age of 21?
Another cause for the intolerance of boyish behavior is the current school system. It is
more group-oriented than ever before, leaving little room for the jokester, the tough, the
tortured individualist. American children are said to be excessively coddled and undisciplined,
yet in fact they spend less time than their European or Japanese counterparts at recess
where kids burn off the manic energy they've stored up while trapped in the classroom.
Because boys have a somewhat higher average metabolism than do girls, they are likely to
become more restless when forced to sit still and study.
Charlotte Tomaino, a clinical neuropsychologist, notes that the road to success in this
life has gotten increasingly narrow in recent years. "The person who used to have greater
latitude in doing one thing and moving onto another suddenly is the person who can’t hold a
job," she said. "We define success as what you produce, how well you compete, how
you keep up with the tremendous cognitive and technical demands put upon you.” The
person who will thrive is the one who can sit still, concentrate and do his job for the required
10, 12 or 14 hours a day.
1. The saying "Boys will be boys" suggests that
a. male sex is determined by the Y chromosome.
b. all behavior is determined by genes.
c. boys are expected to misbehave.
d. parents can't control their sons behavior.
2. A. Fill in each space with ONE word only.
ADHD is a _________ disorder and dyslexia is a _________ disorder.
B. What are the symptoms that experts look for?
the child __________________
the child __________________
3. “There is now an attempt to pathologize what was once considered the normal range of
behavior of boys" (paragraph 4).
This statement means that today experts classify certain behavior as __________________
while in the past the same behavior was regarded as __________________.
4. Paragraph 5: It is important to diagnose whether a boy’s behaviour is an organic disorder
because there is a danger that organic disorders lead to
5. The information in paragraph 6 illustrates the idea that
6. What two reasons are given in paragraphs 7-8 for the fact that “boyish behavior" is not
tolerated nowadays?
7. Circle the correct choice according to paragraph 8?
Girls are (less/ more) restless while studying because their metabolism levels are
(lower/ higher).
8. According to Charlotte Tomaino, what kind of person cannot hold a job?
9. What is the author' s purpose in writing this article?
to show that boys’ misbehaviour is no longer viewed with the understanding it once
to show that all boys who misbehave suffer from some kind of
organic disorder.
to show that boys who misbehave will become aggressive and
unstable adults.
d. to show that boys who misbehave are more common than girls
that misbehave.
While until quite recently boys’ misbehavior was regarded as normal, today it is perceived as
a 1) ________________ disorder. They may be diagnosed to have a conduct disorder, an
ADHD or a learning 2) _______________. Psychiatrists claim that is it necessary to 3)
________________ between a rebellious child and one with an organic disorder. They warn
that the latter may develop such adulthood conditions as drug addiction and 4)
_______________. Critics have noticed that 5) _________________ are more likely to be
affected by behavioral and learning disorders.
There are two major reasons for the negative attitude towards these boyish syndromes. First,
Americans are obsessively 6) ______________ of crime. The second reason is related to the
7) _______________ system. Charlotte Tomaino notes that since society disfavors any
symptoms of “boyish” behavior, a person displaying these symptoms is less likely to 8)
Vocabulary Exercises
I. Find a word(s) in the text that means the same as:
not long ago (p.1) ______________
show off (p.1) ______________
watchful eye (p.3) ______________
dismiss (p.3) ______________
laziness (p.3) ______________
span (p.4) ______________
true (p. 5) ______________
label (p. 6) ______________
can’t keep (p.9) ______________
II: Circle the word that doesn't belong.
1. syndrome
2. behaviour
3. scrutiny
4. define
discriminate differentiate
5. traits
characteristics symptoms
6. parchment
III. Match the words to their definitions / meanings.
1. Acting in a way that is considered naughty …………………………………
2. Make a disease out of normal behaviour ………………………………..
3. A malady or kind of illness ………………………………..
4. Act like a male child …………………………..
5. True or real ……………………..
6. Label or mark with a sign or name ………………………….
7. Lacking self-control ………………………………
8. In addition ……………………………………………
9. Lack of patience …………………………….
10. Do well, succeed …………………………
11. Not pay attention ………………………..
12. Happens much of the time ……………………………………………….
Reference Questions:
Who or what do the following refer to?
1. both (p.4….”And both…”) _________________________________
2. the like (p. 5) ____________________________________
3. these characteristics (p. 6) _________________________________
4. We’re (p. 7) ____________________________________________
5. their (p.8) ________________________________________
by Emily Mitchell
Adapted from TIME Magazine
Before starting their morning lessons, children in public schools across the U. S. recite
the pledge of Allegiance.* The familiar words echo in immaculate suburban buildings with
bright, airy classrooms and labs where children study art and languages, learn on the latest
computers and play sports in well-equipped gyms. They also ring out in overcrowded city
schools, where sewage backs up into bathroom plumbing and where students share used
textbooks and practice typing on handmade, fake keyboards. Whatever the setting, the
pledge ends the same. "With liberty and justice for all."
The notion of equal opportunity is central to the American ideal. For that goal to have
any meaning, it must be rooted in an education system that gives every child a chance to
succeed. But for decades, a gulf has been widening between the quality of public schooling
for children of privilege and that for those born into poverty. By relying on local property taxes
as a crucial source of funds, the U.S. has created a caste system of public education that is
increasingly separate and unequal.
As these disparities have become too glaring and shameful to ignore, a reform
movement has grown that seeks to play "Robin Hood" by taking funds from richer districts to
help pay for schools in poorer ones. Since the 1970s, 10 states have decided -- or been
forced by courts -- to overhaul their methods of funding some of their school districts.
The forces of equity have now been joined by a powerful voice
Jonathan Kozol,
author of Savage Inequalities. After two years of research, Kozol has written a searing report
of the extremes of wealth and poverty in America’s school system and the blighting effect on
poor children, especially those in cities. Kozol observes that inner-city schools are bleak
fortresses with rotting classrooms and few amenities to inspire or motivate the young. One
history teacher has 110 students in four classes, and only 26 books. Every year, says a
teacher in a nearby school, "there's one more toilet that doesn’t flush, one more drinking
fountain that doesn’t work, one more classroom without texts.”
In painful detail, Kozol describes city schools where water cascades down the
stairways when it rains, and where the chemistry teacher uses a popcorn popper** as a
Bunsen Burner.*** Kozol juxtaposes these images with descriptions of the luxurious facilities
in nearby wealthy suburbs which have among other things: seven gyms, rooms for fencing,
wrestling and dance instruction, and an Olympic-size pool.
For Kozol and many activist reformers, the chief villain of the education tragedy is
"local control", America’s decentralized system of school administration and its heavy
reliance on property taxation. Everything from pencils to teachers’ salaries is paid for through
a process that varies from state to state. But in most cases, about 6% of the money in any
district comes from Washington, from the state government and 47% from locally generated
property taxes. Kozol believes that the best way to improve schools would be to do away
completely with the property tax as a source of revenue. In its place, he suggests a
progressive income tax to raise money that would then be distributed fairly among districts.
The reform movement is already producing some results. In 1989, Kentucky’s
Supreme Court ruled that the state’s school finance system was unconstitutional; the richest
schools were allocated as much as $ 4,200 a year for each pupil, while poorer ones received
only $1,700 per student. Under a plan that is in its second year, virtually every school district
now has at least $3,200 to spend per student; over the years, the gap between rich and poor
districts will be further narrowed. Children from low-income families now have new preschool
programs, and there is a wide range of Saturday and after-school projects for students with
special needs.
But in other parts of the country, the fight over redistributing privilege remains bitter.
Texas' State Supreme Court ruled in 1989 that gross educational inequality could no longer
be condoned. Since then, Texas lawmakers have come up with two plans that the judiciary
found unsatisfactory. The Governor signed a compromise law last year that shifted millions of
dollars in property-tax revenue to poorer districts, but the bill’s constitutionality is still under
challenge in the courts.
Kozol points out that in most cases better-off Americans simply have a narrow view of
what they are doing. "They do not want poor children to be harmed," he writes, "they simply
want the best for their own children.”
Yet anyone who has seen the shameful disparities between public schools in rich and
poor areas, or who has read Kozol’s vivid account, will find it difficult to deny that the
differences in funding make a mockery of the nation's ideal. Fifth-grade teacher Madelyn
Cimaglia has no doubt of the wonders that could be worked in San Antonio’s Edgewood
school district if more funds were available. Like thousands of her peers, Cimaglia
supplements meager classroom supplies with her own money, buying her students books
such as "Alice in Wonderland." “Our kids would fly if we had resources similar to the rich
districts," she says.
oath of loyalty to the U.S. Government
** machine to make popcorn
*** equipment in science laboratories
1. What is the writer's purpose in this article?
to compare the situation of poor school children in different states
to show that money will not solve the problem of bad schools
to illustrate the need for reform in the United States education system
to explain why the poor in America do not deserve bad schools
2. FILL IN THE BLANKS IN THE SENTENCE BELOW (not more than 3 words in each
In paragraph 1, __________________ are being contrasted with __________________
2. In paragraph 2 the writer says, "For that goal to have any meaning…" What
goal is he referring to?
4. According to paragraphs 2 and 3,
What is the cause of the "caste system" in the U. S. schools?
How is this situation being corrected in some states?
5. What general point is illustrated by the examples in paragraphs 4 and 5?
6. How does Kozol suggest we solve the problem of local control of the
Each state should pay for school supplies and teachers’ salaries.
Schools should receive money through a progressive income tax.
Schools should raise money from local owners of property.
America should adopt a decentralized system of administration.
7. a. As described in paragraphs 7 and 8, redistribution of school funds depends on
personal donations
private schooling
a new constitution
legal procedures
b. In what American state has this problem of redistribution been solved?
8. According to paragraph 10, the current distribution of funds in education (corresponds/
doesn't correspond) with the nation's ideal.
Quote from the text to support your answer.
9. What is the writer's conclusion?
a. More money in poor schools will give the children a chance to succeed.
b. America's central ideals about the education system are not taken seriously.
c. Teachers should buy students books and extra supplies with their own money.
d. America’s children need to read more books like Alice in Wonderland.
Summary cloze
The writer contrasts suburban schools with 1. ____________ schools. She claims that
although in every school the children start their 2. _____________ reciting the pledge of
Allegiance, the opportunities in the two kinds of schools are not equal. While pupils in the rich
districts classrooms with fresh 3. _____________, learn on the most modern 4.
_____________ and practice 5. _____________ in well-equipped gyms, pupils in the poor
6. _____________ textbooks and don’t have computers. A caste system was created
because U.S. was 7. ______________ on local property taxes.
As a result, a 8. ______________ movement aims to 9. _____________ money from richer
districts and give them to schools in the poor districts. Jonathan Kozol, a famous 10.
_____________, has 11. _____________ the forces of equity. He has written a report that
contrasts the privileged schools and the poor schools. The reform movement already lists
13. ____________ between poor and rich schools has been narrowed in Kentucky. The
writer concludes saying that if poor schools have more money, the children there will have a
better 14. ______________ to succeed.
Vocabulary Exercises
I. Find a word(s) in the text that means the same as:
spotless (p.1) ___________
crammed (p.1) ___________
idea (p.2) ___________
differences (p.3) ___________
fairness (p.4) ___________
point by point (p.5) ___________
main (p.6) ___________
were given (p.7) ___________
however (p.8) ___________
only (p.9) ___________
II. Find a word(s) in the text that means the opposite of:
empty (p.1) ___________
real (p.1) ___________
less and less (p.2) ___________
divided (p.4) ___________
operative (p.4) ___________
paltry (p.5) ___________
partially (p.6) ___________
widened (p.7) ___________
friendly (p.8) ___________
boring (p.10) ___________
Surprising Search Patterns
A new study questions the common assumption that search engines control the
hierarchy of the Internet.
By Kate Greene
August 18, 2006
Conventional wisdom says that search engines are a fundamentally unfair
technology -- favoring the most popular sites and helping them to become even more
popular. This assumption, captured in the term "Googlearchy," is now being challenged by
researchers at Indiana University who have used real-life data to test it. Their results show
that Web-surfing behavior isn't as influenced by search-engine rankings as was previously
Understanding the impact of search engines isn't just an academic undertaking,
says Filippo Menczer, professor of informatics and computer science at the University of
Indiana in Bloomington. It has implications for creating online advertising models based on
search results, building better search engines, devising online political campaigns, and
understanding how people use the Internet. "Search engines have become the gateways
between people and information," he says. "If a search engine has a bias, it has a huge
impact because it can direct people to one sort of information and not another."
Search engines rank and list pages by popularity, a feature measured, in part, by
how well-connected a page is to the rest of the Web. The more pages linking to a certain
page, the higher that page will rank. Since these highly ranked sites are easier to find through
a search, they will continue to get more hits. "The more popular sites get more and more links
and new sites have no hope," says Menczer.
The researchers created two extreme Web-browsing models: a person who used
only search engines to find content and a person who browsed without search engines,
instead following links from one page to another. The researchers then compared these two
models with real-life data about site traffic for Web pages and the number of links pointing to
those pages.
They expected the real-world data to fall somewhere between the two extremes:
targeted searching and haphazard surfing. Instead, it turned out that typical Web use -presumably a combination of searching and surfing -- concentrated less on popular Web
sites than either model had predicted. In other words, real-world Web searching does not fuel
the Googlearchy nor does it ignore less-popular sites. "This was not what we expected and
we were surprised by it," says Menczer.
The explanation appears to be fairly simple: more and more people are searching
for more specific information. If someone submits a general query, say, "bird flu," the results
at the top of a search-engine's results page will indeed list high-traffic websites, for example,
the Centers for Disease Control site. And that site's popularity will be reinforced. But Web
searches are becoming increasingly more complex, according to Menczer. A search for "bird
flu Turkey 2005" will bring up far fewer results, and lead to more obscure pages. "If you
consider that people submit diverse queries that return a small number of hits," he says, "that
means traffic is distributed to less-popular sites."
The results are somewhat controversial because many people have been
operating under the assumption that a Googlearchy does exist, says Albert-László Barabási,
professor of physics at the University of Notre Dame and also an expert on Internet behavior
and how websites are connected to each other. He agrees with Menczer that general
searches do make some types of sites more popular. "I think the message here is that as
soon as you become a slightly more sophisticated searcher, then you're breaking the spell of
the Web," he says.
The theory that people are becoming more adept in searching the Web is borne
out by some hard data, too. According to Hitwise, a firm that tries to improve companies'
search rankings, people are increasingly using more words per search query. Based on this
trend, Menczer's research seems reasonable, says Bill Tancer, general manager of global
research at Hitwise.
But Tancer also questions the quality of data used to test the researchers' models.
For example, the traffic data for the research was gleaned from a free, downloadable search
tool, Alexa, which provides Web statistics. But, according to Tancer, this data could be
biased because Alexa users tend to be online marketers rather than average Web users.
In addition, the study used data from 2003, and "a lot has changed since then,"
says Tancer. Hitwise data, which is collected directly from Internet service providers such as
AT&T, suggests that people interact with the Web in a number of ways, not just by either
using searching engines or surfing. Tancer says people also end up on sites from directly
typing in a URL, through sponsored links, where companies pay money to appear
prominently on a search page, and through social networking sites.
Indiana's Menczer says that the paper, released last week in the Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, is a first attempt to show how Web data may or may not
corroborate the idea of a Googlearchy. Currently, his group is exploring the effects of other
modes of Web use, including social search, to see if sites such as and
amplify or diminish his team's results.
Meanwhile, the Indiana researchers' work provides an important analysis of a
commonly held assumption about search engines, says Matt Hindman, professor of political
science at Arizona State University in Phoenix. Using "empirical data to model these
relationships rather than just assume" is what had been missing, he says.
1. What is the definition of “Googlearchy”? ____________________________
2. Paragraph 1: The results of the Indiana University Researchers show that search engine
rankings influence web-surfers’ behavior MORE/LESS than was previously thought.
Justify your answer by quoting from the text
3. Which of the following is NOT given as an implication of search engines?
building improved search engines.
helping politicians’ campaigns
advertising the search engines
understanding how people use the Internet.
4. Search engines don’t affect the kind of information people find about a particular subject.
True or False
Quote from the text to support your answer.
5. Paragraph 3: Search engines list pages according to their ______________, which is
partly determined by how many other pages are _____________ to that site.
6. People who “surf” the Internet ____________________from site to site, instead of using
7. Paragraph 5: The study showed that real-world Internet users ARE/ARE NOT affected by
“Googlearchy”. Why?
8. The example of “bird flu Turkey 2005” illustrates the point that searches that are
MORE/LESS specific DECREASE/INCREASE the power of the search engine.
9. List Bill Tancer’s reasons for refuting the study
i. ___________________________________________________________
ii. ___________________________________________________________
iii. ___________________________________________________________
10. What is the main idea of this article?
a) Search engines only have a large influence on people’s behavior when the query is
very general.
b) Search engines help to make popular sites even more popular.
c) There is a large difference between people who use search engines, and those who
“surf” the Internet.
d) People are becoming more sophisticated in their use of search engines.
Many people believe that search 1. _____________ affect the kind of information people find
on the Internet and how 2. ________________ particular sites become. This study
examined the behavior of 3. _______________ who “search” for information on the internet,
and those who “surf” by following one 4. _____________ after another. The researchers
were 5. ________________ to find that people don’t spend much time in popular sites. In
fact, when users search for more 6. _______________ information, the search engine does
not 7. ________________ their behavior. However, experts on internet behavior feel that the
results of the research are 8. ________________, and wish to conduct further studies.
Vocabulary exercises:
Find the following words in the text and study their meanings in context:
Paragraph 6
Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 7
Paragraph 8
Paragraph 3
Paragraph 9
Paragraph 4
Paragraph 12
Paragraph 5
Fill in the blanks with the words from the above list
1. This theory is too ___________________ for me. Could you explain it to me in a simpler
2. Peer attitudes often __________________ modern-day teenagers.
3. These sheets are made of high ________________ material.
4. The contract signed between the students and the government will have long-term
5. After a continuous __________________ of the data, the researchers formed their
6. This new model of cell-phone has all the _________________ desired by a technology
freak. It is equipped with a camera, an MP4 player and has Internet access.
7. Unlike material things, feelings are impossible to ___________________.
8. It is important to be consistent when bringing up a child and not to confuse him/her with
_________________ messages.
9. While youngsters often seek extreme experiences, their parents encourage
___________________ behavior.
10. People experiencing a jet lag after a long flight may suffer a disruption in their sleep
11. Economists are trying to _________________ the future of the world economy.
12. It is becoming ___________________ difficult to follow the new computer
developments as this area is very dynamic.
Find all the connectors in the text, study their meanings and put them in the correct category
Cause/effect Contrast
Exemplification Alternative
Reference words
What do the following words and phrases refer to?
1. Their assumption … (Para. 1)
2. It has implications…(Para. 2)
3. They expected the real world data…(Para. 5)
4. This was not what we expected and…(Para. 5)
5. since then (Para. 10)
Profiting From Pupils
By Barry James,
The International Herald Tribune
October 15, 2001
"Give me the child until he is seven," the Jesuits used to say, "and I will show you the
man." That message rings true today as corporations target customers at a younger and
younger age. Business is ubiquitous in the classroom in the United States and present to a
growing extent in other countries. "The fox is in the henhouse," said Frank Torres, legislative
counsel of the Consumers Union in Washington implying that the corporations “consume” the
children in the system. He estimates that corporate-sponsored teaching materials are
reaching more than 20 million students every year at U.S. elementary and high schools.
Commercial companies fill the gap left by inadequately funded public programs. Teachers get
material and curriculum ideas, and schools get equipment they could not otherwise afford in
exchange for allowing ads, promotion and marketing surveys in their classrooms.
2. Yet many educators are concerned that schoolhouse promotion puts business in place of
public service and defeats one of the original goals of education -- to create good citizens -by viewing young people as actual or potential consumers. "A classroom should be a place
for children to learn, not a place for companies to learn how to market to kids," Mr. Torres
3. Even in France, where education is tightly controlled by the central government and the
law forbids any kind of direct advertising in schools, commercial companies manage to
infiltrate thinly disguised publicity into the classroom. Colgate teaches children how to brush
their teeth, the Leclerc supermarket chain tells them about the European single currency and
the state power monopoly EDF (the Public Electricity Company) provides material in favor of
nuclear energy. Recent changes announced in Britain allow a role for private companies in
state education. Although this role is limited to the rescue of underperforming schools, it has
touched off anger among unions and within the governing Labour Party. Nigel de Gruchy,
head of the main teachers' union, said that allowing private companies to take over the
running of schools was "an expensive one in terms of ethics. It's the implied criticism: 'Public
sector bad, private sector good.' Don't they realize the damage they are doing?"
4. Private management of schools and commercial activity in the classroom in Europe pales
in comparison with the experience in the United States, which may push for greater access to
overseas markets by its education sector in the next round of world trade talks .A recent
article in Policy Review said American teenagers spend $57 billion directly each year and
influence family expenditures of another $200 billion. One in three college students have four
or more credit cards and average debts of $2,750, according to the 2001 Nellie Mae credit
card survey.
5. Yet the credit card companies also teach "financial literacy" to children in high school, Mr.
Torres said. Companies aim at the hearts and minds of students, as well as their wallets.
"Take your message into the classroom, where the young people you want to reach are
forming attitudes that will last a lifetime," says a publicity brochure entitled "They're Ready to
Spend and We Reach Them!" published by one developer of school publicity programs,
Lifetime Learning Systems. "School is the perfect time to communicate to young people
directly," the brochure says, "the ideal time to influence attitudes, build long-term loyalties,
introduce new products, test market, promote sampling and trial usage and, above all, to
generate immediate sales." In California, some schools rich in athletic talent are known as
"shoe schools" because companies like Nike, Adidas and Reebok are giving away products
in the hope of courting future superstars, says a report published in September 2001 by
Arizona State University's Commercialism in Education Research Unit.
6. Sport in education is particularly big business, offering myriad opportunities for commercial
sponsorship and advertising. Companies use prominent sports stars and pop music figures to
peddle their wares on Channel One, a commercial television channel that reaches an
estimated 8 million schoolchildren every day. In return for a satellite dish and television
receivers, schools agree to make students watch special information and entertainment
programs on at least nine teaching days out of ten. The Consumers Union, meanwhile, is
backing legislation that would prevent companies from collecting personal information about
children and their families in the course of marketing surveys. For example, the union says, a
cable television channel in New Jersey asked children to fill out a 27-page booklet called "My
All About Me Journal" as part of a marketing campaign.
7. The objection raised by Mr. de Gruchy about privately managed schools has long been
swept aside in the United States, where private companies compete for a share of an annual
education budget of $324 billion. The largest for-profit educational company, Edison Schools
Inc., runs more than 100 schools. Critics say that the private schools usually end up with the
brighter students, leaving the problems to the public sector, and that when the circumstances
are evenly-balanced -- when public schools are adequately funded and supported -- there is
no difference in results.
8. But the trend toward privatization fits with the increasing reliance on technology and
standardized tests (the charter schools are well equipped with computers) and government
pressure for schools to cooperate with business. The Arizona State University study suggests
that commercialism in U.S. education is turning into the accepted norm. It quoted an editorial
from a North Carolina newspaper, praising a school board for signing a soft drink contract,
which reads: "We at the North Durham Institute for Free Enterprise are excited to see that
area school systems are finally beginning to augment their incomes with corporate
sponsorship. Unimaginative educators have for too long harbored a prejudice against
teaching the benefits of healthy greed. We believe privatization can only improve public
education, directly by monetary profit and indirectly by teaching kids lifelong lessons in sales,
marketing and business.”
1. "The fox is in the henhouse" is an idiom. In this context it means:
a. school children are trapped in the education system
b. school children are at risk in the education system
c. school children are lost in the education system
d. school children are scared in the education system
2a.How do schools benefit from commercial companies?
b. What do businesses receive in return?
3. Paragraph 2: What is the criticism of commercial funding in schools?
Complete the sentences. Write 2-3 words in each space.
Good education should _________________________ . However, many educationalists
_______________________________ by businesses.
4a. Circle the correct word.
According to paragraph 4, Europe has more / less commercial activity in schools than
b. Copy the words that support your answer.
5. One goal of school publicity programs is the generation of immediate sales. List five other
a. ____________________
b. ____________________
c. ____________________
d. ____________________
e. _____________________
6. What is the connection between companied like Adidas and Nike and “shoe schools”?
Complete the sentences. Write 2-3 words in each space.
"Shoe schools" are sponsored by companies that manufacture ____________________ .
They supply free products to attract _____________________.
7. Some schools accept the latest technology from their sponsors.
What condition do they have to fulfill?
8a.Circle: true / false.
The Consumers Union is in favor of allowing children to supply data about
themselves to companies.
b. Copy the words that support your answer.
9. Paragraph 7 begins with the words "The objection raised by Mr. de Gruchy". Write the
number of the paragraph in which Mr. de Gruchy's objection is given.
10. According to the last sentence of paragraph 7, “there is no difference in results”. That
means that there is no difference between _________________
and ___________________.
11. What are the two reasons for corporate sponsorship of schools?
a. ___________________________________________________________
b. ___________________________________________________________
12. The main idea of this article is:
a) schools help companies learn how to market to youngsters
b) commercialism creates equality between public and private schools
c) allowing private enterprise to be involved in running schools is unethical
d) commercialism is becoming the accepted norm in American schools
Summary Cloze: Write ONE word in each space.
Nowadays business is everywhere: even in (1) ______________. Corporations (2)
(3) ________________ materials and providing (4) ______________ for public programs
and buying school equipment. In return, companies are allowed to advertise and promote
their (5) _____________. As a consequence, there is increasing concern that education is no
(6) _______________ good citizens. Instead, young people are seen as potential (7)
(8) _______________ on family spending. Therefore, although teachers' and consumers'
unions (9) ______________ to private companies in schools, commercialism in education is
becoming the (10) ____________ in Europe and the USA rather than the exception.
Vocabulary exercises
I. Circle the word that does not fit.
1. wares goods services products
2. educator
teacher consumer instructor
3. corporations departments companies businesses
4. sector division category department territory
5. bribery sponsorship funding backing
6. allow permit authorize forbid
7. peddle
sell market purchase
8. profit benefit gain exploit
9. norm exception expectation
10. target
aim objective
II. Complete the sentences below using vocabulary from Exercise I.
1. This municipality will not ______________ commercial activities in its
2. Basketball and football teams receive financial ______________ from
large corporations.
3. Commercial activities in schools _____________ the pupils and turn
them into unwitting ______________.
4. In some European countries it is still common for peddlers to travel the
country-side selling their _____________ door-to-door.
5. The _____________ of state education should be to create good citizens. However, this
no longer appears to be the _____________.
The Secret Power of Pets
Animals, like babies, can do wonders for the image, which is why politicians try to be
photographed with both as often as possible. Every American president in living memory has
exploited his pet’s electoral appeal. Are companion animals as good for your health as they
are for the profile?
Public health experts have long been skeptical. After all, dogs bite and pass on
parasites, pigeons and parrots cause lung disease, cats can provoke asthma and tortoises
can transmit salmonella, Yet, animal lovers should be encouraged by recent findings. In
1991, researchers at the University of Cambridge discovered that just months after acquiring
a cat or a dog, some Britons suffer less from perennial health problems, such as headache,
backache and flu. And it was announced last year that Australians who keep pets tend to
have less cholesterol in their blood than non-pet owners with comparable lifestyles, making
them less likely to develop heart disease.
For the time being, these findings are little more than puzzling correlations. Why
should owning a pet make you less likely to suffer from backache? Why should it reduce your
cholesterol level? Many researchers suspect that answers will be found in the subtle links
between mental and physical well-being. If the newly discovered correlations between human
health and pet ownership can be confirmed, they are likely to trigger fresh research on the
psychological and physiological effects of keeping pets.
The first hint that pets could help some people to live longer came from a discovery
made over a decade ago. Erica Friedmann from the City University of New York investigated
whether a person’s social life and degree of social isolation might influence their ability to
survive a heart attack. Friedmann interviewed 92 convalescing male patients and quizzed
them in detail about their lifestyle, a few questions touching upon pets. A year later, 14 of the
92 men had died. Friedmann went back to her data to look at differences between those who
had and those who had not survived. She found that socially isolated people were more likely
to become ill, and that those who had pets were more likely to recover.
So unexpected was this finding that Friedmann began to look at other explanations.
Perhaps the benefits came from the extra exercise the dog owners received from walking
their pets. Yet, she found that people with other sorts of pets that needed no exercise were
also more likely to survive. She then investigated the possibility that pet owners were
healthier to start with, and so had less severe heart attacks. This theory also proved to be
false. Friedmann concluded that owning a pet really did help people to recover after a heart
attack. The benefit she found was small: a 23 percent fall in the probability of death. But
since more than a million people in the U.S. die of heart disease every year, that means that
pets could help 30,000 Americans to survive annually.
In a recent study at the Baker Medical Research Institute in Prahran, Australia, 5741
people attending a heart disease risk clinic were questioned about their lifestyle, and whether
they had any pets. Researchers found that the average cholesterol level of the 874 patients
who owned pets was 2 percent lower than those who did not own pets. Epidemiologists
estimate this might lower the risk of heart attack by four percent. Pet owners also had lower
levels of fats in their blood and lower blood pressure, which indicated that owning a pet was
as efficient in reducing blood pressure as eating a low salt diet or cutting down on alcohol.
No one has yet suggested a mechanism by which pets could lower levels of
cholesterol or triglyceride fats. But Friedmann and her team have at least established that
people sometimes produce physiological responses to animals. They measured the blood
pressure of volunteers who were either resting, talking, reading out loud or greeting their
dogs. As expected, blood pressure levels rose as the volunteers performed slightly stressful
tasks of talking or reading to the experimenters. But when the volunteers talked to their dogs,
their blood pressure returned to resting levels or below. It seems that such responses do not
necessarily depend on stroking or talking to a pet. In various tests involving psychological
questionnaires and standard observational checks of anxiety levels, adults and children
proved to be more relaxed simply in the presence of a friendly dog.
Yet, such studies do not prove there is anything special in our reactions to animals. It
has long been known that anything that distracts our attention from our preoccupations has a
calming effect on the body. A recent experiment indicated that watching a videotape of
tropical fish proved more absorbing and relaxing than watching a thankful of real fish, judging
from measurements of blood pressure. Could pets improve human health simply by
distracting and absorbing us?
Many researchers think this is unlikely. According to advocates of “pet therapy”,
animals can also make us feel better indirectly, by making strange settings or people seem
less threatening. In the late 1960s, for example, B. Levinson, an American psychiatrist,
noticed that severely withdrawn children who were afraid to communicate with people made
rapid contact with his dog, Jingles. By carefully insinuating himself into the child-dog
relationship, Levinson found he was able to reach his child patients.
James Serpell of the University of Pennsylvania also distributed questionnaires. Those
responses indicate that pet owners value their animals as “distinctive personalities with whom
they have affectionate relationships”. It is in the friendship that we find the real explanation for
pets’ beneficial effects on our health.
Study after study has shown that people who feel isolated and depressed are more
likely to succumb to illness than people who claim to be contented. Last year Serpell and his
colleagues showed for the first time that pets could improve an ordinary person’s general
health. They recruited three groups of people. At the start, there was no significant difference
between their scores on a questionnaire mentioning minor health problems. Then one group
of people were given dogs, another cats. When they filled in the questionnaire again a month
later, those who had new pets reported a marked improvement in their general health
throughout a 10-month study. In contrast to Friedmann’s earlier study, dog owners did slightly
better than cat owners, perhaps partly because they also increased their amount of exercise.
Serpell is repeating the study with three times as many people, all of whom have the same
socio-economic status. Halfway through the experiments, the results bear out his earlier
study. Serpell claims that pets provide owners “with a special kind of emotional support,
which is lacking or at least is uncommon in relationships between people”. He claims that an
animal’s muteness is very positive. The problem with language is that although we use it to
communicate our deepest thoughts and emotions, we also use it to deceive, misinform,
criticize and insult. Pets listen and seem to understand, but do not question or evaluate. They
make us feel respected, admired and wanted.
“Our confidence, self-esteem, ability to cope with stresses of life and ultimately, our
physical health depend on a sense of belonging,” says Serpell. The sense of responsibility
involved in caring for an animal is especially significant. Such nurture gives meaning to our
lives, a sense of being needed that can deeply sustain, an ability to set personal goals.
Why then, does not everyone keep pets? Serpell has found that childhood
experiences with pets are the key. Children brought up with pets are much more likely to
have them as adults. Those who went without pets as children seem to remain indifferent to
companion animals throughout their lives.
Pet ownership does have its disadvantages. Britain’s canine population deposits about
4.5 million liters of urine and 1 million kilograms of feces every day, some of it in public
places where it can be a health hazard. Dogs can transmit infection, which can cause
blindness in children. But the condition remains rare. Pet animals also cause significant injury
to people: in Britain over a quarter of a million dog bites are registered each year. Many of
these problems could be minimized by public education and restrictions on dogs in recreation
1. The word “both” in paragraph 1 refers to ______________ and ______________.
2. Complete the sentence
Public health experts have long been skeptical whether
3. Paragraph 3: Fill in missing words with ONE word only
The positive influence of an animal on his owner’s health may be due to a
________________ connection between mental and physical well-being. A positive proof of
this may ________________ new studies on the effects of keeping pets.
Erica Friedmann has discovered that dog owners were more likely to survive heart disease
since they get more exercise from walking their dogs.
Support your answer by copying from the text.
5. What are the TWO things owning a pet is compared to in paragraph 6?
b. ________________________________________________________________
6. What do the results of the experiment mentioned in paragraph 7 illustrate?
7. The case reported by a psychiatrist Levinson shows that
a. pets calm people down by distracting their attention from their preoccupations.
b. pets can alleviate our fear of strange places or people.
c. Jingles is a pet perfectly suitable for communication with children.
d. pet owners have affectionate relationships with their pets.
8. Serpell claims that human-pet relationships are similar to/ different from the relationships
between people because _________________________________
9. Name THREE advantages of having pets according to the text.
i. ________________________________________________________________
ii. _______________________________________________________________
iii. _______________________________________________________________
10. The writer presents disadvantages of having pets in order to convince the readers that
a. they should avoid having pets if they wish to remain healthy.
b. pets are the major cause of infection.
c. the number of pets should be strictly limited.
d. safety precautions are necessary to avoid getting illness from pets.
11. What is the main idea of the article?
a. Pets prolong the lives of their owners.
b. Owning a pet may contribute to one’s political profile.
c. Pets have several advantages for their owners.
d. Pets muteness is very beneficial for their owners.
12. Summary cloze:
1. _________________ . Several researchers present other 2. _________________ of
having pets as well.
For example, Friedmann has discovered that owning a
pet helped people to
3. ________________ after a heart attack. Another study has found that the cholesterol
levels of pet owners are 4. _______________ than those of people not having pets.
It had been suggested that the positive effect animals have on our health is because they 5.
________________ us from our preoccupations. Yet, many researchers believe that this isn’t
true. They suggest that pets affect our emotions. For example, a psychiatrist named Levinson
6. ________________ when pets are around. In addition, animals can neither deceive nor 7.
_______________ us since they don’t possess the human language. Finally, taking care of a
pet teaches a person to be more 8. ________________.
Vocabulary exercises
Finding synonyms: Find words in the text which mean the same as the following
1. buying, purchasing (para. 2) _____________________
2. similar (para. 2) ____________________
3. probably (para. 3) ____________________
4. decrease, lessen (para. 3) _____________________
5. get better (para. 4) _______________________
6. advantages (para. 5) _______________________
7. every year (para. 5) ________________________
8. reactions (para. 7) ________________________
9. strong fear (para. 7) ________________________
10. activities (para. 8) ________________________
11. different (para. 10) ________________________
12. apathetic, uncaring (para. 13) ______________________
13. danger (para. 14) ______________________
14. limitations, boundaries (para. 14) ____________________
In the following sentences, the words in bold may function as different parts of speech and
have different meanings in different contexts. Translate these words as they are used here.
You may need to use a dictionary.
1. Every American president in living memory has exploited his pet’s electoral appeal. (para.
1) ___________________
2. For the time being, these findings are little more than puzzling correlations. (para. 3)
3. But Friedman and her team have at least established …. (para. 7)
4. As expected, blood pressure levels rose as the volunteers performed slightly stressful
tasks… (para. 7) ________________________
Useful grammar
“For the time being, these findings are little more than puzzling correlations.” (para. 3)
According to this sentence, the findings are/are not puzzling correlations.
a little
a few
While “a little: and “a few” have a positive meaning and can be replaced by the word “some”,
“little” and “few” have a negative meaning (meaning “not enough” or “hardly any”) and can be
replaced by the word “no”
Study the following examples:
1. Mr. Smith has little time to talk to you. He is being late for a meeting. (no time)
2. I have a few ideas for my paper. (some ideas)
Read the following sentences and answer the questions:
1. Mrs. Zehavi usually gets little support from her management.
Mrs. Zehavi’s managers encourage/ don’t encourage her.
2. There are a few advantages to working at home as opposed to working in the office.
Working in the office is better than working at home. True/ False
3. There is little difference in the happiness rates among men and women.
Statistically men and women are similarly happy. True/False
4. According to the recent report by the Ministry of Education, few teenagers in this high
school don’t graduate.
Complete the sentence: Most teenagers in this high school _____________________.
Fill in the following table to show comprehension of references in the text.
Reference word/s
Para. #
Who or what the word refers to
These findings
this finding
this theory
such responses
11- bottom
such nurture
These problems
Gestures Offer Insight
Hand and arm movements do much more than accent words; they provide context for
By Ipke Wachsmuth
Scientific American
October 04, 2006
1. Our body movements always convey something about us to other people. The body
"speaks" whether we are sitting or standing, talking or just listening. On a blind date, how the
two individuals position themselves tells a great deal about how the evening will unfold: Is
she leaning in to him or away? Is his smile genuine or forced?
2. The same is true of gestures. Almost always involuntary, they tip us off to love, hate,
humility and deceit. Yet for years, scientists spent surprisingly little time studying them,
because the researchers presumed that hand and arm movements were mere by-products of
verbal communication. That view changed during the 1990s, in part because of the influential
work of psycholinguist David McNeill at the University of Chicago. For him, gestures are
"windows into thought processes." McNeill's work, and numerous studies since then, have
shown that the body can underscore, undermine or even contradict what a person says.
Experts increasingly agree that gestures and speech spring from a common cognitive
process to become inextricably interwoven. Understanding the relationship is crucial to
understanding how people communicate overall.
The Visual Information Channel
3. Most of us would find it difficult and uncomfortable to converse for any extended period
without using our hands and arms. Gestures play a role whenever we attempt to explain
something. At the very least, such motions are co-verbal; they accompany our speech,
conveying information that is hard to get across with words. Hand movements can display
complex spatial relations, directions, the shape of objects. They enable us to draw maps in
the air that tell a puzzled motorist how to reach the main road. People who do not gesture rob
themselves and their listeners of an important informational channel.
4. Neurological findings on individuals with communication disorders also demonstrate a
fundamental connection between speech and gestures. Brain damage that leads to the loss
of mobility in limbs can compromise verbal communication. Patients with aphasia--who do
not have the ability to speak or to understand speech--also find it difficult to gesture or
understand signs by others. These cases and others suggest that the very brain regions
responsible for speech control gestures.
Which Came First?
Observing young children can provide clues to the common development of oral and
visual communication. Up to the age of nine to 12 months, babies reach out with all the
fingers of their open hand for whatever object they want--similar to the chimpanzee begging
for food. A neuronal maturational shift occurs at about 10 or 11 months in girls, somewhat
later in boys: babies begin to point with one finger rather than all the fingers. The effort to get
hold of an object is transformed into directed pointing, usually to get the attention of a
caregiver. The pointing also usually accompanies a baby's initial attempts at verbal
symbolization ("da," "wawa"), even though the early attempts frequently fail. A more nuanced
gesturing vocabulary begins to develop as fine-motor finger control improves, between nine
and 14 months, yet the spoken word continues to lag behind.
6. Synchronized word-gesture combinations begin to be seen in parallel with the child's
developing word usage at 16 to 18 months, ultimately leading to children and adults who
"embody" with their hands and arms the shape of an object, how people in a group exercise
are positioned relative to one another in space, even abstract and metaphorical thoughts. Put
your two palms together, lay them aside your right ear, close your eyes, and lean your head
to the side--most people will understand that posture as a symbol for "sleep."
Orators know that a well-placed gesture can be the best way to make a point hit home.
7. These conventionalized gestures can work without our having to say anything. But McNeill
is particularly interested in the connection between spontaneous gestures and the spoken
word. Adam Kendon, a cognitive scientist and founder of gesture research, hypothesized that
both might stem from the same thought. He observed that the so-called gesture stroke of a
co-verbal hand sign--the actual conveyor of meaning, such as mopping one's brow--is
enacted shortly before or at the latest when its verbal affiliate is enunciated.
According to McNeill's theory, the process of speech production and the process of
gesture production have a common mental source. This mental source includes a mixture of
preverbal symbols and mental images and serves as a point of origin for the thought that is to
be expressed. This growth point, as McNeill calls it, represents a kind of seed out of which
words and gestures develop.
Think First, Gesture Later
9. Different languages clearly differ in how information is conveyed, McNeill says. His former
doctoral student, Gale Stam, now at National-Louis University in Chicago, uses this finding to
determine whether a Spanish speaker who is learning English is beginning to think in
English. If his gesture stroke continues to fall on the verb "climb" while speaking English, he
is probably still thinking in Spanish and thus is purely translating. If the gesture stroke
spontaneously falls on the preposition "up," she assumes that the transition to thinking in
English has occurred.
10. The growing appreciation among scientists for the tight interweave between speech,
thought and gesture is giving rise to theories about how the brain creates and coordinates
these functions. One influential new model comes from psychologist Willem Levelt of the Max
Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. According to Levelt, the
brain produces a verbal utterance in three stages. First the brain conceptualizes an intended
message as purely preverbal information--as a concept that is not yet formulated
linguistically. In the second stage, the brain finds words for this concept and constructs
sentences--again, a purely internal process. Only in the third stage do the organs of
articulation come into play, producing the desired utterance via the lungs and vocal cords.
11. One of Levelt's students, Jan-Peter de Ruiter, has incorporated gestures into this model.
He assumes that the initial conceptualization stage also encompasses a visual precursor for
gestures. According to de Ruiter, the brain creates gestural sketches. In the second stage,
the sketch is transformed into a gestural plan--a set of movement instructions--that leads to
muscle motor programs in the third stage. These programs tell our arms and hands how to
12. This model helps us to understand why gestures may precede the speech they are
meant to accompany. The words first have to be assembled into a grammatically sensible
expression, whereas the motion is conveyed by standard motor instructions. De Ruiter is
examining in greater detail the presumed interaction between speech and gesture for
pointing motions. He has recorded dialogues between two people telling each other stories
and has found that an extended gesture--such as when someone points up toward the sky-119
tends to delay the verbalization to which it refers ("the plane ascended at a steep angle").
Gestures also adapt to speech; when a storyteller has misspoken and stumbles momentarily,
a pre-prepared gesture appears to be held in abeyance until the speech component is
running smoothly again.
13. These kinds of insights show that understanding how the body communicates is crucial
to understanding verbal communication. Spoken words are not the only way humans convey
meaning. As professional orators have known for centuries, a well-placed gesture can be the
most effective way to make a point hit home. The more we learn about how the body
communicates, the better we will become as communicators and observers.
Gestures Offer Insight- Questions
1. The example of individuals on a blind date is brought to show that
2. In the first sentence of paragraph 2 the writer says, “The same is true of gestures.”
What is true of gestures?
3. What view changed in the 1990s?
4. While in the past gestures were considered as_____________________________
______________________, today experts understand that ____________________
5. According to paragraph 2, it's essential that we understand the relationship between
_____________ and ____________________in order to understand
6. Gestures are
a. something we do consciously
b. usually contradictory to what a person says
c. an important part of communication
d. a cognitive process
7. Paragraph 3: People use hand movements to:
i. ___________________________________________________________
ii. ___________________________________________________________
iii. ___________________________________________________________
iv. ___________________________________________________________
8. The example of patients with aphasia shows that ___________________
9. Observation of young children leads to a conclusion that
a. children behave like chimpanzees
b. babies progress when they move from opening the entire hand to pointing with one
c. children learn gesturing before actually speaking.
d. once children learn to speak, they begin gesturing
10. There's no universal gesture to indicate sleep. (Circle one)
Support your answer with a quote from the text:___________________________
11. McNeill WOULD/ WOULD NOT be particularly interested in the symbol for sleeping
because it INVOLVES / DOESN'T INVOLVE speech.
12. According to Adam Kendon, speech (precedes/follows) a gesture.
Copy from the text to justify your answer
13. According to paragraph 8, what precedes a thought formation?
Complete the sentence:
A thought stems from __________________________________________________.
14. Why does Gale Stam study gestures?
To see whether
a. Spanish speakers gesture as much as English speakers
b. all languages use the same gestures
c. learners of a new language begin thinking in that language
d. English is harder to speak than Spanish.
15. (a) Levelt describes different stages of producing a verbal utterance:
a. __________________________
b. __________________________
c. __________________________
b). Jan-Peter de Ruiter, Levelt's student, describes the 3 stages differently. )
What are the 3 stages as he sees them? TWO (2) WORDS EACH
a. ________________________________
b. ________________________________
c. ________________________________
16. What is the main idea of the article ?
a. Spoken words are always connected to gesturing
b. Understanding how the body communicates is vital to understanding verbal
c. When a child points with one finger, we have to see that he is gesturing.
d. Hand and arm movements accent words, and thus help to understand the verbal
Fill in the blanks in the following summary of the text. Use ONE word for each blank.
The writer of this article, Ipke Wachsmuth, deals not only with (1)
(3)_______________ didn't study gestures for so many years because they just assumed
that they were merely (4) _________________ of verbal communication.
Experts now believe that gestures and speech both come from a shared cognitive
(5) ______________ and are very interconnected. Hand movements accompany
(7) ______________ to communicate using only (8) ____________________. He feels it's
very important to understand this (9)____________________ in order to fully understand
verbal (10)______________________.
Vocabulary exercises:
Find the following words in the text and study their meanings in context:
Paragraph 9
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 10
Paragraph 3
Paragraph 11
Paragraph 12
Paragraph 5
Fill in the blanks with the words from the list above. You may need to change the form of the
1. New immigrants are making great _________________ to learn the language and the
customs of the host country.
2. The glass industry ________________ 10 tons of glass from recycled bottles every month.
3. Although the singing performance of the new star went _________________, the judges
criticized it.
4. Observation of the tiny details is the most ___________________ characteristic of a
5. While “The Little Prince” was ________________ written for children, it became a popular
among the adults as well.
6. Spiritual people often have ___________________, which help them make the right
decisions in their lives.
7. The cat quietly crawled in an ____________________ to catch the bird.
8. The __________________ wish of people all over the world is to live in peace.
Translate the following words or phrases as they are used in the text. You need to pay
attention to the parts of speech.
1. accent (subtitle) _____________________
2. position (para. 1) _____________________
3. visual information channel (subtitle) _____________________
4. complex spatial relations (para. 3) ______________________
5. shift (para. 5) ___________________
6. fine-motor finger control improves (para. 5) _________________________________
7. Synchronized word-gesture combinations (para. 6) _________________________
8. relative (para. 6) ____________________
9. common mental source (para. 8) ______________________
10. grammatically sensible expression (para. 12) _______________________________
11. standard motor instructions (para. 12) _____________________________________
Useful grammar
Study the following examples:
1. Our body movements always convey something about us to other people. (para. 1)
2. The body "speaks" whether we are sitting or standing, talking or just listening. (para. 1)
In the first sentence “s” signals the plural form of a noun, while in the second sentence “s”
marks the singular form (he, she, it) of the verb in the present form.
Some of the following sentences contain a grammar mistake. Correct the mistake by
adding/taking off “s” where necessary:
1. Pet often feel the mood of their owners.
2. It has been proved that classical music alleviate stress and reduce anxiety.
3. GPS helps the driver get to his destination in the easiest and the quickest way.
4. Israel export citrus fruit such as lemons and oranges.
5. Depression rate are higher in northern countries since peoples in such countries are
deprived of sunshine.
6. My grandparents consumes organic food, which is rich in fibers and low in fats and
A New Menu to Heal the Heart
By L. Shapiro, M. Hager and N. Joseph
A yearlong study proves that diet, exercise and stress reduction can open arteries and
save lives
1. Like 40 million other Americans, Robert Royall has heart disease. Back in 1986, Royall,
then 49, learned that one of his coronary arteries was 37 percent blocked, seriously impeding
the blood flow to his heart.
On his doctor’s advice, he began following the regimen
recommended by the American Heart Association:
he reduced the fat in his diet to 30
percent of total calories, cut his dietary cholesterol to 300 mg a day and started exercising. A
year later, the blockage had increased to 77 percent. So Royall took more drastic measures.
He enrolled in a research program run by Dr. Dean Ornish of the University of California, San
Francisco, that demanded he adopt a new way of life. His new diet was almost entirely
vegetarian with a third as much fat as the AHA recommended. Along with regular exercise,
he practiced stress-reduction techniques, including meditation. A year later the blockage in
his artery had been reduced to 59 percent, while blood flow through the artery had nearly
tripled. By the standard of conventional medicine, the impossible had happened.
2. Heart disease kills more Americans than all other causes of death combined. Surgical
advances have helped to keep many patients alive, and drugs – with their unpleasant side
effects — can actually heal clogged arteries.
But until this week, there has been no
published scientific evidence to confirm the belief that one could reverse heart disease strictly
through changes in lifestyle. The current edition of the British medical journal, The Lancet,
contains the revolutionary results of a year-long experiment conducted by Ornish and his
colleagues – the program that opened Royall’s artery. Most Americans would look glumly on
a future containing more yoga than ice cream, but Ornish’s patients are thriving. At the very
least his research should prompt a critical new look at the AHA’s widely recommended
If his patients continue to do well, Ornish’s work could change the lives of
3. Even as a medical student at Baylor College of Medicine in Texas, Ornish wondered why
doctors considered it standard practice to bypass blocked arteries – literally – rather than
attack the causes of heart disease. In a coronary bypass operation, vessels from elsewhere
in the body are grafted onto the heart so that blood can circumvent an artery clogged with
cholesterol and other deposits.
In many cases, however, the new arteries themselves
become blocked. With angioplasty, a surgical technique popular since the mid-80’s, a small
balloon is inflated in the artery, pushing aside the deposits to permit the flow of blood. But
clogging often recurs after angioplasty, too.
4. Lifestyle factors had long been implicated in the incidence of heart disease, but Ornish
found that diet, exercise and stress reduction were being tried on a piecemeal basis only. No
researcher had put them all together in a single experiment and measured the effect on the
heart. Ornish decided to do just that, on the theory that if people could benefit from one
major change in their lives, they could benefit even more by making several.
5. Forty-eight volunteers participated in the San Francisco-based study. All were patients
with severe heart disease, and most had decided against surgery. Ornish divided them
randomly into two groups: 28 were put on his experimental regimen, and 20 became a
control group, receiving standard medical care and following the AHA recommendations in
order to provide a base of comparison. The Ornish group adopted a near-vegetarian diet; the
only animal products they could eat were egg whites and one cup daily of nonfat milk or
yogurt. They reduced fat intake to 10 percent of total calories and cholesterol to 5 mg a day
(the amount in half a tablespoon of light cream). They eliminated caffeine altogether, and
those who wished to drink were permitted only two ounces of alcohol a day. To control
stress they meditated, did stretching exercises and practiced other relaxation strategies
derived from yoga. They spent a minimum of 30 minutes three times a week exercising,
usually walking, and met as a support group twice a week.
6. At the end of a year, most of the experimental group reported that their chest pains had
virtually disappeared; for 82 percent of the patients, arterial clogging had reversed. Those
who were sickest at the start of the program actually showed the most improvement on the
regimen. Compared with the findings from the control group, the results from the
experimental group seem even more dramatic.
The patients receiving standard care
reported an increase in chest pain, and their arterial blockage worsened.
conclusion: “Conventional recommendations don’t seem to go far enough. Dietary changes
and a 30 percent fat diet may help prevent heart disease in some people, but it may not be
enough to reverse blockage.”
7. Surprisingly, changes in blood cholesterol were not as closely linked to changes in the
arteries as conventional medicine would have it. Ornish once had thought that a patient’s
arteries would not be healing until blood cholesterol levels dropped below 180 (200 is
considered by most doctors the upper limit for good health). “I was wrong,” he. “Cholesterol
is important, but it’s not the whole story.” As long as his patients stuck with the overall
program, their arteries improved. Robert Royall, who suffers from unusually high cholesterol
owing to a genetic condition, saw his cholesterol drop from 360 to about 250 on the program.
Even so, Ornish was on the verge of prescribing a cholesterol-lowering drug – until he saw
the dramatic change in Royall’s arteries.
8. Should the Ornish regimen be the treatment of choice for heart disease? A growing
number of doctors already advocate Ornish’s principles. “To look to physicians for medicines
and magic treatment isn’t the only answer,” says Dr. Kerry Stewart, assistant professor of
medicine at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. On the other hand, the medical profession is
notoriously conservative, and many physicians will wait to see further research. Dr. Basil
Rifkind of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute notes that Ornish’s is the first
controlled clinical trial to show these results.
New lives:
Meanwhile, Ornish’s patients are thrilled with their new lives.
Hebenstreit, 75, a retired businessman, is the oldest in the group; when he joined the
program he could barely cross the street without chest pains. “Now I can hike for six hours in
the Grand Tetons at 8,000 feet,” he says. Don Vaupel Jr. 51, a coordinator of graduate
studies in psychology at the University of San Francisco, says he used to be fat, sedentary
and angry. Now he’s lost 14 inches around the waist and 82 pounds – an achievement the
Beverly Hill Diet, Weight Watcher, Overeaters Anonymous and his own cayenne pepper-andlemonade diet couldn’t match.
10. Group meetings, with gala low-fat buffets prepared by a resident chef, help keep the
participants enthusiastic. But the real incentive to continue is the fact that they started to feel
better almost immediately, and today they feel great. Ornish thinks even people who aren’t
sick will feel better on his program—and avoid heart disease. “Knowing what we know now, I
think heart disease can be prevented for a vast majority of Americans without a new drug or
breakthrough,” he says.
11. This fall Random House will publish “Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart
Disease,” in which Ornish sets out in detail the science, philosophy and especially the diet
behind his patients’ success.
With its bountiful grains and vegetables, limited protein and
scant animal food, the diet is highly un-American. In fact it’s more like the traditional diet of
all those countries, including China and Japan, where heart disease is rare. The average
American may find it hard to pass up a cheeseburger in favor of a jicama-cucumber salad.
But the average American, notes Ornish, is in line for a heart attack.
1) Robert Royall began to follow Dean Ornish’s new program, which included the following:
a) _______________________________________________
b) _______________________________________________
c) _______________________________________________
2) Ornish’s program was better/worse than the American Heart Association’s regimen.
Support your answer with a quote from the text.
3) Ornish’s study provided scientific evidence that:
a) Americans like ice cream more than yoga.
b) The diet recommended by the AHA doesn’t work.
c) Heart disease is the leading cause of death in America.
d) Heart disease can be greatly improved solely through changes in lifestyle.
4) The problem with bypass operations is that ___________________________
_______________________________. This may also happen following
5) In paragraph 4, it says “Ornish decided to do just that”. What is the author referring to?
6) According to paragraph 5, which of the following is NOT part of Ornish’s regimen?
a) meditation and relaxation strategies
b) a near-vegetarian diet
c) caffeine drinks
d) exercise 3 times a week
7) The control group and the experimental group were compared. Fill in the chart to
describe what happened.
Chest Pains
Arterial Clogging
Control Group
Experimental Group
8) Paragraph 7
In the past Ornish believed that ____________________________________
_____________________, but now he knows that ________________________
9) What do the examples in paragraph 9 show? ________________________
10) Circle the correct choices:
Americans will probably like/dislike the diet that Ornish is recommending, which is
more similar/less similar to Chinese diets. However, the latter people often/rarely have
heart attacks.
11) What is the main idea of this article?
a) Dean Ornish has proven that drastic changes in lifestyle can reverse heart disease.
b) Robert Royall became much healthier by following Ornish’s guidelines.
c) The regimen recommended by the American Heart Association does not reverse
heart disease.
d) Exercise and diet are very important in reducing heart attacks.
12. Cloze: Fill in ONE word in each blank.
Robert Royall, who discovered that his arteries were 1.___________________, participated
in a 2.__________________ program, run by Dr. Dean Ornish. Royall had to change his
use different methods to reduce the 4._________________ in
6._____________________ after a year on this program.
Ornish’s study was the first to scientifically show that heart 7.__________________ can be
prevented through comprehensive changes in 8.____________________.
Vocabulary exercises:
1. Which 2 words mean the opposite of “increased”?
a. Para. 1: ___________________
b. Para. 7: ___________________
2. What is the synonym of “completely” (para. 1)? _____________________
3. Which word in the title means “treat until it is cured”? ___________________
4. What is the synonym of “thought” (para. 3)? ______________________
5. What is the synonym of “take part” (para. 5)? _____________________
6. What is the opposite of “light, minor” (para. 5)? ____________________
7. What is the opposite of “test group” (para. 5)? _____________________
8. What is the opposite of “minority” (para. 10)? ______________________
Fill in the blanks with the words from the list below:
1. Since this school provides its pupils with various interesting activities, they are
2. Some parents expect too much of their children and ________________ a lot from them.
3. When answering a multiple-choice question, you should first _________________ the
least probable answers.
4. You must _____________________ your participation in the conference.
5. Many people today __________________ a healthy lifestyle. They have proper diets and
do regular exercises.
6. After having an argument the two friends haven’t been talking for a long while. Therefore, it
is very difficult to _________________ the situation now.
7. Plastic __________________ are very common nowadays.
8. The writer of the article draws a _________________ between the political situations in
two countries.
Translate the words as they are used in the text:
1. run (para. 1) ____________________
2. conducted (para. 2) ___________________
3. current (para. 2) ____________________
Useful grammar:
In the following sentences the verb forms are in bold. What is common to all of them?
1. A year later, the blockage in his artery had been reduced to 59 percent…. (para. 1)
2. With angioplasty, a surgical technique popular since the mid-80’s, a small balloon
is inflated in the artery…. (para. 3)
3. …. exercise and stress reduction were being tried on a piecemeal basis only.
(para. 4)
4. Surprisingly, changes in blood cholesterol were not …. linked to changes in arteries as
conventional medicine would have it. (para. 7)
5. … I think heart disease can be prevented for a vast majority of Americans without a new
drug…. (para. 10)
Passive voice: When the subject of the sentence doesn’t do anything, but an action is done
to it by another agent, it is called the passive voice.
Verb “to be” + V3
The verb “to be” can be used in any tense. Examine the sentences above again:
Sentence 1: Past Perfect
Sentence 2: Present Simple
Sentence 3: Past Progressive
Sentence 4: Past Simple
Sentence 5: Modal form
Read the following sentences. Write A for Active and P for Passive:
1. Doctors had participated in the conference before they made a dramatic discovery ______
2. A new library has been opened in our city and it is visited by the residents. ____
3. While the candidate was being interviewed, the manager was called by the accountant of
the company. ______
4. The prices fort the basic goods increased last night because of the inflation. _____
5. Mr. Danieli is going to watch a new movie his friend recommended. ______
6. They were invited for a picnic by their friends. ______
7. pollution has caused a lot of damage to the environment _______
8. The mailman was sick today, so his son delivered the mail. ______
Understanding Children from Other Cultures
Emily DiMartino
1. Most teachers today encounter a broad range of ethnically and racially diverse students.
As a teacher, this topic has become an area of major interest to me. I am quickly learning
that concepts of family, morality, rules, time, sex-roles, dress and safety—all of which play a
part in school adjustment and success—vary from culture to culture. This past year, I had the
good fortune to live for a month in another culture. I stayed in a town of 3,000 inhabitants in a
rural area of Sicily called Licodia. This seemed an ideal opportunity to observe and record the
social behaviors of young Sicilian children.
Primacy of the Family
2. One of the first differences noted was the significant role of the family, not only the
immediate family but also all aunts, uncles and cousins. Although I had expected this, I was
not aware of the depth of familial feeling. If children were playing games, riding bikes or
enjoying other activities with friends, and it was time to go to an aunt’s, pick up a
grandmother or fulfill any family obligation, all social interactions would cease. Children were
never excluded from adult family gatherings, nor were they ever excused from them—even
for school assignments. As a teacher I was particularly taken by this. It is very likely that
some of my students in New York come from cultures that share this concept of primacy of
the family and therefore may not always complete assigned work on schedule.
3. Recently I talked with a 3rd-grade teacher who was lamenting the chronic tardiness of two
of the children in her class. Their school performances were adequate, in one case even
superior. Discussing the problem with them made little or no difference. A little investigation
revealed that both children were responsible for walking younger siblings to day care centers,
since their mothers left for work early. Familial obligation exceeded any respect for school
rules. The dilemma was compounded by the great awe the children had for the teacher, as
demonstrated by their inability to look at her and respond when questioned.
responses to an adult by a child were considered disrespectful in their culture.
Attitudes Toward Time
4. Another difference I noted in the Sicilian culture related to the lack of exactness in time. If
children who were out playing forgot about the time and reached the house an hour late, no
disciplinary action was taken. In most instances, it went unnoticed. Promptness at school and
church was not insisted upon. This casual attitude toward time was most striking to me,
perhaps because in the United States, being on time is almost a moral imperative. We
quickly form negative judgments of people who are frequently late, often feeling slighted or
offended when someone is tardy for an appointment.
5. I am sure most teachers working in multicultural settings encounter parents and children
for whom the concept of time has a different meaning. An awareness of these variations may
encourage teachers to talk with parents and children in order to arrive at a working schedule
that will accommodate the differences while respecting individual and institutional needs.
Often judgments and punishments can be avoided when we understand how others are
perceiving and consequently responding to a situation.
Sex-Role Conventions
6. While in Licodia I observed still another area of difference—sex-role conventions. For
example, in one family there were two children—Sara (age 9) and Peter (8). The family had
one bicycle so the two children had to share it. Peter usually got to use the bike whenever he
so desired, while Sara was allowed to ride it only when Peter was otherwise occupied. She
was also required to get his permission to use it. In another family, the daughter (age 9) was
expected to make her 16-year-old brother’s bed as well as her own every morning. This she
did. She also tidied up the kitchen and started preparing dinner as the mother left for work
early in the morning.
7. For many Americans, these examples present girls in subservient positions. For the girls
in these situations, it was “just the way it was.”
This may have a dramatic impact on
elementary school girls, since they are directed away from educational opportunities in order
to carry on household tasks. How many youngsters care for younger siblings after school,
then clean house and make dinner prior to beginning schoolwork? This would certainly affect
a child’s energy level for the performance of school tasks and give strong messages about
what is important and how time should be used.
8. Teachers can deal with this issue by stressing the importance of both boys and girls in the
classroom. Comments and instructions that reinforce sexual stereotypes should be avoided;
for example, asking only boys to open the windows and only girls to be the secretary. The
teacher can promote nonsexist behavior and thinking through attention to oral language
usage and careful selection of textbooks and library books.
Being and Becoming
9. Finally, the Sicilian culture revealed an attitude so different from the “American Way” that I
saved it for the end: the whole issue of being and becoming. Most Americans are always
trying to improve themselves and, if at all possible, to change their very natures. We want to
be thinner, taller, smaller, faster, smarter, more aggressive, more assertive, etc. We are
always in the process of becoming—changing something in our nature and working hard at it.
10. Not so the people of Licodia. They were quite content to let others and themselves be. If
someone were fat, well, it was his nature to be that way. If a child did not do well in school,
well again, that was just her way. This attitude even extended to negative traits. A mother of
two young children described her daughter to me, as follows: “Carmela lies. She always has.
It’s in her nature.” And then she continued to tell me other things about the girl. I believe this
Sicilian mother was expressing a point of view shared by many members of the culture;
namely, that people are accepted as they are, with recognition given to strengths and
allowances made for human frailties. This parent was not condoning lying; rather, she was
acknowledging her own inability to change her daughter’s nature.
11. In my experiences with American parents and teachers, I have never known lying to be
accepted so calmly. When parents are concerned about a child they “suspect” of lying
(frequently they are unable to acknowledge this trait in their offspring), they diligently seek
ways to alter the child’s behavior as well as their own. It seems to me that just as the
tendency to improve ourselves—our bodies, minds, emotions and personalities—will lead to
one kind of learner in the classroom, so too will the other attitude—the one of acceptance.
Children from Licodian homes, for example, are receiving very different information about
what constitutes a “good” life. We as teachers need to be aware of cultural differences and to
recognize that not everyone shares our values and beliefs and that different from does not
mean less than.
How can we as educators learn to deal with the different kinds of students in our
classes? First we can seek out information about their cultural heritage. Concepts of family,
time, nature, sex-roles, aesthetics, ecology, dress and safety are all subject to not only
individual but also cultural interpretations. The examples here provide only a hint of the
diverse cultural explanations of social phenomena that abound in our schools. The important
task for the teacher is to gain insight into some of the shared beliefs and presuppositions that
come to school with the children. Values and beliefs have a profound impact on almost every
aspect of learning that goes on in the classroom.
Keen observation accompanied by
informed opinion will lead to greater understanding of all students.
1. Why would teachers be interested in the concepts of family, morality, rules, time, etc?
2. According to paragraph 2, obligations toward the family are
__________________________ than school work. Children are usually included in /
excluded from family social events.
3. Why was the problem of the children in 3rd grade being late for school was made worse?
a) because they were doing very well at school
b) because they had family obligations
c) because they wouldn’t answer the teacher’s inquiries
d) because their mothers left for work early.
4. According to paragraph 4, in the Sicilian culture,
a) there is enormous pressure to be punctual
b) it is not important to be on time
c) people are judged negatively when they arrive late
d) one must arrive on time for school and church
5. Why does the author mention the story about the bicycle?
6. In paragraph 7, the author is concerned that also in America, girls will
__________________________________________________, which would affect their
7. How does the author suggest that teachers should deal with the problem described in
question 6?
8. Circle the correct choice in both parts of the sentence.
Dieting is an example of being/ becoming, whereas accepting your body as it is, is an
example of being/ becoming.
9. Carmela’s mother feels that it’s alright to lie.
Quote from the text to support your answer.
10. What is the main idea of the article?
a) Teachers should be aware of the impact of values and beliefs that come to school
with the children.
b) Children in Licodia respect their family more than their teachers.
c) Information about cultural heritage helps us understand teachers.
d) The people from small towns in Sicily don’t encourage their children to succeed at
Summary Cloze: Fill in the blanks with ONE word.
A teacher went to a small town in Sicily and observed the 1. _________________ there. She
3. __________________ in attitudes toward time. This helped her understand why children
5. ___________________ position in relation to the boys, and there was no pressure to
6.____________________ oneself; to become a better person.
8. __________________ have an impact on the way that children learn.
Vocabulary exercises:
Find the synonyms of the following words in the text:
1. distinct, different (paragraph 1) ________________________
2. watch closely (paragraph 1) __________________________
3. lateness (paragraph 3) __________________________
4. suitable, appropriate (paragraph 3) _____________________
5. respect (paragraph 3) ________________________
6. come across, meet (paragraph 5) ______________________
7. effect, influence (paragraph 7) ______________________
8. promote (paragraph 8) ______________________
9. characteristic (paragraph 10) _____________________
10. change (paragraph 11) ________________________
Find the antonyms of the following words in the text:
1. urban (paragraph 1) ______________________
2. inferior (paragraph 3) _____________________
3. public (adj.) (paragraph 5) _________________
4. weaken (paragraph 8) ____________________
5. dominant (paragraph 7) ___________________
6. after (paragraph 7) ______________________
7. benefit, advantage (paragraph 10) __________________
Translate the following word combinations as they are used in the text. Pay careful
attention to the parts of speech:
1. racially diverse students (paragraph 1) _________________________________
2. individual and institutional needs (paragraph 5) ___________________________
3. sex-role conventions (paragraph 6) ___________________________________
4. A child’s energy level (paragraph 7) ___________________________________
What do these word combinations have in common?
What do the following words refer to?
this (para. 2, line 2)
them (para. 2, line 7)
this (para. 2, line 8)
it (para. 4, line 3)
This (para. 6)
This attitude (para.10)
The Wal-Mart Way Becomes Topic A in Business Schools
The New York Times
Constance L. Havs
July 27, 2003
WAL-MART isn't just a place for bargain hunters. It's also an attraction for professors. At
universities across the country, interest in Wal-Mart Stores has soared in the last five years, and
all sorts of courses address specific questions raised by the company's dominance. Just as WalMart, the $244-billion-a-year retailer, has put countless rivals out of business, Wal-Mart, the case
study, has pushed aside General Motors, Sears and other companies as the model of business
prowess. It is, increasingly, an example of what to do -- and as some professors see it, what not
to do.
Some professors hold up Wal-Mart as an example of how to do things right or to explain
important concepts. Professor Fram uses Wal-Mart to illustrate ideas like "channel commander,"
a term for the distributor with the most power. And to Uday M. Apte, an Associate Professor of
Operations Management at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, "no company better
illustrates the principle of 'cross docking,' " a technique to minimize trucking expenses. Others
turn to Wal-Mart to highlight social problems that may be overlooked in the shopping scramble -issues like the impact of goods that are made abroad and sold cheaply in the United States.
''Most of the issues we discuss with Wal-Mart as an example really have broader applications,"
said David A. Anderson, Associate Professor of Economics at Centre College in Danville,
Kentucky. He leads students on trips to the local Wal-Mart as part of the course.
Wal-Mart's rapid growth during the last decade has also placed more of its stores closer to
academic centers like Boston, so professors who once might have had only a theoretical
knowledge of its operations can now see them in action.
Perhaps the most specific lesson to emerge from Wal-Mart is obvious, but its impact has
been enormous: costs of all kinds must be kept low so products can be sold for less. 'If I’ve
learned anything about Wal-Mart, it's that cost is king," said Professor Fox, who began studying it
a few years ago. 'They have an almost single-minded focus on reducing costs. It's imbued
throughout the organization. They are very stingy when they buy for America and distribute
products for America."
For Robert Letovsky, Associate Professor of Business at St. Michael's College in
Colchester, Vt., Wal-Mart's inventory management, through a network of scanners, computers
and at-the-ready suppliers, makes it a textbook example of successful turnover -- the retail
world's term for goods moving off shelves and into consumers' hands. The faster that process,
the more profitable is a store.
This interest in Wal-Mart has even created growth in a sub-industry of materials that are
useful to students. The retailer has become a best-selling topic for the Harvard Business School,
which sells Wal-Mart case studies to business schools around the world. The newest such study,
published in March, discusses the company's strategy for so-called neighborhood markets:
building smaller stores in some areas to help Wal-Mart capture more grocery business from local
Many students now in college have grown up with Wal-Mart. To them, it is not a distant
rural phenomenon, the way it might have been only 10 years ago. It is a place where they shop -for school supplies, household products, groceries, gasoline and incidentals.
To some, it is more personal than that. Some students have been forced to return to
school to gain new skills because their previous businesses were destroyed by Wal-Mart's
strength. 'We've had several students who had small hardware or apparel stores, and as soon as
Wal-Mart came into a nearby town, it hurt their business," said Jeffrey E. McGee, Chairman of
the Management Department at the University of Texas at Arlington. 'That is one of the reasons
they are going to the university, to change their career." Other students have experienced the
impact of Wal-Mart in slightly less direct ways. The 40- and 50-year-olds who are returning to
school for master's degrees have worked in environments that have been deeply affected by
Wal-Mart's practices.
Wal-Mart has tried to become a force within education in its own way. Using some of the
money from its vast sales, it has financed retail centers at several large universities, where the
company's executives lecture and its recruiters descend to hire new talent. Among the recipients,
a spokeswoman said, are Western Michigan University, Texas A&M, the University of
Washington and the University of Florida.
Wal-Mart has sponsored retail centers for about nine years, according to Betsy
Reithemeyer, director of the Wal-Mart Foundation, which is backed by sales from the stores. Her
budget, which covers a variety of grants besides those to retail centers, is $150 million -- double
the amount three years ago.
The company's profit also flows to education through other avenues. The Walton Family
Foundation, controlled by the relatives of Sam Walton, who opened the first Wal-Mart in Rogers,
Arkansas., in 1962, pledged $300 million to the University of Arkansas last year to build up its
undergraduate and graduate programs. In 1998, the foundation gave $50 million to rename the
business school on the university's main campus in Fayetteville after Mr. Walton, who was
commonly known as Mr. Sam.
Sam Walton suggests, though, that the company's spectacular growth may not be
sustainable. 'Wal-Mart is getting closer to the sun," he said. 'They scrapped 20-plus stores for
Germany because the courts there forced them to raise prices to avoid preying on small
businesses." He also doubts that some of Wal-Mart's cultural hallmarks -- like the Saturdaymorning chant in which workers shout "Give me a W!" -- will translate well everywhere the
company wants to go.
Other issues for Wal-Mart include unions, which the company has mostly avoided but
which are more dominant in urban areas, as well as higher real estate costs, taxes and increased
congestion that could cut into its famed efficiency.
Academics are also looking at the negative consequences of Wal-Mart when it comes to
considering ethical, environmental and social issues. Professor Anderson of Centre College, a
small liberal-arts college founded in 1819, began teaching his environmental economics course
three years ago, with Wal-Mart front and center as a symbol of what he calls "the implications of
buying cheap things." Shoppers may be drawn to Wal-Mart because of inexpensive products that
have been imported from countries like China, Professor Anderson says, where labor and
environmental standards are lower than in the United States. But there are larger costs, he tells
his students, that are not factored into the price on the tag. ''If we paid the full cost of the gasoline
and the plastic and the health costs of pollution, all of these things would be far more expensive,"
he said.
Professor Anderson also teaches a freshman seminar called ''Economics in an Ethical
World," in which he discusses the benefits Wal-Mart brings as well as the disadvantages. WalMart allows poor people to buy food and other necessities," he said. 'That's the good thing. The
bad thing is that it erodes downtowns (the commercial centers of the cities) and eliminates nicer
stores that have better service and pay their workers better."
About a year ago, Jarnes E. Hoopes, a Professor of History and Business Ethics at
Babson College in Massachusetts, began looking at what he called the symbolic aspects of WalMart. “The company’s approach to commerce interferes with the American dream* for some
people”, he said. ‘’It’s a new kind of twist because it does affect the lifestyles of so many of us,”
he said. “It is an enormous employer, and it is identified with what’s happened with America in the
last 25 years.” Many of the high-paying skilled jobs are gone; instead, people are working at WalMart for half the money, he added.
That perception of reduced opportunity carries over into spending, he says. ‘’People have
a sense of being trapped in this marketplace,” he said. “You work for these low-wage jobs, and
you can have your American dream as long as you buy it at Wal-Mart. So the dream is getting
standardized, and downscaled, in a way that hasn't happened before."
* The American Dream can be defined as having the opportunity and freedom that allows all citizens to achieve
their goals in life through hard work and determination alone.
1. What two functions of Wal-Mart are mentioned in the first paragraph?
i. _____________________________
ii. _____________________________
What general idea do the examples in paragraph 2 illustrate?
3. What has enabled the professors to gain practical knowledge of Wal-Mart’s operations?
4. According to Wal-Mart’s policy, the consumer should buy (cheap/costly) products as a
result of (reduced/increased) production costs.
5. According to paragraph 5, what is the process that may makes Wal-Mart stores more
6. Paragraphs 6-8:
Tick (V) the three effects Wal-Mart has on business students.
_____ Students purchase various goods with Wal-Mart
_____ Students’ businesses are positively affected by Wal-Mart
_____ Wal-Mart case studies are used as learning materials
_____ Students apply Wal-Mart methods in their small stores
_____ Students are exposed to Wal-Mart-like practices at work
7. What was Wal-Mart’s purpose in financing retail centers at universities?
Complete the sentence:
Wal-Mart sponsored retail centers in order to _____________________
________________________________. (up to 5 words)
8. According to Sam Walton, Wal-Mart’s rapid development may not be durable.
Support your answer by quoting from the text
9. Paragraphs14-15:
a. What are the two “implications of buying cheaper things”?
i. _______________________________________
ii. _______________________________________
b. What is Anderson’s additional criticism of Wal-Mart?
10. How does the “company’s approach to commerce interfere with the American dream”?
Complete the sentence with ONE word in each space
Wal-Mart workers can buy goods mostly at ___________________ because their wages are
11. What is the main idea of this article?
a. Wal-Mart has greatly distorted the American dream.
b. Wal-Mart is the right place for bargain-hunters.
c. The Wal-Mart way is commonly studied in business schools.
d. Wal-Mart is an example of how to do things right.
Summary cloze
Fill in the blanks with ONE word only.
Wal-Mart, commonly known as a place for bargain-hunters, has recently become topic A in
business schools. Wal-Mart serves as an example to explain important business
1. __________________. The most outstanding of Wal-Mart’s principles is to minimize the
2. ________________ in order to make the products cheaper for the customers. Business
students experience Wal-Mart influence in different ways. They learn from Wal-Mart
3. _______________ studies, 4. __________________ for various goods in Wal-Mart stores
and sometimes work in 5. ___________________ that have been affected by Wal-Mart
practices. Wal-Mart also influences education by 6._____________ retail centers at
universities and donating 7. _______________ to undergraduate and graduate programs.
However, Wal-Mart’s success may not be sustainable for a number of reasons. First, its
products are imported from countries with 8. _________________ labor and environmental
standards. Second, it damages 9. __________________ and stores with better service. In
addition, it undermines the American 10. _____________.
Vocabulary exercises
1. What word in par. 13 is the opposite of "rural" (par. 7)? _________________
2. What word in par. 2 has the same meaning as the word "products"(par. 4)?
3. What is the synonym of "consequences"(par.14) in the same paragraph?
4. What is the synonym of 'cheap" (par. 14) in the same paragraph?
5. What word is the opposite of "benefits" (par. 15) in the same paragraph?
Find the following words in the text and study their meanings in context
par. 1 rival
par. 9 executives
par. 2 concepts
par. 10 amount
par. 14 environmental
par. 3 rapid
par. 17 opportunity
par. 5 profitable
par. 7 phenomenon
Fill in the blanks with the words from above (there are some extra words)
1. Because of the growing dangers to our planet Earth, there is
more awareness today to __________________issues.
2. The job your boss offered you is a once-in-a-life ________________. You should take it!
3. The Us economy has an enormous ______________on the Israeli economy.
4. The ______________ technological developments make 2-year-old
computers old-fashioned.
5. Wal-Mart is a very ______________ company because its prices
are cheap so that many people buy their products.
6. A cat playing with a dog and a rat is an unusual _______________.
7. Ten years ago it was the last _______________of the 20th century.
8. The ____________ of the technological devices people use has grown steadily in the
recent years.
9. _______________ of big companies usually earn very high salaries.
10. A market competition is the result of _______________ companies fighting over the
money of the consumers.
Saying “The End” Doesn’t Mean It’s All Over”
1. ELEVEN days ago, when prosecutors in Birmingham, Alabama, charged two former Ku
Klux Klansmen with the deadly 1963 bombing of a black church, there was a lot of talk about
closure. "There needs to be some kind of closure, one way or another," said Doug Jones, the
young United States attorney who has overseen the reinvestigation of the bombing that killed
four girls.
2. The Reverend John H. Cross, who was the pastor at 16th Street Baptist Church when the
dynamite detonated 37 years ago, said he felt elated about the indictments". Perhaps this
will bring closure," he said.
3. But what is closure, really? Is it a psychological phenomenon or a political one or some
melding of the two? Has the word become so overused that it is all but meaningless? Can a
judicial resolution lessen the agony of the victims and families, or does it serve only to revive
pain that had long ago subsided?
4. These questions are complicated, say psychiatrists, clergy and those who have
experienced grievous losses themselves. And science has yet to reach many conclusions in
what is a relatively young field.
5. The search for closure has become a driving force in politics, law and culture all across the
world. In South Africa, former President Nelson Mandela's government made the remarkable
choice of placing healing above vengeance — and some say justice — by granting amnesty
to thousands of apparatchiks of the apartheid regime who agreed to testify before the
country's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Chile's courts, encouraged by the newly
installed Socialist government, are pushing ahead with the prosecution of the 84-year-old
former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinoche on charges he was involved in the kidnapping, murder
and torture of thousands of his countrymen.
6. In Neshoba County, Mississippi, officials are delving again into the murders of three civil
rights workers in 1964. Across the South, authorities have reopened number of decades-old
cases that were never adequately investigated because white police officers, prosecutors,
witnesses and jurors sympathized more with white suspects than with black victims. The May
17 indictments of Thomas E. Blanton Jr. and Bobby Frank Cherry in the Birmingham
bombing were the latest examples. Only one of the four men identified as suspects, Robert
Chambliss, was ever tried and that was 14 years later; he died in prison in 1985.
7. At its most elemental, closure is a byproduct of justice, truth and discovery, psychiatrists
and experts say. Finality does not necessarily alleviate the anguish associated with
unjustifiable loss. But it does, in certain cases, help victims and relatives move on. And it
often restores faith in people, in government and even in G-d when a previously unjust
system acknowledges past failings and tries to correct them, however belatedly.
8. But people respond in different ways, and some traumas defy closure, researchers
caution. "For some people, this may be very painful and wake up memories and concerns
that they put aside many years ago," said Dr. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, a Professor of
Ppsychiatry at the University of Michigan who studies how people react to trauma.
9. Dr. Steven M. Southwick, a Professor of Psychiatry at the Yale University School of
Medicine, said it was important to distinguish between seeking justice and seeking revenge.
''While seeking justice seems to help many individuals," he said, "it is commonly felt that
seeking revenge tends to further immerse the individual in the pain of traumatic loss, making
it difficult to move on in life." Dr. Southwick added, "One may never fully put to rest the
traumatic loss of a loved one.”
10. For many of those who have been through the experience, however, there is little
question about the cathartic benefits.
11. Myrlie Evers-Williams was home the night her husband, the N.A.A.C P. (the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People) field secretary Medgar Evers, was shot
in the back in their driveway in Jackson, Miss., in 1963. She sat through two trials in 1964 as
all-white juries deadlocked over the complicity of Byron de la Beckwith. Ms. Evers-Williams,
who later presided over the national N.A.A.C.P., pressed for justice for 30 years. When a jury
finally found Mr. de la Beckwith guilty in 1994, she felt an almost physiological reaction.
12. "I recall this feeling of release that was very spiritual," she said, "and it was as though all
of the demons in my body exited through every pore of my being. It was as though I could
almost see it rushing out. For the first time in all those years, I became free, my children
became free and I felt that Mississippi became freer, as did all of America. That was the point
of closure."
13. Ellie J. Dahmer waited 32 years to see Sam H. Bowers, a former Klansman, convicted of
the firebombing that killed her husband, Vernon, a local N.A.A.C.P. leader. "It certainly gives
you a feeling that at least your country cares about you," she said. "We felt so often that we
had been so badly mistreated because we were black."
14. As both Ms. Evers-Williams and Ms. Dahmer suggest, closure can be as important for a
place — in their case the South — as for survivors. Successful prosecutions of long-ago
crimes are often viewed as political statements, as poignant assertions that times have
changed. In that sense, closure can be as liberating for future generations as for those who
suffered the pain, said Morris Dees, co-founder of the Southern Poverty Law Center, which
monitors cases of racial violence.
15. "If people have problems in a family and sweep them under the rug and don't deal with
them openly and honestly," he said, "they're just going to fester."
1. The example in paragraphs
of____________________. (ONE word)
2. According to paragraph 3, “closure” could be considered a judicial resolution to an
unresolved act. What are two possible reactions to such closure?
a. _____________________________________________________
b. _____________________________________________________
3. Paragraphs 5-6:
According to paragraph 6, “The May 17 indictments … were the latest examples.”
What were they an example of?
4. According to paragraph 7, what are the two possible positive effects of closure?
a. ____________________________________________________________
b. ____________________________________________________________
5. The quotes in paragraphs 8 and 9 attempt to explain the fact that
6. According to Dr. Steven M. Southwick, while ___________________________
leads to the increase in ___________________________, seeking justice alleviates
the pain and makes it ____________________ to move on in life.
The relationship between paragraphs 9 an 10 is
a. main idea and example
b. comparison
c. contrast
d. cause and effect
References to the wife of Medgar Evers and Mrs. Dahmer were made in order
to illustrate these people’s previous mistreatment by the American courts
to illustrate the positivity in closure
to illustrate the violence in the American South in the 1960’s
to praise the American judicial system
Who or what can benefit from closure? (ONE word only)
a. ________________________________
b. ________________________________
In paragraph 3 the writer asks “But what is closure, really? Is it a psychological
phenomenon or a political one or some melding of the two”
Where in the text does he discuss the double effect of closure? Write the paragraph number:
Paragraph: __________
Mr. Dees’ approves / disapproves of closure.
Support your choice by quoting from the text.
Summary cloze: Use only ONE word in each space.
The article discusses the concept of 1. ______________ and its psychological and 2.
______________ implications. The writer mentions that the need for closure has become
essential in politics, law and 3. ______________.
Although closure does not always relieve the 4. ______________ associated with loss, it
5. _____________ in the surrounding world. The examples of the wife of Medgar Evers and
Mrs. Dahmer illustrate these 6. ______________ effects of closure.
7. ______________. The writer concludes saying that individuals and families who have
experienced trauma, should try to 8. ______________ with it rather than ignore it.
Vocabulary exercises
Find out the meanings of the following words in the context of the text
Investigation (para. 1) _____________________
Indictment (para. 2) ______________________
Melding (para. 3) _____________________
Grievous (para. 4) ______________________
Byproduct (para. 7) _____________________
Defy (para. 8) _________________
Distinguish (para. 9) ____________________
Benefit (para. 10) ___________________
Monitor (para. 14) ___________________
Deal with (para. 15) __________________
Match the word to its definition/synonym
Investigation ______
a) combine, bring together
b) differentiate, say the difference
c) advantage
d) a police interrogation
e) handle, face, cope with
f) supervise, watch something closely
g) involving a great sorrow
h) not accept, reject
Deal with
i) legal charge, accusation
j) coming together with something else
Affixes: Using your knowledge of suffixes and prefixes, figure out the meaning of the words
in bold without using a dictionary.
1. …. The young United States attorney who has overseen the reinvestigation of the
bombing that killed the four girls. (para. 1) _____________________________________
2. Has the word become so overused that it is all but meaningless? (para. 3)
3. …. does it serve only to revive pain that has long ago subsided? (para. 3)
4. Across the South, authorities have reopened number of decade-old cases….
(para. 6) _________________________
5. …. closure is a byproduct of justice, truth and discovery… (para. 7)
6. Finality does not necessarily alleviate the anguish associated with unjustifiable
loss. (para. 7) ____________________
7. We felt so often that we were so badly mistreated because we were black.
(para. 13) ________________________
Words with more than one meaning: The words in bold have different meanings in different
contexts. Translate these words as they are used here.
1. …. Two former Ku Klux Klansmen… (para. 1) _______________________
2. The search for closure has become a driving force in politics, law and culture…
(para. 5) ____________________
3. …. The remarkable choice of placing healing above vengeance… (para. 5)
4. …. Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors cases of racial violence.
(para. 14) ____________________
Revenge and the people who seek it
Culture, Personality and Revenge
Michael Price, Monitor on Psychology, June 2009
Historically, there are two schools of thought on revenge. The Bible, in Exodus 21:23,
instructs us to "give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot" to
punish an offender. But more than 2,000 years later, Martin Luther King Jr., responded, "The
old law of 'an eye for an eye' leaves everybody blind."
Who's right? As psychologists explore the mental machinery behind revenge, it turns
out both can be, depending on who and where you are. If you're a power-seeker, revenge
can serve to remind others you're not to be trifled with. If you live in a society where the rule
of law is weak, revenge provides a way to keep order.
But revenge comes at a price. Instead of helping you move on with your life, it can
leave you dwelling on the situation and remaining unhappy, psychologists' research finds.
Considering revenge is a very human response to feeling slighted, humans are atrocious at
predicting its effects.
The avengers
Social psychologist Ian McKee, PhD, of Adelaide University in Australia, studies what
makes a person seek revenge rather than just letting an issue go. In May 2008, he published
a paper in Social Justice Research (Vol. 138, No. 2) linking vengeful tendencies primarily
with two social attitudes: right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance, and the
motivational values that underlie those attitudes. "People who are more vengeful tend to be
those who are motivated by power, by authority and by the desire for status," he says. "They
don't want to lose face."
In his study, McKee surveyed 150 university students who answered questions about
their attitudes toward revenge, authority and tradition, and group inequality. He found that the
students whose answers showed a deference to authority and respect for traditions and
social dominance, had the most favorable opinions about revenge and retribution. Those
personalities, McKee says, "tend to be less forgiving, less benevolent and less focused on
universal-connectedness-type values."
There's also a cultural dimension to people's predilection for revenge, says revenge
researcher Michele Gelfand, PhD, a professor of psychology at the University of Maryland,
College Park. She and her collaborators Garriy Shteynberg and Kibum Kim have found that
different events trigger the revenge process in different cultures; American students feel more
offended when their rights are violated, whereas Korean students feel more offended when
their sense of duty and obligation is threatened, they show in a paper in the January Journal
of Cross-Cultural Psychology. That distinction could fuel intercultural conflicts when one side
seeks vengeance for a slight the other didn't even know it committed. For example, an
American might be more likely to seek revenge on someone who impinges on his or her right
to voice an opinion, whereas public criticism that embarrasses a Korean in front of his or her
friends might be more likely to trigger revenge feelings.
Gelfand has also found that collectivists are more likely than individualists to avenge
another's shame. To collectivists, shame to someone with a shared identity is considered an
injury to one's self, she explains. As a result, she says, "revenge is more contagious in
collectivist cultures." "You just don't realize those situations are construed [by the other
culture] as very important and self-defining," Gelfand says. The emotions that fuel revenge
may differ across cultures as well, says Gelfand. In her studies, she has found that anger
often drives the vengeful feelings of people in individualistic cultures, while shame powers
revenge in collectivist ones.
The revenge paradox
Ask someone why they seek revenge, though, and they're likely to tell you their goal is
catharsis, says Kevin Carlsmith, PhD, a social psychologist at Colgate University in Hamilton,
N.Y. But exactly the opposite happens, according to a study he published in the May 2008
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 95, No. 6).
In a series of experiments, he and his colleagues Daniel Gilbert, PhD, at Harvard, and
Timothy Wilson, PhD, at the University of Virginia, set up a group investment game with
students where if everyone cooperated, everyone would benefit equally. However, if
someone refused to invest his or her money, that person would disproportionately benefit at
the group's expense. Carlsmith planted a secret experimenter in each group and had them
convince everyone to invest equally. But when it came time to put up the money, the plants
defected. The free riders, as Carlsmith calls them, earned an average of $5.59, while the
other players earned around $2.51. Then Carlsmith offered some groups a way to get back at
the free rider: They could spend some of their own earnings to financially punish the group's
defector. "Virtually everybody was angry over what happened to them," Carlsmith says, "and
everyone given the opportunity [for revenge] took it."
He then gave the students a survey to measure their feelings after the experiment. He
also asked the groups who'd been allowed to punish the free rider to predict how they'd feel if
they hadn't been allowed to, and he asked the non-punishing groups how they thought they'd
feel if they had. In the feelings survey, the punishers reported feeling worse than the nonpunishers, but predicted they would have felt even worse had they not been given the
opportunity to punish. The non-punishers said they thought they would feel better if they'd
had that opportunity for revenge—even though the survey identified them as the happier
group. In other words, both groups thought revenge would be sweet, but their own reported
feelings agreed more with Martin Luther King Jr. than with Exodus.
The results suggest that, despite conventional wisdom, people—at least those with
Westernized notions of revenge—are bad at predicting their emotional states following
revenge, Carlsmith says. The reason revenge may stoke anger's flames may lie in our
ruminations, he says. When we don't get revenge, we're able to trivialize the event, he says.
We tell ourselves that because we didn't act on our vengeful feelings, it wasn't a big deal, so
it's easier to forget it and move on. But when we do get revenge, we can no longer trivialize
the situation. Instead, we think about it. A lot. "Rather than providing closure, it does the
opposite: It keeps the wound open and fresh," he says.
Revenge or justice?
If revenge doesn't make us feel any better, why do we seek it? Carlsmith describes
one evolutionary hypothesis, suggested by German psychologists Ernst Fehr, PhD, and
Simon G¨echter, PhD. "Punishing others in this context—what they call 'altruistic
punishment'—is a way to keep societies working smoothly," Carlsmith says. "You're willing to
sacrifice your well-being in order to punish someone who misbehaved." And to get people to
punish altruistically, they have to be fooled into it. Hence, evolution might have wired our
minds to think that revenge will make us feel good.
Another possibility might be that certain groups and societies—such as those in
largely lawless Somalia or in areas of the Middle East where tribal rule holds more sway than
the national government—are more prone to seek revenge because there's just no other way
to obtain justice, says McKee. "By and large, these types of impulses have arisen and still
exist where there's no recourse to law," he says. That can apply to cultures without a
functional legal system, he says, or in groups that operate outside the law, like gangs and the
Mafia. "They have to rely on their own retaliatory methods," he says. Some of these cultures
might not even experience the negative emotional backlash Carlsmith found in his study. In
her experience, Gelfand says, cultures that place a high value on revenge offer more social
support to avengers.
But by looking into what motivates revenge, and by increasing our knowledge about
how revenge makes us feel, it might be possible to combine the best aspect of justice and
revenge. For example, McKee studies ways that institutional punishment can merge with
victim's wishes to participate in that punishment. Victim impact statements, where victims are
allowed to describe their ordeal and offer input on an offender's sentencing, have become
common in U.S., Australian and Finnish courts. Doing this can partially satisfy a victim's
vengeful feelings while also putting the responsibility for punishment on the state, protecting
the victim from the rumination trap Carlsmith describes. "Then victims sort of get the best of
both worlds," McKee says.
Comprehension Questions
Circle the correct answer
Martin Luther King agrees/disagrees with the Bible.
Justify your choice by quoting from the text.
Para 2 presents situations which _______________( oppose / justify ) acts of
revenge, while para 3 presents a situation which ________________ ( supports /
criticizes ) the act of revenge.
True or False ? (Circle one)
According to paragraph 3, the results of revenge are easily predictable.
Support your choice with a quote from the text.
What kinds of thinking is revenge connected with, according to Ian McKee's 2008
Circle the correct answer and fill in each blank with ONE or TWO words.
McKee's findings show that those students who voted for / against revenge, also had
respect for _____________________ , _____________________ and
____________________ .
What were the findings of Gelfand's research? Tick (V) THREE.
____ individualists readily avenge another person's shame
____ vengeful feelings of individualists are often driven by anger
____ revenge of collectivists is driven by shame caused to someone from their group
____ individualistic cultures are more prone to revenge than collectivist ones.
____ Americans are likely to be offended when deprived of the ability to express their
____ Koreans can be more easily offended than Americans and therefore are more prone to
The results of the experiment described in paragraphs 9-10 show that
Circle the correct answer and fill the blanks with ONE word each.
According to Carlsmith's explanation of his findings, a person feels better when he
gets / does not get revenge, because only when there is no revenge,
then can we___________________ the event and ____________________ it.
People are willing to punish others in an "altruistic" manner because
a) someone has forced them to behave like a fool
b) they don't believe that revenge will make them feel good
c) it is worth making themselves feel bad in order to see the offender punished d) of
social pressure
What might be the reason for higher tendency of seeking revenge in the Middle
East and Somalia?
Which two groups of people (besides tribes in the Middle East and Somalia) are
prone to revenge, according to McKee? Give general answers, not specific
True or False ? (Circle one)
According to paragraph 13, in societies that favor revenge, avengers get more backup
from the society.
Justify your choice with a quote from the text.
What allows a victim to "get the best of both worlds" (last sentence of par. 14)?
Complete the following sentence with ONE word in each space
The fact that his/her ________________ ________________ are satisfied whereas
the ________________ for ________________ is put on the state.
What is the main purpose of this article?
To discuss possible reasons and consequences of revenge.
To show that collectivist cultures are more prone to revenge than individualistic
To convince people not to take revenge when they want to.
To help people deal with situations when they cannot take revenge.
Grammar Exercises
Identifying Adjective Clauses and the Words They Modify.
Circle the adjective clause(s) in each sentence. Draw an arrow to the word the clause
modifies. Underline the MAIN verb in the sentence.
1. People who are more vengeful tend to be those who are motivated by power,
by authority and by the desire for status. (para 4)
2. McKee surveyed 150 university students who answered questions about their
attitudes toward revenge, authority and tradition, and group inequality. (para 5)
3. He found that the students whose answers showed a deference to authority
and respect for traditions and social dominance, had the most favorable
opinions about revenge and retribution. (para 5)
4. An American might be more likely to seek revenge on someone who impinges
on his or her right to voice an opinion. (para 6)
5. Public criticism that embarrasses a Korean in front of his or her friends might be
more likely to trigger revenge feelings. (para 6)
6. The emotions that fuel revenge may differ across cultures as well. (para 7)
7. He also asked the groups who'd been allowed to punish the free rider to predict
how they'd feel if they hadn't been allowed to. (para 10)
8. Cultures that place a high value on revenge offer more social support to
avengers. (para 13)
9. Victim impact statements, where victims are allowed to describe their ordeal
and offer input on an offender's sentencing, have become common in U.S.,
Australian and Finnish courts. (para 14)
Preventing Movie Piracy
By Kate Greene
July 05, 2006
Researchers are developing tools to thwart the copying of films in movie theaters
The movie industry has a problem. According to the Motion Picture Association of
America, Hollywood loses billions of dollars a year on illegally sold copies of movies. The
losses are impossible to calculate accurately, of course, since it's unclear how many of the
people who download copies over the Internet or pay a few dollars for a pirated DVD would
have paid $9 to $20 for a movie theatre ticket or legal DVD. Nonetheless, studios and movie
theatre owners are eager to find ways of safeguarding their intellectual property.
Paris-based Thomson provides technology to the entertainment and media industry,
and is exploring methods for thwarting at least one type of bootlegger: the covert camcorder
user. The company's technique involves inserting "artifacts" -- extra frames, flashes of light,
or pixelated grid patterns -- into a movie during its digital-processing phase, before shipping
the movie to theatres. The goal is to mar a camcorder recording without degrading the
images moviegoers see, says Jian Zhao, chief technology officer of subsidiary Thomson
Content Security in Burbank, California.
The "artifacts" exploit the differences in the way a human brain and a camcorder
receive images. In the technique that's has been most highly developed, extra frames -- with
the words "illegal copy," for instance -- are inserted into the film. These warning words flicker
by at a frequency too fast for the human brain to process -- yet they appear in a camcorder
This difference is possible because movies are projected as a series of still shots. Film
projectors flash 48 images per second (24 frames are collected each second, but each frame
is flashed twice) and high-end digital projectors can flash even more, according to Thomson
researchers. The limit for human visual processing is around 45 flashes per second; more
than that causes a flickering image to appear continuous. Furthermore, camcorders do not
average frames, as eyes and brains do. Instead, they are sampling devices that take a series
of snapshots -- collecting many more frames per second than do our visual systems. Hence,
frames that eyes would miss show up in a camcorder recording and are reproduced on a
video screen when the recording is played.
Using extra frames to obscure a recording is not as straightforward as it seems,
however, since camcorders could theoretically be set to a sampling frequency low enough
that they would miss the hidden message, says Zhao. That possibility requires countercountermeasures, such as randomly adjusting the frequency at which the extra frames
appear. Camcorders cannot up till now adjust their sampling frequencies quickly enough to
keep up and produce a quality recording. But camcorder technology will continue to evolve,
says Zhao, "and thus, we've got to evolve."
In addition to the frame-insertion technique, Thomson researchers are working on
incorporating additional sabotaging mechanisms into its system, such as projecting ultraviolet
or infrared light onto the screen and washing out camcorder pictures. Aware that the easy
counter-measure to this is simply to place a filter over a camcorder's lens, Zhao says their
system is being designed to combine many different wavelengths, so that finding the perfect
filter would be difficult.
Additionally, the researchers want to take advantage of interference patterns that can
be created by overlaying film frames with grids of tiny features that are too small to be seen
by human eyes. Overlaying two of these grids at a certain angle creates a moiré pattern -- an
interference pattern -- that a camcorder picks up but people miss.
An anti-piracy system that included some or all of these techniques could make it
prohibitively expensive for bootleggers to keep pace.
By altering the movie itself, says Zhao, their system avoids some of the potential
drawbacks of other anti-piracy prototypes. Some systems, for example, position cameras in
front of an audience, where they actively hunt for the distinctive reflections given off by the
light-sensitive chips that capture images in a camcorder (CCDs,) and send beams of light
that temporarily disable the chips. Thomson's system would be less intrusive, says Zhao. "I
would not feel comfortable with a camcorder constantly monitoring the audience," he offers.
Even with the progress in such technologies, however, it could still be years before an
anti-piracy system becomes commercially viable, says Zhao. "A lot of people in the studios
have some doubt about ever having an effective solution," he says. In March, Thomson
opened the Burbank Innovation Center to keep Hollywood organizations up to date on its
progress and to garner feedback, according to Zhao.
11. Ultimately, acceptance of such a system will depend on several factors, says Ethan
Bush, senior project director at National TeleConsultants, an engineering and design
consultancy for the media industry. For one, on-film artifacts must be completely hidden from
audiences. For another, the rapid play of words, light, or patterns across a screen cannot
have harmful side effects. "We don't want anyone going into epileptic seizures," says Bush.
Yet, he adds, piracy is "a huge issue" and an effective solution could be worth billions of
1. a. What is the movie industry's problem? _________________________________
b. Why is the scope of the problem unknown? _____________________________
2. (Paragraph 2 ) What does “the covert camcorder user” illustrate?
3. Why does the Thomson Company mess up a camcorder video copy without decreasing
the value of the photographs moviegoers see?
4. Although "artifacts" appear in a camcorder recording, the audience in a movie theater
does not see them on the screen. Why?
5. Paragraph 4 starts with “This difference”. What difference is the writer referring to?
6. (Paragraph 4) What is the difference between how eyes and brains and camcorders see
the same movie?
a. camcorders do not average frames but eyes and brains do
b. eyes and brains average frames, as camcorders do
c. camcorders average frames, as eyes and brains do
d. neither camcorders nor eyes and brains average frames
7. What might be one (1) result of the fact that “camcorder technology will continue to
In paragraph 6 the writer says “the easy counter-measure to this”.
The easy counter-measure to what?
9. What will make finding the perfect filter difficult in the future?
10. Thomson's system would be less invasive / more invasive than sending beams of light
to momentarily render inoperative the chips in camcorders.
Support your answer by quoting from the text
11. Put a check (√) next to three (3) technologies referred to in Paragraph 10.
_____ moiré pattern
_____ disabling CCDs
_____ counter-countermeasures
_____ projecting ultraviolet or infrared light onto the movie screen
_____ placing a filter over a camcorder's lens
12. What is the purpose of this article?
a. To sell Thompson researcher ideas to the movie studios
b. To warn movie bootleggers how to avoid being caught
c. To explain efforts used and proposed to stop the stealing of intellectual property from
movie studios
d. To save billions of dollars for movie studios
Summary Cloze
Instructions: Use one word in each space.
The Motion Picture Association of America in Hollywood reports that movie studies lose
billions of dollars a year on (1)_____________ sold copies of movies. Studios and movie
theatre owners are impatient to find methods of safeguarding their (2)_________________
property. The actions of the (3) ____________ camcorder user are the problem Thomson is
trying to solve. Thomson’s researchers are concerned about a film’s digital-processing
phase, (4) ______________ it is shipped to movie theatres.
They add (5) ________________ to the films. These exploit the differences in the way a
human (6) ________________ and a camcorder receive images. Even if camcorders were
set to a sampling frequency (7) ___________ enough that they would (8)____________the
hidden message, this need not be a problem.
By (9)__________________ adjusting the
rate of recurrence at which the extra frames emerge, this problem can be overcome. A(n)
(10)_________________ system that included some or all of these techniques could make it
expenses too high for bootleggers to continue improving their illegal techniques.
Vocabulary exercises
Finding synonyms: Find words in the text which mean the same as the following
1. things one owns (para. 1) _______________________
2. exactly (para. 1) _______________________
3. aim, objective (para. 2) ______________________
4. use, take advantage of (para.3 ) _____________________
5. develop (para. 5) _____________________
6. something standing in the way, a disturbance (para. 7) _______________________
7. disadvantages (para. 9) ______________________
8. changing (para. 9) ______________________
9. the images in the mirror (para. 9) _______________________
10. having a value of (para. 11) ______________________
Fill in the blanks with words from the list below:
side effects
1. People often _______________ photographs that have a great emotional value for them.
2. It took Kate a long while to __________________ to her new responsibilities as a married
woman after she had left her parents’ home.
3. Apart from the desired medical effects, pills often have harmful _________________.
4. The new _________________ can perform complex operations never heard of before.
5. Police and army forces do the utmost to ________________ terrorist attacks.
6. The subjects of the study were ____________________ chosen by the researchers.
7. The interviewer’s questions seemed ___________________ to the candidate.
8. Fatal accidents have increased in ____________________ over recent years.
Translate the following words as they are used in this text:
1. process (para. 3) ____________________
2. projected (para. 4) ___________________
3. project (para. 11) ____________________
4. still (para. 4) _____________________
5. still (para. 10) ____________________
Connectors practice:
1. List the connectors used in this text:
Cause and Effect
Peer attitudes towards adolescent participants in male- and femaleoriented sports
Thomas R. Alley
(Summer, 2005)
1. Our society has many stereotypes about participants in sports, including gender
stereotypes. Despite legal and social changes, sexist ideology still pervades sport, i.e.
some participants in certain sports are associated with being masculine while others are
associated with femininity. Following what psychologists call "one of the oldest and most
persistent folk myths”, athletic achievement has been equated with a loss of femininity.
Sports participation is seen as a masculine activity. Sports are a traditionally male
domain: male sporting events receive far more media coverage, cash prizes for males
are higher than those for females in the same sport, and participation in competitive
sports violates traditional sex-roles of females.
2. The belief that participation in competitive sports tends to masculinize females has
been found in research using a variety of subject populations. This is to be expected
given that the stereotypic beliefs about females sharply contrast with the traits
associated with successful athletes. The widespread tendency to regard female
athletes as more masculine, (e.g., large and strong) comes from the popular
contention that those are the types of women who are more apt to pursue sports.
3. When examining these issues, it is important to keep in mind that some sports are
seen as more masculine than others and many sports attract disproportionate
numbers of male (e.g., football) or female (e.g., ballet) participants. It has been
suggested that sports such as golf and swimming, as well as sports such as
gymnastics that emphasize beauty of line, are believed to be acceptable for female
participation, whereas sports associated with high levels of contact, such as softball
and football, and others such as baseball and basketball are thought of as appropriate
for males but not for "ladies". Other reports indicate that the most appropriate sports
for women are individual rather than team sports and sports emphasizing lean bodies.
4. Through socialization, individuals learn which sports are considered masculine,
neutral, or feminine. Gender stereotypes for certain sports appear to be learned by the
time a child is in elementary school. Researchers found that elementary school girls
and boys both considered a competitive task that requires power, speed, and strength
to be a "male" activity. Even female athletes see sports such as soccer and rugby as
very unfeminine compared to tennis or volleyball.
These gender-based stereotypes probably influence sports participation. For those
who do participate, these stereotypes may lead to role conflict and distinct attitudes
about athletes that depend on whether they participate in gender "appropriate" or
"inappropriate" sports. These stereotypes may lead to perceptions of males and females
as more or less masculine or feminine depending on the sport(s) in which they
participate. While there is some evidence for this, surprisingly little research has been
reported on these issues. Research has found that although women competing in more
gender-inappropriate sports may not themselves perceive more role conflict, there is
evidence that they will experience more role conflict.
Masculinity and femininity are often viewed as bipolar opposites, yet many theorists
now view masculinity and femininity as separate traits rather than as opposite ends of a
continuum. From this more contemporary perspective, female athletes may retain their
femininity even if they are "masculinized" by participation in competitive sports.
Unfortunately, most research has taken a uni-dimensional view of masculinity and
femininity, perhaps obscuring independent variation of these traits. Indeed, there is
evidence that female athletes are more likely to possess both masculine and feminine
The Study
The following study was designed to examine how males and females are seen in
terms of femininity and masculinity by their peers according to their participation in
female- or male-oriented sports. Consistent with the conceptualization of masculinity and
femininity as (at least partially) independent traits, raters were asked to provide ratings of
both. For this study, teenagers were presented with descriptions of male and female
participants in one of three sports and asked to judge the femininity and masculinity of
each of the participants.
To decide which specific sports would be chosen for our research, twenty-three
college students were asked to rank eight sports on their masculinity/femininity: figure
skating, swimming, baseball/softball, tennis, gymnastics, volleyball, karate, and ballet.
These eight sports were selected to fit the categories of highly masculine (karate and
baseball/softball), neutral (tennis and swimming), or highly feminine (figure skating and
ballet). Each student ranked these sports on a 5-point scale ranging from masculine (1),
through neutral (3), to feminine (5). The means of each sport were computed, revealing
that karate was perceived as highest in masculinity, tennis was perceived as most
neutral, and ballet was perceived as highest in femininity. Thus, these three sports were
chosen for our study.
Sixty-nine volunteers between the ages of 14 and 18, participated in the study. All
were recruited from Physical Education and Biology classes in Greenville, South
Carolina, USA. 33 were male and 36 were female. Based on self reports, 52 were white,
9 were black, and 1 was Hispanic (7 participants did not report their ethnic group/race).
Each subject was given a one page survey form containing three paragraphs.
Each paragraph described a target individual who participated in karate (highly
masculine), ballet (highly feminine) or tennis (neutral). In addition to identifying a sport,
each paragraph specified the age, race, and sex of the individual. Below each paragraph
were two 5-point rating scales, one for femininity and one for masculinity. The scales
were labeled at the extremes (1 being "Not at all feminine/masculine" and 5 being "Very
feminine/ masculine"). Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of
traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age,
race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year,
sport, and self- confidence. Separate masculinity and femininity scales were used rather
than a single scale, since people can have both feminine and masculine characteristics.
This is also in keeping with evidence that female athletes often do have both feminine
and masculine traits.
All participants were given one survey form containing three different paragraphs
describing athletes who they did not know but were their age. They were then asked to
rate the individual on two 5-point scales concerning the femininity and masculinity of the
athlete in the paragraph. To ensure anonymity, the subjects were not asked to provide
their name or other identification. After completing their responses to all three descriptive
paragraphs, data was collected and the subjects were debriefed.
The data from all of the 5-point scales was coded so that high scores signified high
femininity or high masculinity. As expected, women athletes were perceived as more
feminine and male athletes were perceived as more masculine. This pattern held for
participants in all three sports considered individually.
To determine if males and females would be perceived as more or less feminine or
masculine depending upon the sport in which they participated, the mean scores for each
sport (ballet, tennis, and karate) for each sex were calculated. The mean ratings for each
sport reveal a consistent decrease in femininity and increase in masculinity as one goes
from participating in female- to male-oriented sports: i.e., from ballet to tennis to karate.
There were significant effects for both traits and both sexes. Both females and males
were seen as more feminine when described as participants in ballet as opposed to
participants in karate.
Common stereotypes and previous research suggest that sports participation may
have a significant effect on the attitudes of peers and others, and vice versa. Our results
showed that the specific sport in which males and females participate may alter how they
are perceived by others. Although we found that women were perceived as more
feminine than men and vice versa regardless of the sport in which they participated, our
data demonstrates that females may be perceived as more masculine and males as
more feminine if they frequently participate in a "sex-inappropriate" athletic activity. This
finding indicates that our society maintains gender stereotypes pertaining to participation
in some sports, at least for dedicated athletes. This stereotyping of athletes may have an
important impact on the willingness of athletes to participate in certain sports. Likewise,
these stereotypes may tend to filter out certain types of potential participants--e.g.,
macho males, individuals with a high need for social approval or those high in selfmonitoring ---in athletic activities which are "inappropriate" for one's gender.
There is evidence that elementary school and teenage boys have less favorable
attitudes than girls about female participation in sports. Likewise, women are more
accepting than men of female participation in "male" sports. Sports participation may be
more acceptable for females before puberty since femininity probably becomes more
important about this time. Research suggests that women participating in very machotype sports such as karate might be seen as even more masculine than men who do not
do karate. Our results, however, indicate that the masculizing effect of competing in
karate is not sufficient to overpower the perceived masculinity that accompanies being
male or female. Whatever the strength of this effect on the perception of others, the selfperceptions of athletes may be less affected by sports participation. Nonetheless, our
results add support to the belief that participation in "masculine" versus "feminine" sports
may have significant effects on the social interactions of adolescents.
1. This article discusses research that examines:
a. the differences between male- and female-dominated sports
b. adolescent females playing male-type sports
c. high contact sports between young males and females
d. gender stereotypes and sport participants among young people
2. What do the examples in the last sentence of paragraph 1 illustrate?
3. According to “folk myths”, participating in male sports makes girls
____________________. (2 words)
4. In paragraph 2 the writer says, “This is to be expected.” What is to be expected?
5. According to paragraph 2, the successful female athlete has two masculine attributes?
What are they?
She is ____________ and _______________.
6. Identify the following sports as either female appropriate (FA) or male appropriate (MA)
according to the criteria of the text:
(a) handball
(c) ice skating __________
(b) floor gymnastics________
(d) ice hockey ________
7. Elementary school children believe that in order to particiapte in a male sport activity,
a person must have _________________, __________________ and
8. Women may suffer from gender role conflict by playing in (gender appropriate/
gender inappropriate) sports. (circle one)
9. True/False
Female athletes have exclusively male traits.
Quote from the text to justify your answer.
10. Paragraphs 7-11: What was the method of studying the 3 sports chosen by the
a. By ranking sports according to difficulty
b. By ranking sports according to favorites
c. At random
d. By classifying sports according to gender
11. Paragraph 13: What can be inferred from the results of the study?
The results of the study indicate that there is a consistent ___________________ in
femininity and _________________ in masculinity as one moves from participating in
karate to participating in ballet.
12. When the writer says “vice versa” in the first sentence of paragraph 14, he means
that ____________________________ may influence ________________________
13. What are the two possible results of athlete stereotyping?
i. ____________________________________________________________
ii. ____________________________________________________________
14. The research results suggest that
a. sex stereotypes for certain sports is not a factor in deciding whether to participate
in the sport or not.
b. sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence peer attitudes and participation in
these sports
c. young people tend to particiapate in sports according to gender
d. sex stereotypes in sports carry through from adolescence to adulthood.
Summary Cloze:
This research examines (1) _______________ stereotypes and sports. Even though
times have changed, sports are still perceived to be dominated by (2)___________. In
this research, high-schoolers were asked to rate three different (3) ______________
according to their perceived femininity and masculinity of their peers participating in
them. The sports involved were chosen by a group of (4)_______________ students.
Afterwards, selected teen-aged students were asked to (5)_____________ unknown
athletes. As predicted, there was a steady (6)____________ in the level of femininity
rated, and an increase in the rate of (7)____________ for both male and female athletes
as they switched from participating in a "feminine" sport, like ballet, to a neutral sport
(tennis) to a "masculine" one (karate). These results suggest that sex stereotypes for
certain sports may influence who (8)___________ to participate and how participants are
viewed by others.
Grammar Practice:
I. Read the following compound/ complex sentences. Find the main clause. Then
answer the questions that follow.
1. Despite legal and social changes, sexist ideology still pervades sport, i.e. some
participants in certain sports are associated with being masculine, while others are
associated with femininity. (para. 1)
a. Complete the sentence
We would expect that _________________________ due to ____________________
b. What does the writer mean by "sexist ideology" in sport?
2. The widespread tendency to regard female athletes as more masculine comes from the
popular contention that those are the types of women who are more apt to pursue sports.
(para. 2)
a. What common view causes people to consider female athletes as more masculine?
3. It has been suggested that sports such as golf and swimming, as well as sports such as
gymnastics that emphasize the beauty of line, are believed to be acceptable for female
participation, whereas sports associated with high levels of contact, such as softball and
football, and others such as baseball and basketball are thought of as appropriate for males
but not for "ladies". (para. 3)
a. Fill in the chart:
Female sports
Male sports
b. How does the writer define some of male and female sports?
Complete the sentence:
While male sports ____________________________, female sports
4. Research has found that although women competing in more gender-inappropriate sports
may not themselves perceive more role conflict, there is evidence that they will experience
more role conflict. (para. 5)
a. Whereas women (will/ will not) encounter more role conflict if they compete in masculine
sports, they (recognize/ don't necessarily recognize) it.
5. To determine if males and females would be perceived as more or less feminine or
masculine depending upon the sport in which they participated, the mean scores for each
sport (ballet, tennis and karate) for each sex were calculated.
a. What was the method of finding out whether the sportsman/sportswoman would be
regarded as masculine or feminine?
II. Use your knowledge of suffixes/ prefixes to translate the following words:
1. masculinize (para. 2) _____________________
2. disproportionate (para. 3) _____________________
3. unfeminine (para. 4) ______________________
4. bipolar (para. 6) _________________________
5. uni-dimensional (para. 6) ____________________
6. masculinity (para. 8) ______________________
7. regardless (para. 14) _______________________
8. sex-inappropriate (para. 14) _________________
9. willingness (para. 14) ____________________
10. self-perceptions (para. 15) ___________________
Vocabulary exercises:
I. Study the meanings of the following words:
peer (title)
attitude (title)
adolescent (title)
participant (title)
domain (paragraph 1)
violate (paragraph 1)
subject (paragraph 2)
population (paragraph 2)
appropriate (paragraph 3)
perception (paragraph 5)
trait (paragraph 6)
likely (paragraph 6)
reveal (paragraph 8)
variable (paragraph 10)
pattern (paragraph 12)
alter (paragraph 14)
vice versa (paragraph 14)
impact (paragraph 14)
approval (paragraph 15)
II. Complete the following sentences:
People who violate the law, _______________________________________.
The subjects of the study _________________________________________.
Different people perceive _____________________ differently.
What is your attitude towards _____________________________________?
This __________________ is inappropriate for a formal party.
Adolescents ___________________________________________________.
It is likely that _________________________________________________.
Several variables were examined __________________________________.
Do you think she may alter her ___________________________________?
Social approval _______________________________________________.
III. Translate the following noun phrases:
Peer attitudes (title) ______________________________
adolescent participants (title) _________________________
athletic achievement (paragraph 1) ______________________
male domain (paragraph 1) ________________________
male sporting events (paragraph 1) _______________________
gender-based stereotypes (paragraph 5) _____________________
role conflict (paragraph 5) ___________________________
gender-inappropriate sports (paragraph 5) ________________________
mean ratings/ mean scores (paragraph 13) _________________________
Africa: Money Doesn't Seem to Help
Adapted from © Rogers Publishing Limited
Jan 22, 2007
In 1993, when a Tutsi-Hutu war erupted in the tiny central African country of Burundi,
20-year-old Mathilde Nyandwi was one of those to flee the turmoil. Because she was a
student with a promising future -- she held an accounting diploma and had just enrolled in an
economics program at the University of Bujumbura -- Nyandwi's arrival in Montreal, Canada,
made her more than a refugee. Thirteen years later, Nyandwi lives in Winnipeg, Canada,
rather than in Bujumbura; instead of holding a significant position in the economy of her
country of birth, she works in Air Canada's sales department. She is part of a phenomenon
recently given a name: Africa's brain drain.
If you've not heard this term before, you're not alone. Just when we thought we had an
understanding of how to handle Africa's problems, a disturbing trend has now emerged: the
continent's best and brightest students are leaving, even as their home countries need them
most. Some analysts say that as many as 50,000 Ph.D.s, or 30 per cent of Africa's universitytrained professionals, currently live and work outside the continent -- in Britain, Europe, or
North America. Others put the number higher, at 70,000 skilled graduates leaving each year.
By any measure, such an exodus is devastating for a continent desperate to recover and
move ahead. It has also considered seriously in what is turning out to be a radical
reconsideration of the entire proposition of foreign aid.
A short time ago, when Western leaders were getting advice on foreign aid from
celebrity activists such as Bono and Bob Geldof, all that was needed was money, and more
of it. Every rich country was challenged to come up with a big sum of money agreed on by
the G8 countries in 2002. (The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the
governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the
United States. Together, the eight countries represent about 65 percent of the world
economy.) The G8 Monterrey Consensus posed that if such funds were sent to places like
Africa, the world would be a better place.
However, this season's books, studies and lectures challenge that conventional
wisdom. Too much of what is given as foreign aid, they argue, does no good at all. The
money is frittered away by inefficient bureaucrats or finds its way into the bank accounts of
politicians, while the poor remain as desperate as ever. The titles say it all: White Man's
Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good,
by William Easterly; The Trouble With Africa: Why Foreign Aid Isn't Working by Robert
Both Easterly and Calderisi are former World Bank economists; Calderisi, a Canadian,
spent more than 20 years in Africa. Neither denies that poverty on a massive scale persists in
the developing world. Nor do they display the anti-aid cynicism of former U.S. congressman
Tom DeLay, who sneered that foreign aid meant "putting Ghana over Grandma." But they do
point out that over the past 60 years, rich countries have paid, in Easterly's estimation,
US$2.3 trillion for development in poor countries -- only to see children in Africa and parts of
Asia still dying from entirely preventable diseases, and women still walking miles to collect
water or firewood.
No one seems to know where all the money went. Its disappearance has led to the
current skepticism over aid's effectiveness. The old idea that something will eventually trickle
down to the truly needy the moment local elites have lined their pockets no longer does the
trick. Tough-minded executives like Paul Wolfowitz who was at the World Bank, exercised
zero tolerance of corruption, with no hesitation to freeze loans in the face of it.
Meanwhile, the bureaucracy that accompanies a lot of aid is just as crippling. The
African country of Tanzania is reportedly burdened with preparing 2,400 reports each quarter
and hosting 1,000 meetings with donors annually -- no doubt at great cost. According to a
Brookings Institution task force, called Transforming Foreign Assistance in the 21st Century,
Tanzanians have concluded that the cost of accepting aid is quite equal to its benefit. Robert
Calderisi cites a US$300-million malaria project in which one cent of each dollar spent went
to medicine, one cent to insecticides, six cents to mosquito nets, and 92 cents to training,
research, administration and evaluation, most of which returned to Western donor countries
in the pockets of consultants.
There are efforts under way to make traditional aid work. The Canadian Parliament is
currently considering a bill that would legislate that all foreign aid be dedicated strictly to
poverty reduction. John McKay, the bill sponsor, argues that the almost $3 billion Canada
spends each year should be kept away from supporting every security, government support,
police training in Haiti, rebuilding issues in Afghanistan. "The core values of Canadians," he
says, "support poverty reduction.”
But the issues that most perpetuate underdevelopment, according to critics of
traditional aid are often actually made worse by aid. According to International Monetary
Fund researchers Raghuram Rajan and Arvind Subramanian, aid inflows can have
systematic adverse effects on a country's competitiveness. In the past 30 years, Africa lost
half of its foreign markets for export products, mostly to other, more efficient, developing
nations. The cost in revenue to the continent is $70 billion a year. Africa currently represents
only two per cent of the value of world trade, a number that has jumped up from one per cent
only due to current high oil and copper prices. Forty per cent of African savings are deposited
not at home, where the assets would presumably do some local good, but in banks outside
the continent.
Substantial African voices have joined the discussion. One of the more prominent is a
Kenyan economist, James Shikwati. He gained publicity when he told the German magazine
Der Spiegel in an interview earlier this year "For God's sake, please stop the aid." Shikwati's
main critique is that aid money not only supports huge bureaucracies but also promotes
corruption and complacency. "Africans are taught to be beggars," he said. Shikwati believes
aid weakens local economies and defeats "the spirit of entrepreneurship," something his
country desperately needs. If the West were to cancel these payments, he argues, normal
Africans wouldn't even notice. "Only the governments would be hard hit".
The brain drain is another grave concern for the continent. The British government's
Commission for Africa last year suggested that the number of skilled migrants leaving the
continent is approximately the number of foreign technical experts being sent in as part of
international NGO projects or foreign aid packages. In other words, for every expert sent to
help Africa -- a medical professional, engineer, lawyer, governmental analyst, and
environmental planner -- an educated African national is exiting. Alex Nunn, an economist at
Leeds Metropolitan University who undertook a study of the migration for the British
Association of University Teachers, suggests that migration statistics are notoriously
imprecise; still, the trend is incontestable, as is its price tag. "A larger homegrown skills base
would be beneficial for all sorts of reasons," he says, "including lowering dependency on
foreign expertise which, as history tells us, does not come value-free." There are also social
costs: the lost history, culture, local ways of thinking and an over-reliance on externally
developed knowledge.
While African countries suffer from the migration of their brightest minds, Western
countries benefit greatly from the skills and education Africans bring with them. The
Commission for Africa accused the British health care system of actively poaching African
professionals, and has leveled the same charge at Canada. One industry observer
comments that if it weren't for Zimbabweans and Zambians, the British health care system
would collapse. (Nurses in those countries are trained within a system held over from colonial
days that gives them more all-around skills than graduates of current Western programs, so
they are considered very valuable to Britain.) Not only have a number of Canadian provinces
benefited from foreign doctors and nurses, some have undertaken deliberate ventures to
recruit them. A decade ago, Manitoba was sending recruitment packages to lure doctors from
South Africa to staff its northern medical centers.
But what can or should be done other than compensating African countries? Robert
Calderisi notes that intelligent African governments are trying to come up with strategies to
lure their migrants home, and sympathetic Western governments and aid programs might try
to find ways to support that. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization) recently announced a joint project with the computer giant, Hewlett-Packard,
which would provide grid technology to universities in five African countries, in an attempt to
"reverse the effects of the brain drain by connecting scientists who have stayed in their native
countries with those who have left.”
The international community might also pay close attention to the fact that efforts to
keep countries stable and civil are more critical to the future of a continent like Africa than
simply pouring in money. Burundi's real poverty is not simply material but that it persists in
being the kind of place that drives out people like Mathilde Nyandwi. Nyandwi herself has
taken tentative steps to visit relatives left behind when she fled as a refugee. She says that
though the political situation is not yet stable enough that she would feel comfortable living
there, she hopes someday to be able to return. Meanwhile, she has started a small business
exporting Canadian-made clothing to Burundi using the profits to help her family there. "My
long-term dream," she says, "is to make enough money to start a hospital where Burundian
doctors could work with visiting Canadian doctors." A hospital in Burundi that employs
Burundian doctors -- what a novel idea.
a) What phenomenon does the example of Mathilde Nyandwi illustrate?
Complete the sentence:
Africa’s loss of individuals like Mathilde Nyandwi illustrates a new but disturbing trend:
Africa’s ____________ ______________
(2 words).
b) How does the writer explain/define this trend in paragraph 2?
Paragraphs 3-4:
Circle the correct word in the following sentence:
The conventional wisdom popular in 2002 for solving the problems of poverty in the
world continues / does not continue to be accepted.
Justify your answer with a quote from the text:
What evidence do Calderisi and Easterly site to prove that US$2.3 trillion for
development in poor countries has failed?
i. ___________________________________________________
What is the reason for the current skepticism over aid's effectiveness?
What do the Tanzania and malaria project examples illustrate?
Paragraph 9:
True/ False
Foreign aid money is remedying Africa's situation.
Support your answer by copying from the text:
Check three (3) reasons James Shikwati said, “Please stop foreign aid.”
____ aid money sustains vast systems of government
____ aid money supports vice
____ aid strengthens local economies
____ aid defeats free enterprise
____ aid helps average African citizens
____ Africans get dependent on getting monitory help
8. In paragraph 9 the writer says, "The brain drain is another grave concern for the
continent." What is the first concern?
9. What do a medical professional, an engineer, a lawyer, a governmental analyst, and an
environmental planner have in common in African 2007?
Whereas such professionals are _______________ Africa, NGO projects are
_____________ such professionals to _______________ Africa.
10. “Lost history” is given as an example of __________________
11. What do the Zimbabweans and Zambians in the British health care system illustrate?
12. What is the purpose of Hewlett-Packard project?
a. To bring the African migrants back to the African countries.
b. To create Internet connectivity, which will enable scientists to communicate.
c. To provide the grid system to universities in five African countries.
d. To reverse the effects of the African brain drain.
13. What is the main idea of the article?
a. More foreign aid is needed to solve the problems of Africa.
b. All foreign aid should be stopped to improve Africa's situation.
c. Africa needs both money and academic resources to develop.
d. University-educated Africans should not be permitted to migrate.
Summary Cloze
A short time ago, when Western leaders were getting advice on foreign aid from celebrity
activists such as Bono and Bob Geldof, all which was needed, was (1) ___________, and
more of it. Critics claim that such a policy encourages (2) ______________ and the
money ends up in the pockets of certain people. James Shikwati wants all foreign aid
(3) _______________ local economies. Currently the Canadian Parliament is considering
a law that would legislate that all foreign aid be dedicated strictly to (4) _____________
reduction. By contrast, UNESCO recently announced a joint project with the computer
(5) _____________ technology to universities in five African countries, in an attempt to
reverse the effects of the (6) ____________drain by connecting scientists who stayed in
(7) _____________. But money is not all these countries need. They also need (8)
_______________ governments and calmness for their people.
I. Chose the appropriate answer based on your understanding of the context
Thirteen years later, Nyandwi lives in Winnipeg, rather than in Bujumbura; instead of
holding a significant position in the economy of her country of birth, she works in Air
Canada’s sales department. (Paragraph 1)
Where does the writer imply that Nyandwi should be living and working?
Circle the appropriate option in the chart below
Work place
Economy-related job in
Sales department of Air
Every rich country was challenged to come up with a big sum of money agreed
on by the G8 countries in 2002. (Paragraph 3)
Choose the sentence which best paraphrases the meaning of the above.
a. Every rich country offered a big sum of money to the G8 countries.
b. G8 countries asked the rich countries for a big sum of money.
Both Easterly and Calderisi are former World Bank economists; Calderisi, a Canadian,
spent more than 20 years in Africa. Neither denies that poverty on a massive scale persists in
the developing world.
(Paragraph 5)
According to the last sentence,
a. Both Easterly and Calderisi agree that poverty on a massive scale persists in the
developing world.
b. Everybody admits that poverty on a massive scale persists in the developing world.
Tough-minded executives like Paul Wolfowitz who was at the World Bank, exercised
zero tolerance of corruption… (Paragraph 6)
What is the meaning of this sentence?
a. Tough-minded executives like Paul Wolfowitz treat corruption with patience.
b. Tough-minded executives like Paul Wolfowitz are against corruption.
But the issues that most perpetuate underdevelopment, according to critics of
traditional aid, are often actually made worse by aid.
(Paragraph 9)
What is the meaning of this sentence?
a. Critics of traditional aid claim that aid doesn’t help overcome underdevelopment.
b. Critics of traditional aid claim that the state of underdevelopment worsensaid.
Not only have a number of Canadian provinces benefited from foreign doctors
and nurses, some have undertaken deliberate ventures to recruit them.
Which paraphrased sentence is the closest in meaning to the original sentence?
a. Some Canadian provinces have benefited from foreign medical experts although
they haven’t taken any steps to recruit them deliberately.
b. Some Canadian provinces have both benefited from the foreign medical experts
and initiated their employment.
The international community might also pay close attention to the fact that
efforts to keep countries stable and civil are more critical to the future of a continent
like Africa than simply pouring in money.
What should the international community pay attention to for the sake of Africa’s
a. That African countries remain as civil and stable as possible.
b. That African countries get as much financial aid as possible.
Vocabulary exercise:
Study the meaning of the words below and then complete the sentences using the most
appropriate word. You may need to change the form of the word.
1. handle (para. 2)
2. emerge (2)
3. proposition (2)
4. aid (2)
5. persist (5)
6. current (6)
7. corruption (6)
8. efforts (8)
9. revenue (9)
10. substantial (10)
11. promote (10)
12. defeat (10)
13. migrants (11)
14. approximately (11)
15. compensate (13)
All the _______________ from the concert were donated to the poor.
Continuous _______________ are being made to reduce the hostility between the two
If the noise in the neighbors’ apartment ______________ after 24/00, we will be
forced to call the police.
New stores _________________ in this area every month.
If the company is interested in _______________ its products, it should invest in
Who is the ________________ president of the U.S.A.?
It is essential to have a first ______________ kit in your car.
The new principal promised to _______________ the problem of violence in his
This company employs __________________ 300 workers.
Some working mothers feel the need to ________________ their children for their
continuous absences.
Online Media Exposes Ecology Stories:
Welcome to the Ecopaparazzi Web site
Meet Jeannette McDermott, an ecology activist
27 June 2009
Paparazzi (photographers who take candid pictures of celebrities) are pretty
much universally thought of as an irritant at best, and absolute scum at worst. They
are relentless in their pursuit, they intrude, spy, reveal, expose and shame. There is no
privacy from the prying eyes of the paparazzi, but imagine if the Earth had a team of
paparazzi working for her, a team of Ecopaparazzi traveling the globe, documenting
and exposing the relentless damage to the Earth.
Meet Jeanette McDermott, one of the world’s unknown eco-heroines and
founder of Ecopaparazzi web site. Ecopaparazzi is an online media portal for eco
journalists working to expose the environmental stories that the mainstream media
ignores — bear bile farming, corrupt development, deforestation, illegal trade in wildlife
species’ poaching and the list, unfortunately, goes on and on.
What is an Ecopaparazzi exactly?
The name Ecopaparazzi is used because they don't stalk celebrities in the
sense of the word paparazzi, but we do stalk Earth abusers. They look for corrupt and
greedy governments, corporate leaders, land developers and others who are
responsible for destructive practices that negatively impact all Earth beings that need
clean air, water and uncontaminated soil to grow and/or browse for food.
When we discover who is behind the destructive, and often-illegal activity, in
our communities, we take photographs to document the assaults so we can have
impact in rallying others to stand against the destruction. We also look at how
overpopulation and deforestation. As every paparazzi knows, you are not always
successful with the camera. Sometimes we're forced out of places by armed security
guards, local police and ferocious dogs.
The Ecopaparazzi web site
Ecopaparazzi was created after Jeannette McDermott and her friend Nancy
traveled to the once-isolated coastal and rainforest communities of Costa Rica to
document the shocking horrors of unplanned development.
Nancy drove, and I
repeatedly jumped out of the car to snap photos and roll off video footage of what they
witnessed. At one point it became ludicrous. There was so much damage to the
natural landscape that Jeannette was unbuckling and hopping out of the car every fifty
yards to record the damage. Her antics tickled Nancy and she said something like,
"You're like the paparazzi, but instead of stalking celebrities you stalk Earth abusers.
And in that second, a new idea was born and a week later the web site was up and running on running.
Politicians and developers don't like people to learn about the unplanned, and
often illegal construction, because the stories typically include dirty little secrets, like
kickbacks and bribes. Citizen journalists and environmental watchdog activists have to
step in to be the voice of change.
For example, last year “eco warriors” (environmental activists) began sounding
the cry that Costa Rica's most coveted beach front and third most popular tourist
destination spot had dangerous fecal concentrations. This announcement resulted in
widespread shock and panic. Swimmers and surfers fled the sea, visitors panicked
and packed up, and even banks re-evaluated construction loans, spelling disaster and
a potential market crash. In another incident, when citizen journalists and community
activists made village residents aware that the developers were tapping into their local
water supply to siphon it to irrigate monstrous golf courses and flush thousands of
toilets used by tourists, it led to a full-blown citizen revolt.
The actions of citizen journalists, “eco warriors” and community activists
resulted in 40 large-scale development sites being slapped with cease and desist
construction orders, which are now pending in the Costa Rican courts. The voice for
Mother Earth needs forums for getting the word out, and social media sites like can serve that role.
What types of stories are published on
The eco-stories featured in Ecopaparazzi are both horrific and uplifting. The eco
journalists focus on the damage and the people who are working to solve the
problems. But we also have a feature called What We're Doing Right, which
showcases innovative approaches to Earth healing. And they feature Eco-Active
Celebrities, who are the members in their network that are contributing to Earth
Ecopaparazzi also has a column for eco-education, economy and environment, the
global food movement, wake-up calls that sound the alarm, and eco-scribbles, which are
musings from our members in diary-like form.
Why is a site like Ecopaparazzi needed?
Jeanette went to a peace activist rally a few months ago and saw a fabric patch that
she bought. It says "Don't blame the media, become the media." That's the reality. It is true
that the pen is mightier than the sword. Sites like Ecopaparazzi remind people that they are
the media, and that they have the power to change the world just by getting involved, even if
it's taking one photograph or uploading one poster onto a Facebook profile to bring an issue
to light. Sites like Ecopaparazzi are needed sites as a place to tell stories, because stories
are what connect us as a community of humans.
Secondly, having sites like Ecopaparazzi lets government and industry know
that people are watching. They are paying attention. Their eyes are open, and they
have cameras, mobile phones and computers to spread the word virally about who is
making wrong choices and acting badly. Equally important, sites like Ecopaparazzi
provide a forum for telling the stories about people who are doing the right thing.
Finally, Ecopaparazzi is a gathering spot for like-minded people who care deeply
about issues affecting our planet. Sometimes they need the support of others who know what
it is like to be David up against Goliath, and they need to find encouragement and share
strategies to motivate, inspire and spur them ever onward.
What is the most shocking eco-story Jeanette has covered?
Jeanette has reported on many shocking human activities in nature. It's hard to
fathom sometimes just how cruel humans can be toward other Earth Beings and
creation itself. But the most shocking eco story I have covered is Mountaintop
Removal, where coal companies blow up entire 330-million year old mountains in
Appalachia to get the seams of coal.
The wildlife can't read the blasting signs that have been posted, and are
unaware of the dynamite that has been set into the mountain, so they stay and are
blown to bits. The few that might survive such destruction are suddenly homeless with
no food, shelter or water, and so they wander, dazed and often injured from the
dynamite explosion.
Resulting soil erosion contaminates local water supplies and turns once thriving
aquatic ecosystems into dead seas. Mountaintop Removal (MTR) is one of the most
despicable practices on Earth.
But even more shocking than Mountaintop Removal is another top-ranking vile
human practice — Bear bile farming. This is a practice in China, Vietnam and Korea,
where bears are locked in crush cages no larger than their bodies for up to 25 years,
until they die, so that their bile can be drained for non-essential products. This involves
an excruciatingly painful procedure that leads to unfathomable suffering and agony for
the bears. Bear farmers often rip out claws and break the bear's teeth — without
anesthesia or medical treatment for infection and illness — so they can approach the
cages without fear of being hurt. In Jeanette’s opinion, Bear bile farming is the cruelest
and abhorrent human action perpetrated against another sentient species.
Are people becoming more environmentally aware?
Without a doubt. However, it seems that most people are staying in safe
waters. They are becoming aware of energy use of home appliances, shopping fair
trade, and recycling but don't know much about the perils of the meat industry or
commercial fishing, hidden costs of alternative energy or bio-piracy and seed
modification. So, on the one hand, there is greater awareness within the general public
about the overall state of affairs of the environment. But on the other hand, there isn't
much awareness at all about causes and effects of specific issues.
So, you see ... we are becoming aware and we are staying in the dark. Without
citizen journalism, the most important issues will remain hidden from public view.
Social media networks give us a platform for sharing thoughts, raising questions and
sounding the alarm to wake each other up.
Comprehension Questions
What two types of paparazzi are contrasted in paragraph 1?
Complete the sentence:
Those who _____________________________________, in contrast to those
What does the list at the end of paragraph 2 illustrate?
Corrupt governments and land developers are examples of ___________________
________________.(2 words)
(Paragraph 4) What is the purpose of an Ecopaparazzi photographing the assaults of
a. to document the assaults for future generations
b. to discover who stands behind the illegal activity of destroying the nature
to provide visual proof which will inspire other people to protest the destroying nature
d. to immediately punish the people behind the destruction and illegal activity being
5. What is the relationship between paragraph 6 and paragraph 7?
a. contrast
b. comparison
idea and example
d. cause and effect
a. What caused “widespread shock and panic”?
Complete the sentence:
The fact that ______________________________________________
b. What were the consequences of this “shock and panic”?
Paragraph 9. “The eco-stories featured in Ecopaparazzi are both horrific and
Give ONE example of the latter:
(paragraphs 11-13) Which of the following are NOT reasons for the existence of
Ecopaparazzi web site? Check (3) three.
____ to feature stories and photographs from Facebook
____ to refute the saying that the pen is mightier than the sword.
____ to remind people to upload a picture or a poster onto the Ecopaparazzi site.
____ to remind governments that someone is watching their activity
____ to bring people who care about the environment together
What is common to Mountaintop Removal and Bear bile farming?
Complete the sentence
Both are ________________________________ (no more than 5 words)
Complete the following sentence, showing the contrast presented in paragraph 18.
Whereas the public seems to be aware of the environmental issues in general,
What might be the cause for the fact that “we are staying in the dark”?
Complete the sentence with TWO words
The lack of ______________________
The main purpose of this text is:
a. to show the advantages and disadvantages of the Ecopaparazzi activity
b. to provide information about the Ecopaparazzi activity and raise people’s awareness of
environmental issues.
To show that citizen journalism can raise people’s awareness and solve important social
d. To help people become the Ecopaparazzi members by meeting with other Ecopaparazzi
In Pursuit of Thinness
By Susan Chisholm
University of Victoria
Throughout history and through a cross-section of cultures, women have
transformed their appearance to conform to a beauty ideal. Ancient Chinese
aristocrats bound their feet as a show of femininity; American and European women in
the 1800s cinched in their waists so tightly, some suffered internal damage; in some
African cultures women continue to wear plates in their lower lips, continually
stretching the skin to receive plates of larger size. The North American ideal of beauty
has continually focused on women's bodies: the tiny waist of the Victorian period, the
boyish figure in vogue during the 1920’s “flapper era”, and the voluptuous curves that
were the measure of beauty between the 1930s and 1950s.
Current standards emphasize a toned, slender look, one that exudes fitness,
youth, and health. According to psychologist Eva Szekely, "Having to be attractive at
this time . . . means unequivocally having to be thin. In North America today, thinness
is a precondition for being perceived by others and oneself as healthy." However, this
relentless pursuit of thinness is not just an example of women trying to look their best,
it is also a struggle for control, acceptance and success.
In attempting to mold their appearance to meet the current ideal, numerous
women are literally starving themselves to death. According to Comerci, the incidence
of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, has "doubled during the
last two decades." This increase is no longer limited to women in their teens and
twenties, but is increasingly diagnosed in female and male patients in their thirties and
forties. Comerci adds, "No doubt, the current socio-cultural emphasis on thinness and
physical fitness as a symbol of beauty and success has contributed to this age
One of the negative psychological side effects associated with eating disorders
is the patient's distortion of their own body image. Murray defines body image as "the
picture a person has in his mind of his own body, that is, the way his body appears to
him." For the anorexic, this distortion is exaggerated: the patient feels fat even while
emaciated. However, many women who are caught up in the relentless pursuit of
thinness also experience some degree of disturbed body image. The experiences and
practices of women who "simply diet" are not radically different from those who are
diagnosed with eating disorders. For some women, achieving the "perfect" body form
becomes the most important goal in life.
Men are not entirely freed from such social pressures. Researchers at Harvard
University Medical School conducted a study based on information obtained from a
mental health survey of nearly 9,000 adults across the U.S. The new data suggests
that up to 25 percent of adults with eating disorders are male. Whether that figure
indicates that more men are becoming eating disordered, or that men previously
escaped attention and diagnosis, or that diagnostic tools have improved and are now
catching people who would have escaped detection before has yet to be determined.
Preliminary information suggests that men are more concerned about appearance and
body image than they were in the past. Living in a culture fixated on diets and physical
appearance is also a risk factor. Male underwear models and men participating in
reality show makeovers lead other males to compare themselves with these so-called
Ideal body types as do ads for male skin and hair care products. Weight loss and
workout programs, as well as cosmetic surgery procedures, whose goal is chiseled
muscularity, can lead to the same sort of body dissatisfaction that afflicts women who
read fashion magazines and watch movies and TV shows featuring "perfect" people.
Feelings about body are closely related to a woman's sense of self. Orbach
has stated that the "body is perceived as acceptable or unacceptable, providing a
foundation for self-concept." It is alarming, then, that Kilbourne reports almost 80% of
women think they're overweight. Freedman adds that body image has very little to do
with the way a person actually looks; many women who appear to fit the ideal body
type are actually dissatisfied with their appearance. Women with perfectly normal
bodies see themselves as being heavy; so that the definition of "normal" becomes
inaccurate and this perceived normalcy is represented by a very small percentage of
women. It follows that if body image is so closely linked to self-image, it is important
for women to learn to feel comfortable with the body they live in, despite any
"imperfections". Freedman adds that consistently aiming for perfection is a "selfdefeating goal that only sets you up for failure."
According to Szekely, all evidence indicates that "our sense of our bodies
develops in the process of learning, and these are social processes, not psychobiological ones given at birth." So why is it that during this process of development so
many women become dissatisfied, self-critical, and judgmental about their own
bodies? One of the reasons may have to do with the media and various forms of
advertising. Kilbourne points out that ads sell more than just products; they present an
idea of normalcy, who we are and who we should be. Advertising is a major vehicle for
presenting images and forming attitudes. The majority of ads incorporate young,
beautiful, slender models to present their products and services. While individual ads
may not be seen as a big issue, it is the cumulative, unconscious impact that has an
effect on attitudes toward women, and on women's attitudes toward themselves.
As women are consistently exposed to these feminine forms thorough both print
and television, it becomes difficult to distinguish what is normal, and even more
difficult not to compare themselves to this form. It is not just women who judge
themselves, but also men who begin to liken these models to the women in their own
lives and then make comparisons. Kilbourne adds that advertising creates an "ultimate
standard of worth, so that women are judged against this standard all the time,
whether we choose to be or not."
Kilbourne condemns that “standard” expressed throughout the media. She says
there seems to be a "particular contempt these days for women who are fat or are in
any way overweight . . . above all, we're supposed to be very thin." Szekely argues
that this notion of the ideal body that is propagated by the popular media can be linked
with economic organizations whose profit is solely gained through products that
enhance this image. The images that are presented in advertising are designed to
create an illusion, a fantasy ideal that will keep women continually consuming.
Advertisers are well aware of the insecurities that most women feel about their own
bodies. Orbach agrees and states that the influential power of the diet, fashion,
cosmetic and beauty industries and their advertising strategies target this, their "profits
are sustained on the enormity of the body insecurity."
The effect of many current advertising methods is that the "body is turned into a
thing, an object, a package," according to Kilbourne. In many ads, bodies are
separated into individual parts: legs, breasts, thighs, waists; the result is that the body
becomes separated from the woman. It then becomes acceptable for the woman's
body to be scrutinized. Women's bodies receive large amounts of attention and
comment and are a "vehicle for the expression of a wide range of statements,” adds
Orbach. Judgments may be made and opinions may be formed about a woman by her
appearance alone. A woman who is judged as overweight is often thought of as a
woman with little self-control. This type of generalization occurs on a daily basis, by
both men and women, and it affects the way we behave towards one another.
Our preoccupation with appearance affects much more than the image that is
presented on the outside. Feelings toward our own appearance affect the choices we
make and the goals we pursue; "more than ever, it seems we are constricted by
beauty standards," in Freedman’s words. The recent emphasis on fitness, youth,
beauty and thinness has caused many women to try harder than ever to attain the
current body ideal. The tremendous increase in plastic surgery operations, such as
liposuction, breast implants, tummy tucks, and face-lifts attest to the extreme
adjustments that many women feel they must make in order to attain the body ideal, in
turn making positive adjustments to their own self-esteem. Szekely argues, "One
object of women's hard work which, potentially is also a means of their success, is the
body . . . women have been given the message that their efforts in improving and
perfecting their bodies would be rewarded by success" on both a social and
professional level. With that thought in mind, women have come to relate to their
bodies "as their objects/tools/weapons in the marketplace of social relations," in
Orbach’s terms.
Perhaps a woman's ability to control her own body size and weight can be seen
as a metaphor, a substitution for control that may be lacking in other areas of her life.
While women continue to struggle for equality on an economic scale and within their
relationships, they still maintain control over their own bodies. It is important that
women begin to accept themselves for who they are, regardless of their body type,
and to feel comfortable with the body they live in. Orbach warns women will only be
setting themselves up for failure if they continue to pursue the "elusive, eternally
youthful body beautiful." Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, Inc. adds
that it is important to remember that eating disorders in males, as well as in females,
can be treated, and people of both genders do recover. Almost always, however,
professional help is required.
What do the examples in the introduction illustrate?
2. The ideal appearance of today is (different from / similar to) the beauty ideal of the
1930s. Nowadays to be thin in North America signifies being (boyish/ healthy).
3. Why do many women starve themselves to death? Complete the sentence:
They starve themselves to death ___________________________________
4. Give two examples of eating disorders
a. ______________________
b. ______________________
5. Paragraph 3: Why do eating disorders affect middle-aged women?
Complete the sentence:
Eating disorders increasingly affect middle-aged women as a result of ______
6. True / False
Only people who are diagnosed with eating disorders experience a distortion of their body
Quote from the text to support of your answer:
7. a. What are the new and unexpected results of the study carried out by researchers at
Harvard University Medical School?
b. List THREE possible reasons for these results:
i. ________________________________________________________
c. According to the new study, men ARE / ARE NOT subject to social pressures and they
have become MORE / LESS concerned about appearance and body image than they had
been in the past.
8. According to paragraph 6, there is a (strong/ weak) connection between the body image
and how the person really looks.
Copy from the text to support your choice
9. What is the recommendation given to women in paragraph 6?
10. Does a single advertisement have a harmful effect on women’s perception of themselves
Copy from the text to support your answer:
11. Paragraphs 8, 9: Who promotes the image of the ideal feminine body?
a. ____________________________
b. ____________________________
12. a. What is the social implication of being overweight?
Complete the sentence:
It is considered that an overweight woman usually has _________________.
b. Could a person’s overweight damage his/her chances during a job interview? Yes / No
13. In paragraph 11, the writer says, “With that thought in mind.”
What thought is he referring to?
14. What was the writer’s purpose in writing this article?
a. to warn people of the dangers of eating disorders
b. to warn people of the negative cumulative impact of advertisements on
women attitude towards their weight.
c. to call attention to the harmful effects inherent in our educational
d. to discourage people from following blindly culturally prescribed and
unattainable ideals
15. Where might this article be published?
a. in a feminist journal
b. in a tabloid
c. in a rightwing paper propagating racist views
d. in a textbook on advertising
Summary cloze:
In different eras and cultures women have 1) ____________ to ever-changing beauty ideals.
Nowadays in North America 2) __________ is the norm. Thin people are perceived by others
4) ___________ themselves. Since our culture links thinness to success, many men and
women 5) _____________ certain kinds of eating disorders. Researchers blame the 6)
_____________ and various forms of advertising for spreading and reinforcing idealized
body images. They present unattainable 7) ____________and set everybody up for failure. In
order to lead a 8) ____________life, people need to learn to accept themselves even if their
bodies are not perfect.
Connectors Practice
1. a. Find a connector of addition of paragraph 2. __________________
b. What other connector from this group do you know? __________________
2. a. Find a connector of exemplification in paragraph 3. ____________________
b. Use this connector in your own sentence.
3. a. Find a connector of contrast in paragraph 4. _____________________
b. What are the three synonyms of this connector?
________ _________ _________
4. a. What connector in paragraph 5 means the same as “result in”? ________________
b. What other connectors with the same meaning do you know? _________________
5. a. What connector in paragraph 7 means the same as “whereas”? _________________
b. Write your own sentence using this connector.
6. a. What connector in paragraph 8 means the same as “since”? _______________
b. What relationship does it show? ___________________
c. What other connectors showing the same relationship do you know?
Vocabulary exercise
I. Figure out the meaning of the following words as they are used in the text. Use your
knowledge of word formation and parts of speech.
1. precondition (paragraph 2) ____________________
2. figure (paragraph 5) ______________________
3. inaccurate (paragraph 6) ______________________
4. imperfections (paragraph 6) ____________________
5. self-defeating (paragraph 6) ____________________
6. unconscious (paragraph 7) _____________________
7. insecurities (paragraph 9) ______________________
8. target (paragraph 9) _______________________
9. regardless (paragraph 12) ____________________
II. Study the meanings of the following words as they are used in the text:
Paragraph 1:
Paragraph 2:
Paragraph 3:
Paragraph 4:
side effects
Paragraph 6:
Paragraph 7:
Paragraph 8:
Paragraph 9:
Paragraph 11:
Paragraph 12:
III. Answer the following questions.
1. What behavior does society usually condemn?
2. How do you perceive yourself?
3. What side effects do antibiotic pills have?
4. Why do people usually conform to the social rules and norms?
5. What goals do you attempt to attain?
6. What should be emphasized during the English lessons?
7. Is it possible to distinguish between two identical twins?
8. In your opinion, who or what doesn’t have substitution?
US : Baby Boomers* Cause Start-Up Explosion
The surge in start-ups led by these baby-boomers could have a profound impact on the economy
The nation will soon experience an explosion of new business start-ups, which may
surpass the Hi-Tech boom of the late 1990s. This time around, however, the burst in
entrepreneurial activity will not be led by young people in their twenties, but by baby boomers
and future retirees in their 40s, 50s, 60s and even 70s, who are better educated, healthier
and more tech-savvy than their predecessors.
The surge in start-ups led by these baby-boomers could have a profound impact on
the economy, both from new job creation and decreased tax burden. This is because this
large, aging population is supported by entrepreneurial income instead of government
Evidence that the entrepreneurial renaissance may already be on the way can be
seen in the latest quarterly job market survey conducted in the second quarter of 2005 by
global outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas, Inc. The survey of 3,000 job seekers
found that 13 percent started their own businesses in the second quarter. That was up from
9.9 percent in the same quarter a year ago and was the highest percentage since the second
quarter of 1994, when 14.9 percent of job seekers started businesses.
A large portion of these entrepreneurs – 86.6 percent – were over 40, providing
support for the idea that the next wave of start-ups will be dominated by business veterans.
Further support is found in a Challenger analysis of unpublished government data, which
showed that those 55 to 64 and older represent one of the fastest growing groups of selfemployed workers. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that the number of
Americans 55 to 64 categorized as self-employed in non-agricultural industries has increased
29 percent from 1,434,000 in July, 2000, to 1,846,000 as of July, 2005. The number of selfemployed 65 and older has grown 18 percent from 641,000 in 2000 to its current level of
756,000. Meanwhile, the largest number of self-employed workers is represented by late
boomers – those 45 to 54 years-old – who make up nearly 2.6 million or 27 percent of the
nation’s 9.6 million self-employed. All together, the boomer-and-older entrepreneurs now
account for 54 percent of self-employed workers, up from 48.5 percent in 2000. While selfemployment was expanding among older workers, it was stagnant or falling for almost every
other age group.
"baby boomers" is a term used to describe a person who was born
during the Post- World War II baby
205 boom, a period with greatly
increased birth rate.
“It may be a foregone conclusion that many baby boomers, either out of desire or
necessity, will work beyond the ‘retirement age’ of 65. What some employers may not have
expected is that a growing number of these baby boomers are abandoning traditional
employment for self-employment,” noted John A. Challenger, chief executive officer of
Challenger, Gray & Christmas. “This could have negative consequences for employers, some
of whom are already starting to experience a shortage of skilled workers.” In a June survey of
human resource executives by Challenger, 40 percent of respondents said that their
companies did not meet hiring expectations in the first half of 2005 due to a lack of qualified
candidates. “As a result of the shortage, the new wave of senior entrepreneurs may find that
their biggest customers are their former employers, who have no choice but to outsource (to
obtain goods or services from an outside supplier) certain functions to those with the most
relevant experience,” Challenger observed.
So, why the startling rise in boomer start-ups? Boomers are better educated than
previous generations who entered their retirement years. As a result, they are more ready,
willing and able to take on the intellectual challenges of continued employment. Thirty
percent of the leading edge boomers, aged 55 to 59, have a bachelor’s degree or higher.
That is up from 25 percent just six years ago in 1999, according to Census Bureau statistics.
Overall, our society is becoming more educated. Census data show that in 2004, 85.2
percent of Americans 25 and older completed four years of high school or more. In 1974, the
high school completion rate was just 61.2 percent. Furthermore, 27.7 percent of the 25-plus
population has gone on to complete four years of college or more, up from 13.3 percent in
While some boomers start their own business out of the desire to continue working,
others will do it out of necessity. For many people, imploding pension plans and an unstable
stock market have diminished retirement savings. To make matters worse, many aging
workers suddenly found themselves out of work due to corporate downsizing. “With a
weakened safety net, more of these older downsizing victims are choosing self-employment
in order to have more control over their job security and financial destiny,” said Challenger.
In addition to a lack of retirement assets, the surge in boomer start-ups may be due to
several other factors, including the enduring perception that age discrimination persists and
the growing desire among older workers for a high level of workplace flexibility that they feel
can only be achieved by acting as their own boss. Ironically, many companies will be forced
to contract work out to these older, independent consultants and freelance workers due to the
approaching mass retirement of aging baby boomers, which is expected to leave an
enormous void of experienced workers at companies in nearly every industry throughout the
“It will be a win-win situation for the company and older contract workers. The
company will benefit from the experience that these experienced free agents bring -- paying
them a fee rather than a monthly salary, which will also save money on benefits. The boomer
entrepreneur will have an ongoing flow of work and income, which will be critical for many of
these individuals since the economic slump and subsequent stock market losses inflicted
significant damage to their retirement savings,” Challenger noted.
Entrepreneurship will be the road to continued earnings for some, but starting a
business is not for everybody, according to Challenger. He offered the following suggestions
on what makes a good entrepreneur:
Sales experience. As an entrepreneur, you should expect to spend 75 percent or more of
your time on sales as the business is getting off the ground. If you do not feel comfortable
selling, your business is probably doomed before it even begins.
A financial cushion. Many entrepreneurs are forced to fund part or all of their business with
their own savings and/or credit cards. The return on this investment probably will not come
immediately, so it is critical to be financially able to get through the hard times of little or no
steady income
A business plan. Consult with a CPA (Certified Public Accountant) or a professional
organization such as SCORE to help develop a business plan. Many entrepreneurs have
great concepts that fail due to poor execution.
Commitment. Starting a business takes a substantial commitment of time and personal
effort. It is a time-and-a-half job, not a part-time job. Your business must come first. You will
have less time for family and personal activities -- and less money, too. Before you decide to
go out on your own, make sure you are willing to make these sacrifices and remain dedicated
to your business goals no matter what.
A solid track record. A common mistake among future entrepreneurs is venturing into a
new field in which they have no previous experience. Just as we counsel people not to
change careers when they seek new employment, we counsel people who want to start
businesses to stay with what they know. Trying something different -- including the purchase
of a franchise about which you know nothing about -- only increases your chances of failure,
because you would be competing with others who have more experience.
Stamina. Starting a new business takes stamina -- the energy to withstand the physical
rigors of starting up and operating a business.
For a growing number of baby-boomers, then, the answer to the question "What comes
next?" involves leaving their current job – but not retiring. Instead of that, they are choosing
to start a new chapter in their working lives, one where finally they'll be the boss.
US: Baby Boomers* Cause Start-Up Explosion
1. According to paragraph 1, what will be different about new business start-ups?
Complete the sentence:
New business start-ups will be established by _______________________ rather than by
8 pts
2. What are two possible results of the fact that the new business start-ups are supported
by entrepreneurial income? (1-3 words for each answer)
i _________________________
8 pts
3. What do the statistics from the latest quarterly job market survey show?
______________________________________________________________ 8 pts
4. (Circle one word) According to paragraph 4, at present the boomer and older
entrepreneurs are the minority/ majority of self-employed workers.
Support your answer by quoting from the text.
3+5 pts
5. a. (Para. 5) What could have negative consequences for employers?
b. What is this consequence?
4+4 = 8 pts
6. Is the following sentence TRUE or FALSE (circle the correct answer)
Companies may end up outsourcing work to their former employees.
Support your answer by quoting from the text.
3+5 pts
6. a. Why are Boomers better prepared to face the intellectual challenges posed
by continuing to work?
b. Complete the following sentence:
This is the reason given for the increase in __________________
8 pts
8. Paragraphs 7 & 8: What are the four possible general reasons for the boomers’ selfemployment?
12 pts
9. What will be the result of mass retirement of aging baby boomers to companies in
the U.S.?
a. Age discrimination against older workers
b. An enormous lack of experienced workers
c. A high level of workplace flexibility
d. A lack of retirement assets
8 pts
10. The older workers are the only ones who would benefit from contracts with business
Support your answer by quoting from the text.
3+5 pts
11. Which of the following are NOT mentioned as a key for business success?
Check () TWO:
_____ making business the first priority
_____ developing ethical codes of behavior
_____ sticking to the field of your expertise
_____ thinking through the execution of your idea
_____ feeling comfortable selling
_____ coping with the psychological difficulties
8 pts
12. What is the main idea of the article?
a. A new economic reality involves a baby-boomer start-up businesses
b. The desire to continue working as well as necessity drive the boomers to selfemployment
c. Baby-boomers are more experienced and better educated than their predecessors.
d. Boomers’ self-employment is beneficial for the companies that experience the growing
deficit in the skilled manpower.
8 pts
Summary Cloze
U.S is experiencing an 1) _________________ of new business start-ups led by babyboomers and 2) _______________. While the number of self-employed older workers is 3)
__________________, it is stagnant or falling for other age groups. This phenomenon may
have negative consequences because baby-boomers are leaving 4) ________________
employment for self-employment.
There are several reasons for the surge boomer start-ups. First, boomers want to
6) _________________. Among other reasons are the desire to resist the age discrimination
as well as the 7) _________________ of working hours. However, successful
entrepreneurship requires certain attitudes and behaviors from the businessman, such as the
8) __________________.
Translate the following:
the latest quarterly job market survey conducted (paragraph 3)
the next wave of start-ups will be dominated by seasoned business veterans
(paragraph 4) ____________________________________________________
analysis of unpublished government data (paragraph 4)
one of the fastest growing groups of self-employed workers (paragraph 4)
their companies did not meet hiring expectations (paragraph 5)
have diminished retirement savings (paragraph 7)
these older downsizing victims are opting for self-employment (paragraph 7)
an enormous void of experienced workers (paragraph 8)
an ongoing flow of work and income (paragraph 9)
the lean times of little or no steady income (paragraph 10- A financial cushion)
physical rigors of starting up and operating a business (paragraph 10- Stamina)
Vocabulary exercises:
I. Find the synonyms of the following words in the text:
1. carried out (paragraph 3) _____________________
2. businessmen (paragraph 4) ____________________
3. leaving/ deserting (paragraph 5) ____________________
4. lack/ deficit (paragraph 5) _____________________
5. to finance (paragraph 10-A financial cushion) __________________
6. large, considerable (paragraph 10- Commitment) ___________________
7. give professional advice (paragraph 10-A solid…) ___________________
8. physical and mental strength (paragraph 10- Stamina) __________________
II. Match the words on the left with those on the right to create logical phrases:
an annual
the retirees’
a primary
an asset
to withstand
a. pension fees
b. commitment
c. survey
d. the pressures
e. to the company
f. of the body
Make up two phrases of your own:
to purchase ____________________
____________________ discrimination
Brewing Up Health Benefits for Coffee
New research gives coffee addicts a reason to keep drinking.
Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter. New York: Jan 2008.
© Tufts Media LLC Jan 2008
Most of us heard the dire warnings about coffee when we were growing up: Drinking
coffee would "stunt your growth," our mothers cautioned. The dark tone of voice hinted that
this was perhaps the least of coffee's health hazards.
So our mothers would have been surprised to hear the experts assembled for a panel at
the 2007 Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC. They discussed a wide range of
possible health benefits from coffee consumption, ranging from reducing the risk of a certain
type of diabetes (type-2 diabetes) to helping prevent various cancers. Since that session,
hardly a month has gone by without some new study suggesting that coffee – arguably the
world's most widely consumed beverage, after water – may be good for everything from your
liver to your brain.
Not that coffee consumption doesn't have its downsides. But the picture emerging from
recent research of coffee's health risks versus rewards is surprisingly more positive than our
mothers' view. "We're coming from a situation where coffee had a very negative health
image," said Dr. Rob van Dam, PhD, of the Harvard School of Public Health, a panelist at the
Experimental Biology session. He added, "It's not that we're promoting coffee as the new
health food and asking people who don't like coffee to drink coffee for their health".
If you are among the roughly 54% of Americans over 18 who drink coffee daily,
however, at least the latest science doesn't present any persuasive reason to quit. Another
30% of the population occasionally drinks coffee, and among all coffee drinkers the average
“Java jolt” (caffeine from coffee) is a little over three cups a day. That puts us behind many
European nations, including Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, France and Italy, as
well as Brazil, although ahead of tea-drinking Japan and Britain. Apart from the US, much of
the research on coffee and health has originated from nations at either extreme of this
consumption scale, such as Finland, where one study found benefits from gulping an
astonishing 10 cups daily, and Japan, where it's easier to isolate the coffee drinkers among
the population.
I Love Coffee and Coffee Loves Me
While researchers caution that none of their findings make a compelling case for
starting a coffee habit, a variety of studies do give coffee addicts reason to keep pouring a
cup every morning and not stop.
Type-2 Diabetes
Since 2002, more than 20 studies have suggested that coffee somehow helps ward off
type-2 diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, "Drinking brewed coffee in
moderate amounts may be beneficial for reducing the chances of getting diabetes. However,
the presence of caffeine does not explain all of the effects. There may be some other
ingredient in brewed coffee that has healthful effects.”
At the Experimental Biology session, Dr. Lenore Arab, MSc, PhD, of UCLA presented
results of a review of nearly 400 studies concerning coffee and cancer risk. While coffee may
increase the risk of stomach cancer and especially leukemia, the review found a protective
effect against colon, rectal and liver cancer. Dr. Arab suggested that, besides speeding the
passage of stool (including any carcinogens from food) through the colon, coffee might lower
the buildup of cholesterol, sterol secretions and bile acid in the colon.
Another recent review, by Italian scientists, looked at 10 studies of coffee and liver
cancer and similarly found a benefit: Overall, an increase in coffee consumption of one cup
daily was associated with a 23% reduction in liver-cancer risk. Coffee drinkers averaged a
41% reduced risk compared to non-drinkers, with the highest benefit (55% reduced risk)
among those drinking three or more cups a day.
A new Japanese study supports the possible protection against colon cancer, at least
for women: Researchers at the Tokyo National Cancer Center analyzed data on more than
96,000 men and women ages 40–69 over a 12-year span. They found that women
consuming at least three cups of coffee daily had only half the risk of colon cancer of nondrinkers. No similar effect was seen for men, which the researchers suggested could be due
to the inability to adjust for the high rates of alcohol consumption and smoking among
Japanese males.
10. The most headline-grabbing recent research on coffee and cancer revealed surprising
teamwork between caffeine and exercise. Rutgers University researchers found that both
caffeine and exercise protected mice against skin cancer and that in combination the effect
was more than the sum of the two factors. The report led to many late-night comics' jokes
about jogging home from Starbucks.
Cardiovascular disease
Coffee's long-term effect on blood pressure has long been debated, and should be
weighed against any possible benefits. In 2006, Norwegian researchers found that older
women drinking one to three cups of coffee daily were 24% less likely to die of cardiovascular
disease than non-drinkers. Another study in 2007 found that older people (age 65 and over)
who consume four or more servings of caffeine daily had a lower risk of death from heart
On the other hand, because caffeine has a short-term elevating effect on blood
pressure, people who drink one cup after another may keep their blood pressure high for
periods long enough to risk heart trouble.
Parkinson's disease
The coffee-loving Finns recently found evidence that their high level of consumption
– 10 cups a day or more -- might protect against Parkinson's disease. Following 6,710 men
and women ages 50 to 79 for 22 years, researchers at Finland's National Public Health
Institute concluded that the heaviest coffee drinkers were at 84% reduced risk of developing
the disease.
Cognitive decline
Anybody who has experienced coffee's morning wake-up call to the brain knows that
it can temporarily help sharpen thinking. But coffee may also boost brain function in more
permanent ways: A European study of 676 healthy men, published in 2006 found that those
consuming three cups of coffee daily suffered significantly less cognitive decline over 10
years than non-drinkers. And in 2007, a French study concluded that older women who drank
at least three cups of coffee daily were 18% less likely to develop problems with verbal recall
and 33% less prone to memory problems. The four-year study of 7,017 people age 65 and
older failed to find similar benefits in men. Similar results were seen for tea, leading
researchers to identify caffeine as the source of the benefit.
A Cup of Caution
Before you rush out to buy an extra-large coffeepot, however, be aware that
coffee has negatives. Pregnant women are often advised to avoid or limit coffee and
other sources of caffeine because of possible harm to the fetus and risk of miscarriage
with high intakes. Coffee brewed in French-press pots has been found higher in oils
that are mostly filtered out by other brewing methods. These oils affect the liver,
raising unhealthy LDL cholesterol levels. You may also want to watch your coffee
consumption if you take certain medications. Some drugs, when combined with
caffeine, may exaggerate the effects of the caffeine.
Weight Watchers Beware
The specialty-coffee trend like Starbucks and Aroma, which have swept America,
have also added calories to our coffee cups. Only 35% of Americans drink their coffee black,
meaning the rest of us have to be careful that what we add to our cups doesn't outweigh any
possible health benefits from the coffee. Cream and sugar? Extra calories and saturated fat.
If you must add to your coffee, choose carefully. Many coffeehouses now offer 1% or low-fat
milk. Cinnamon and other spices don't add calories or fat. Artificial sweeteners let you
sweeten coffee without calories .
Nutritionally, the consequences of the wrong coffee choices can be disastrous. At
Starbucks, for example, a grande (16-ounce / ½-liter) Caffe Americano has a mere 15
calories, 10 milligrams of sodium and zero fat. But the same size White Chocolate Mocha
made with whole milk (with 8.5 grams of fat) has a whopping 500 calories – a quarter of what
many people should consume in an entire day – and 22 grams of fat, 14 grams of it saturated
fat, plus 240 milligrams of sodium .
More Good News
Most coffee drinkers think of their morning cup of coffee as containing little more than
hot water, caffeine and coffee flavor. It's true that caffeine is responsible for many of coffee's
health effects, both good and ill. But that's hardly the whole story; there are other beneficial
ingredients in coffee. In 2005, for example, newspaper headlines promoted the finding that
coffee is the number-one source of antioxidants in the US diet. That's not because coffee is
the best source of antioxidants ounce per ounce, however, as many media reports
interpreted the study, but rather because Americans drink so much coffee.
Less publicized was the more recent finding that for most US adults, coffee is the main
dietary source of many minerals, including the trace element boron. An essential nutrient for
plants, boron may also prove beneficial to humans; one study in rats found that dietary boron
reduced the amount of insulin in the blood required to maintain proper glucose levels.
Coffee is also a surprising source of more familiar minerals and nutrients, including
chromium, magnesium and niacin. A cup of coffee contains about one-third as much
potassium as found in a small banana.
So what can we conclude about the question that coffee may "stunt your growth"? This
concern originally arose from research suggesting caffeine might negatively affect calcium
absorption. This made it of potential concern not only to growing children but also to adults at
risk for osteoporosis. But subsequent studies have shown that the real worry is substituting
caffeinated beverages for those containing calcium. Make sure you're getting adequate
calcium and you can enjoy coffee – in moderation – and even gain some benefit from it.
Comprehension Questions – Brewing Up Health Benefits for Coffee
According to paragraphs 1 and 2, what is the current opinion concerning coffee's
possible effects on health? (Circle the correct words)
Whereas in the past, coffee was considered HARMFUL / BENEFICIAL, today it is
recognized that there may be possible ADVANTAGES / DISADVANTAGES for our
Is the following sentence TRUE or FALSE (circle one answer)
According to Dr. Rob van Dam, even people who don't like coffee should consume it.
Quote from the text to justify your answer.
According to Para 4: (Circle one word)
Americans over 18 drink more / less coffee than people in many European nations.
Quote from the text to justify your answer.
What idea do paragraphs 6-16 illustrate?
According to paragraphs 7-10, research has found that there is a connection between
coffee consumption and reduction of cancer risk.
Check () TWO correct findings:
____ Drinking coffee may reduce the risk of stomach cancer
____ Drinking coffee may reduce cholesterol in the colon
____ Drinking coffee may reduce the risk of leukemia
____ Drinking coffee may reduce the risk of colon cancer in men
____ Drinking coffee may reduce the risk of cancer in the liver
According to paragraph 10, which two factors can be combined to produce positive
i. __________________________
ii. __________________________
Paragraphs 11-12:
What is a possible effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system?
a. Several servings of caffeine daily may increase heart disease in older people
b. People who drink one cup after another may increase their risk of heart disease
c. Older women who drink up to three cups of coffee daily raise the risk of heart disease
d. The possible benefits of drinking coffee outweigh the short term risks of heart disease
(Para 14) What are 3 enduring effects of caffeine on our brain function?
i. ________________________________________________________
ii. ________________________________________________________
iii. ________________________________________________________
How were researchers able to pinpoint caffeine as the factor which alleviated cognitive
What are two groups of people for whom drinking coffee is not recommended?
i. ________________________________________________________
ii. ________________________________________________________
(paragraphs 16-17) Is the following sentence TRUE or FALSE (circle one answer)
There are significant health consequences of not drinking coffee ‘black.’
Quote from the text to justify your answer.
Why does the author mention antioxidants and minerals?
What is the purpose of the author in this article?
a. To discuss ways of defeating the negative effects of coffee
b. To contradict the common belief that coffee is harmful
c. To show that the consumption of coffee is dangerous
d. To prove that drinking coffee cures many diseases.
The famous author Charles Dickens illuminated the terrible conditions of
children in England’s workforce in the 19th century. In the 20th century, Lewis Hine’s
sober photographs called attention to similar conditions in America. By the first decade
of this century, some 2 million children under 16 were at work in the United States,
many of them in appalling conditions, spending long days in dark mines breathing coal
dust or bent over machines inside roaring factories.
No one had paid much attention to America’s child workers before, but that was
beginning to change. Outraged articles turned up in national magazines, and in 1904,
a group of citizens organized the National Child Labor Committee to bring the problem
to the country’s attention and see that state laws were enforced. In 1908, Lewis W.
Hine went to work for the committee full-time as a photographer.
Hine had been teaching nature studies and geography at the Ethical Culture
School in New York when the superintendent of the school appointed him school
photographer in 1904. He had never handled a camera before. He would never put
one down again. Already committed to a life of social work and social betterment, he
began taking photographs of immigrants at Ellis Island, emphasizing the innate
humanity and worth of these people at a time when Americans were vilifying the
newcomers who were streaming in.
Hine and the NCLC belonged to the progressive reform movement which
worked on the Utopian belief that organized institutions, scientifically run, could
change society for the better. The movement reflected a shift away from the old
conviction that the poor brought poverty on themselves through laziness or moral
laxity (or both) to a sense that external circumstances were largely to blame. Hine’s
photographs could almost be seen as a silent appeal to this argument. The children in
his child-labor pictures work hard, they are too young to be judged on their morals,
and unknowingly, they plead for recognition of their lives.
The idea that photography could assist in social reform was as new as highly
organized reform itself. For a half-century after the invention of the medium,
photographers had portrayed the poor as picturesque creatures; it was not considered
polite to air society’s dirty linen. Jacob Riis, a crusading journalist, learned how to
photograph in order to add irrefutable proof to his reports on the slums. With his 1890
book, How the Other Half Lives, he introduced a shocked audience to the squalid life
in New York tenements. Some of tenements were subsequently torn down, largely
because of Riis’s work.
The NCLC was both committed to publicizing its cause and expert at doing so.
Hine soon proved his own expertise. In fact, his major contribution lies not in his
pictures alone but in the new uses he made of them and the new ways he devised to
get them before people’s eyes. His photographs were essential to the committee’s
success. Though the federal government did not ban child labor until 1938, the NCLC
did sway public opinion and helped persuade Washington to set up the U.S. Children’s
Bureau to oversee children’s welfare in 1912. In 1947, the NCLC chairman credited
Hine with bringing the need for labor reform to the public’s attention: “The evils were
intellectually but not emotionally recognized until his skill, vision and artistic finesse
focused the camera intelligently on these social problems.”
Whenever possible, Hine’s images insist on communication with the subject:
the children look straight ahead, engaging their viewer directly. They not only know the
photographer is there, but trust him; sometimes, incongruously, they smile, despite
oppressive machines, bare feet, demeaning work. (Cameras demand smiles even
from the unhappy.)
Since Hine usually carried about 50 pounds of equipment, including a stand
camera, a tripod and a flash tray, his subjects could not avoid knowing he was there.
But sometimes he had to work too fast for posing. In the South, where a high
proportion of workers were underage, the mill owners argued that child labor kept
families alive, and they weren’t eager to have that position debunked. Factory owners
elsewhere believed that the situation was fine the way it was, denied it existed, or
refused to let a stranger in for fear of exposure
Hine resorted to ruses where he had to. He claimed to be an industrial
photographer, a Bible salesman, or the representative of a postcard company. Inside
he made notes with one hand in his pocket and estimated the children’s height by
marking down which button on his jacket they came up to. The dark and
claustrophobic interior pictures were especially convincing in an era when people
believed that fresh air was vital to good health and had recently began building
playgrounds for city children.
When all else failed, Hine waited at entrances and exits for the youngsters to
come by. There they stand, in the middle of most of Hine’s pictures; there is absolutely
no mistaking the focus of attention. The girl in the mill is positioned so that her head is
at the precise vanishing point of the machine’s perspective lines, as if the machines
themselves were concentrated on her, perhaps intent on crushing her. Oddly, a man’s
face stares out from the side; no sense on his part that anything is wrong.
The children stand at middle distance because that is what Hine’s equipment
allowed. The wide spaces on either side of them provide the context that his notes
would fill in – even if that context is merely emptiness and isolation, as in the picture of
the one-legged newsboy, 8 years old, who earns one or two dollars a day.
Hine always tried to produce a witness to his photography (sometimes his wife).
Many people simply did not believe children were at work in such large numbers and
such vile conditions; his data had to be entirely credible. In 1910 he wrote to a friend,
“My child-labor photos have already set the authorities to work to see if such things
can be possible. They try to get around them by crying ‘fake’, but therein lies the value
of the date and a witness.”
Without being too sentimental, he found details that summed up strain and
poverty: the broken suspender of a young mill worker, the bare feet of an oyster
shucker on a mountain of shells, the resigned posture of a glass worker. Most of the
children he photographed are survivors – resilient, even tough, and dignified in their
way. That was part of his message, part of his belief about humanity. But he did not
hesitate to show his subjects smoking cigars and cigarettes and playing pool. Child
labor was not exactly the optimum preparation for a good life in society.
Hines was, essentially, a propagandist, trying to make Americans rethink a
situation and their obligation to it. He once said in a speech to social workers, “I
wonder, sometimes, what an enterprising manufacturer would do if his goods, instead
of being inanimate things, were the problems and activities of life itself, with all their
possibilities of human appeal. Would he not grasp eagerly at such opportunities to
play upon the sympathies of his customers as are afforded by the camera?”
He himself advertised for change in many and ingenious ways. He wrote
captions for his pictures to double the information and impact; designed exhibitions
and posters; wrote articles and illustrated them; took pictures for the NCLC’s annual
report; produced photomontages, brochures and slide sets for lectures; and
sequenced photographs in what were in effect the first photo essays. If all of this
seems standard to us now, that is because Hine understood the power of words and
photographs more fully than anyone had before, and because he tried out multiple
means of communicating with a large audience and discovered that they worked.
From Civilisation, January – February 1996
a. Which issue concerned both Dickens and Hine?
b. What was the difference in their approaches? (one word)
Whereas Dickens criticized society in his writings, Hine used ___________________.
2. (para 3) Hine’s first step in changing social opinion was to convince Americans
that they should __________________ new immigrants instead of
_____________________ them.
(para. 4) Is the following sentence TRUE or FALSE? (circle your answer)
Hine, the NCLC and the reform movement believed poor people should not be blamed for
their poverty.
Quote from the text to justify your answer
4. Jacob Riis was a journalist who used his photographs to
a. portray the poor as picturesque creatures
b. prove that conditions in the slums were terrible
c. to show polite pictures of society
d. please his audiences
5. ( Paras. 8 - 10) Why did Hine sometimes have to work fast, sometimes lie, and wait at
entrances for children?
6. In Paragraphs 8 – 11, what is the writer is trying to show?
e. that employment of children kept families alive
f. that fresh air was vital to children’s health
g. that his subjects could not avoid knowing he was there
h. that young children worked in terrible conditions
7. How did Hines deal with accusations that his pictures were fakes?
8. Why does the writer mention ‘the broken suspender of a young mill worker, the bare feet
of an oyster shucker, the resigned posture of a glass worker’?
9. In his conclusion the writer hints at the results of Hine’s work. Can we understand
that Hines was successful in changing attitudes?
Yes/ No
Why or why not? Quote from the text to support your answer
10. Choose a more suitable title for this article:
Child Labor – a Necessity in the Economy
Techniques in Photography
The Role of Photography in Social Reform
The Contribution of the NCLC
11. What is the writer’s purpose in writing this article?
To show why Hine became a photographer
To show Hine’s work in the Ethical Culture School
To show that Hine’s photography influenced social reforms
To show why Hine photographed immigrants
At the beginning of the 20th century, many children worked in
1) ______________ conditions in factories in America. The public only began to pay
3) __________________ to try to bring about social 4) ______________.
Hine was active in this movement, using his 5) _________________ to illustrate the
6) ___________________ did not want the public to know the truth. However, together with
8) ________________ attitudes.
1. What phrase in paragraph 1 means the same as “illuminated” in paragraph 1?
2. Guess the meaning of the word “appalling” in the phrase “appalling conditions” (Paragraph
1) __________________________
3. Guess the meaning of the word “outraged” (paragraph 2) by taking it apart.
4. Look up “turned up” (paragraph 2) in the dictionary. _____________________
5. Paragraph 3:
a. Guess the meaning of the word “handled” ______________________________
What word does it remind you of? ______________________________
b. Guess the meaning of the word “betterment” ___________________________
What word does it remind you of? ______________________________
What part of speech is it? _______________
6. Paragraph 4: What is the meaning of the word “run” in the following sequence: “organized
7. Figure out the meaning of the word “unknowingly” (para. 4) by taking it apart
_________________________. What part of speech is it? ________________
8. Paragraph 7: What are the three negative adjectives used to describe children’s work
10. Paragraph 9:
b. What word means the same as “important/ essential”? _______________________
11. What is the meaning of the word “lies” in paragraph 12? _____________________
What part of speech is it?
12. What is the meaning of the word “inanimate” in paragraph 12? ________________
What word does it remind you of? ____________________
13. What word in paragraph 15 means the same as “clever/inventive”?
The Crisis of Women's Homelessness in Canada
Summary of a Report by the Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation
Barbara Rahder.
Women & Environments International Magazine.
Toronto: Spring 2006., Iss. 70/71; pg. 38,
Canada was once a leader in developing some of the most innovative cooperative and
non-profit housing for and by women anywhere in the world. Today, in contrast, there is a
growing crisis of women's homelessness across Canada. The Canadian government has
failed to address this crisis and has done little to explore the causes of women's
homelessness. The Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation (CERA) in Toronto
analyzed this situation and recommended strategies to respond to some of the most pressing
housing problems facing Canadian women. Below is a summary of their key findings and
recommendations, followed by my own commentary about the prospects for change and the
implications for urban sustainability.
Women and children are the fastest growing group of shelter users across the country.
But even these numbers fail to document the full scope of this ongoing crisis because only a
small fraction of the women experiencing housing crises and homelessness use shelters. For
example, many women continue to live with violent partners and face daily threats and abuse
because they can find no other housing options. Many women will go without adequate food,
clothing or other necessities in order to make sure that they can pay their rent. Some women
find themselves forced to move in with family or friends when they cannot make ends meet,
adding to problems of overcrowding and stress. Most of these individual housing crises do
not appear in reports and statistics on homelessness, they do not "count" as homelessness,
but they increasingly define the lives of low-income women across Canada.
The homelessness crisis facing women is also a poverty crisis. Consequently, it is
important to examine the scarcity of affordable housing within the larger context of social
policies and programs needed to address issues of poverty, particularly the income policies
and programs in which the federal government plays a key role. Many women's ability to
access and maintain appropriate housing has been seriously undermined by dramatic
changes to several federal programs. Among these are changes in eligibility criteria for
Employment Insurance that now reduces the benefits for many women and completely
excludes others. The National Child Benefit Supplement, allows some provinces to "claw
back" benefits from the poorest women - those in receipt of social assistance. Other changes,
like the repeal of the Canada Assistance Plan and the introduction of the Canada Health and
Social Transfer, have further eroded low-income women's supports and, as a result, their
ability to cope in a tight housing market.
Most significantly, however, after the Canadian government stopped funding for the
development of new co-operative and non-profit housing in 1993, it changed its focus to
funding initiatives aimed at improving access to home ownership and programs to address
the needs of the homeless. CERA's report zeroes in on the changes since 1993 and
examines the extent to which these new programs address (or fail to address) the housing
needs of low-income women.
Key Findings
When the Canadian government stopped funding new urban social housing initiatives,
it had a profoundly negative effect on women. Low-income women are among those most in
need of housing subsidies. Without subsidies, women are compelled to rely on the private
rental market, exposing them to systemic discrimination. Landlords across Canada deny
thousands of women access to affordable apartments on the basis of arbitrary minimum
income criteria (where a landlord refuses to rent to someone on the basis that they will be
spending too much - more than 30% - of their income on rent). Banks and credit companies
use similar policies to disqualify women from accessing mortgages. Human rights tribunals
and courts have ruled that the use of minimum income criteria is discriminatory when used by
landlords to disqualify single women, single mothers, social assistance recipients, Black
women, newcomers and other equality seeking groups from renting apartments. At the same
time, the federal government has frozen funding and downloaded the responsibility for social
housing programs to the provinces.
Women do not benefit equally from Canadian government programs that promote
access to affordable home ownership or that provide subsidies for the renovation and repair
of owned homes. This is because income criteria-type policies exclude the majority of single
mothers and low-income women from qualifying for Canada Mortgage and Housing
Corporation's homeownership program, due to their low incomes. Because of this, many
women are denied access to homeownership even though they will be paying more in rent
than they would be paying for a mortgage and property taxes combined.
Women's poverty has also increased as a result of changes in the eligibility criteria for
social assistance and the erosion of social assistance rates across Canada. Government
dollars have been redirected to health funding, where national standards remain in place.
While health funding has increased, social assistance rates have become grossly inadequate
to cover the cost of housing for women, especially in light of gross increases in average rents
in major cities across Canada.
Aboriginal (Indians and Inuit) women, especially single mothers, have the highest
incidence of poverty in Canada - more than twice the rate of non-Aboriginal women.
Aboriginal women are thus uniquely vulnerable to all of the barriers in accessing housing that
are experienced by other low-income women, while simultaneously confronting systemic
discrimination particular to their position as racialized Aboriginal women.
In all provinces and territories, except New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Manitoba,
the National Child Benefit Supplement is taken away from social assistance recipients by an
agreement with the federal government. Despite the fact that women on social assistance are
often in dire need of this benefit and most unable to pay for housing and related expenses,
they are routinely excluded from the federal government's only initiative to address child and
family poverty.
The protection of income security resulting from unemployment, long term disability
and pregnancy and parenting of infants is critical to ensuring that women have an income
with which to pay for housing during times of increased risk of homelessness. Changes to
Employment Insurance eligibility have placed many women at increased risk of eviction when
dealing with loss of a job, pregnancy or disability. This is an area of direct federal
responsibility for protecting the needs of women for income and housing security.
Key Recommendations
CERA made several recommendations to the federal government of Canada in an
effort to address women's needs for safe, secure, appropriate and affordable housing. These
are to:
1) Create a portable shelter subsidy that takes the form of a tax credit or direct cash
payment to the individual. The portable subsidy should be based on eligibility criteria
that better addresses the gap between women's incomes and the cost of appropriate
Remove restrictions on mortgage insurance and regulate banks to ensure that
women and low-income households are provided with alternative ways of
demonstrating their credit worthiness;
Recognize and ensure the right of all Aboriginal peoples to adequate housing;
Broaden the approach to homelessness to better address the systemic causes
of women's homelessness, and consider priority funding for community-based
Renegotiate the agreement with the provinces and territories with respect to the
National Child Benefit Supplement to eliminate any claw back of this critical benefit
from social assistance recipients; and
Overhaul the Employment Insurance Program to ensure that women who are
vulnerable to unexpected job loss or income reduction are adequately protected so
they can continue to pay their rent or make their mortgage payments.
While these recommendations are modest and relatively easy to implement, it remains
to be seen if the newly elected Conservative government will seriously consider any of them.
In fact, all indications are that rather than putting the housing needs of low-income women at
the top of their agenda, the Conservatives might cut back further on social policies and
programs that benefit vulnerable populations. Urban sustainability depends on the health and
security of all women, on their access to safe and affordable housing, on their ability to
sustain healthy and equitable relationships with others, and on their understanding and
respect for the natural environment that sustains us all. As long as there is a crisis of
homelessness among Canadian women, urban sustainability will be little more than a dream.
The upcoming World Urban Forum in Vancouver, Canada in June provides the newly elected
government an opportunity to demonstrate its understanding of urban sustainability by
addressing low-income women's immediate and pressing housing needs.
1. The second sentence starts with “Today in contrast…” What contrast is the writer
referring to? Complete the sentence with ONE word only.
While Canada used to provide ________________ for women who needed it, today there
are more and more ________________ women in Canada.
2. What idea is illustrated by the example of women who move in with family or friends
when they cannot make ends meet?
3. Why is it important to examine the scarcity of affordable housing within the larger
context of social policies and programs?
4. At the end of paragraph 3, why does the writer mention all the changes?
He wants to show that:
a. they undermine the women’s ability to access and maintain appropriate housing
b. they assist the homeless women
c. they now reduce the benefits for many women and completely exclude others
d. they “claw back” benefits from the poorest women
5. Paragraph 5: Apart from the Canadian government, who/what is to blame for the
housing crisis experienced by women?
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________
6. Why are many women "denied access to homeownership"?
7. According to paragraph 7 how does the government prefer to spend its money?
Complete the following sentence:
Rather than investing in social assistance, the government has invested in
8. a. Circle the correct word in the following sentence:
New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Manitoba deprive/ don’t deprive disadvantaged
women of the National Child Benefit Supplement.
b. Which WORD helped you answer 8a?
9. According to paragraph 10 why is it important that the government provides women
with income security?
10. What is the common purpose of the recommendations in
paragraph 11?
11. Check () TWO correct recommendations :
____ Provide portable shelters for women
____ Increase restrictions on mortgage insurance
____ Recognize the rights of all ethnic groups to affordable housing
____ Make sure the provinces and the territories agree with each other
____ Review the Employment Insurance Program to better protect vulnerable women
12. Is the following sentence TRUE or FALSE (circle one answer)
The writer claims that urban sustainability is impossible as long as there is a crisis of
women homelessness in Canada.
Copy from the text to support your answer.
13. What is the main idea of this article?
1) Women’s homelessness in Canada is an insoluble problem
2) Women’s and children’s shelters will solve the problem of women's
homelessness in Canada.
3) The quality and longevity of city life of all Canadians is a women’s issue
4) The issue of women's homelessness is part of a larger crisis facing Canadian
Summary Cloze – Vocabulary practice
The crisis in women’s homelessness in Canada is a (1) _________________ problem. A
minority of homeless women and children live in (2) __________________. This results in (3)
__________________ reports on low-income women. This crisis of homelessness is part of
crisis of (4) ______________. As women no longer receive subsidies for housing, they are
(6) __________________ access to low-income women. In addition, credit companies and
(7) ________________ disqualify women from accessing mortgages. The author firmly
believes that the health and security of (8) ____________ will support and maintain the
strength of the cities and towns of Canada.
Coming to Attention
How the brain decides what to focus conscious attention on
Adapted from Andreas K. Engel, Stefan Debener and Cornelia Kranczioch,
July 30, 2006
1. Cognitive neuroscientists would like to know what is behind such phenomena: What
happens in our brains when we deliberately concentrate on something? Does some
mechanism inside our heads decide which information reaches our consciousness--and
which does not? And do our intentions, needs and expectations influence what we perceive?
Recent research offers some fascinating insights.
2. Psychologists began seeking answers to such questions as long ago as 1890, when
American philosopher and psychologist William James wrote about important characteristics
of attention in The Principles of Psychology. James concluded that the capacity of
consciousness is limited, which is why we cannot pay attention to everything at once.
3. James and others distinguished between types of attention. Some of them are "selfcreated": a penetrating odor, a loud siren, a woman in a bright red dress among people
wearing black. (Many researchers now call this process "bottom-up," because the stimuli
battle their way into our consciousness automatically because they are so striking.)
Alternatively, we can actively and deliberately control our focus (called "top-down," because
higher brain regions are involved at the outset). For example, at a noisy party, we can tune
out background noise to listen to the conversation at the next table.
4. Neuroscience did not deal with this topic until much later. In 1985 a research team led by
Robert Desimone at the National Institute of Mental Health was first to observe how single
neurons in the visual region of rhesus monkeys changed their activity depending on what the
primates were looking at. Desimone and his colleague Jeffrey Moran discovered that certain
neurons in the V4 area of the visual region -- an area important for the perception of color -responded more frequently when the test animal gazed fixedly at a colored target. The same
nerve cells (also called neurons) exhibited much weaker activity when the ape noticed the
target but did not look right at it.
5. All these studies linked attention to an increase in the activity of neurons. Now the latest
neurobiological research points to another significant factor in attention: huge numbers of
neurons synchronize their activity. Many neuroscientists believe that study of this
phenomenon will provide the answer to one of the biggest riddles of attention research, the
so-called binding problem.
6. Imagine that a grasshopper suddenly lands on the table in front of you. Before the insect
can arrive in your consciousness as a fully realized, three-dimensional entity, several
different areas of the brain must be active. One processes the insect's color, another its size,
yet another its location, and so on. How does the brain bind all these individual
characteristics together into a single impression of a green grasshopper?
7. Twenty years ago Christoph von der Malsburg, a computer scientist and brain theorist,
suggested a solution. By synchronizing their activities, nerve cells could join into effectively
cooperating units--so-called assemblies. Then, in the early 1990s Francis Crick Christof Koch
expanded on Malsburg's hypothesis. The two scientists proved that only signals from "teams"
of neurons that cooperated especially well possessed enough strength to reach the
consciousness. Recent findings lend empirical support to the Crick-Koch hypothesis. In the
experiments done between 1995 and 1998 Fries, Singer and Engel demonstrated that the
degree of neuronal synchronization decisively influences which incoming signals are further
processed and thus becomes relevant to the consciousness's perception.
8. Fries also showed that active, intentional control of
can influence
synchronization. He worked with macaques that had learned to direct their attention to a
particular spot on the monitor screen in response to a signal; a stimulus would appear at that
location after a short delay. If this stimulus appeared at the expected location, the
synchronization was clearly stronger. Synchronization immediately weakened, however, as
soon as the research animals switched their attention to other stimuli.
Expectant Neurons
The effect of expectation reveals itself especially clearly in an experiment using acoustic
stimuli. The researchers asked listeners to pay particular attention to high tones in a series of
more or less similar tones. When they heard the target tone, a high-frequency
synchronization activity appeared in the brain; in contrast, unexpected loud noises, which
automatically call attention to themselves, did not elicit this effect.
10. Regardless of which sensory system is involved, the reinforced rhythmic synchronization
that the researchers measured seems to be a good indicator of active attention. When a
person deliberately directs attention to a stimulus, not only does the activity of individual
neurons in the brain change, but the synchronization also improves for all the neurons taking
part in the coding for the same stimulus. The effect may be compared to a symphony
orchestra that soon arrives at a common tempo after the individual instruments begin playing.
11. In what ways might intentions and needs influence attention? With the help of functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the researchers wanted to locate brain regions involved
in conscious perception of a target stimulus. To do so, they needed a research technique to
compare two conditions: one that led from active attention to conscious awareness of a
stimulus, and a second, in which the same stimulus did not penetrate the consciousness.
They used a phenomenon called attention blink. In the experiment they once again displayed
a series of letters to subjects and observed them with fMRI. This time, however, only a single
green letter appeared among rapidly changing black letters, and the subject had to tell at the
end of the test whether or not it was a vowel. At the same time, the subject was to look for a
black X that popped up at different times after the green -letter.
12. During the experiment, the attention of the subjects showed clear gaps--the "blinks"--as
a result of their intentional, conscious focus on the task. If the black X appeared very soon-within a third of a second--after the green letter, about half the time the participants did not
notice it. If there was a longer period after the first stimulus, their recognition rate improved.
13. At the end of the experiment, they compared the fMRI values for each procedure in
which the subjects perceived the X with those in which it was shown but not noticed. They
saw clear differences in activity in a few brain regions. Scientists have been aware of these
regions' importance in controlling attention for a long time. The researchers were surprised,
however, when they found a difference in the system, which is normally involved in
processing emotional reactions. The state of our emotional system probably influences the
control of attention and which sensory signals are allowed to reach consciousness.
14. Therefore, the neuronal synchronization that is closely associated with conscious
perception does not just depend on external stimuli but also on the flexible inner dynamic of
the brain. The scientists theorize that neurons are constantly and actively predicting where
the visual stimuli they expect will appear. All incoming stimuli set their own temporal coupling
patterns in motion. If these stimuli correspond to those that the expectation has created, the
incoming signals are reinforced and advance onward. If the expectations are not met,
however, the brain suppresses the incoming neuronal messages.
15. Neuronal synchronization brings order to the chaotic mental world. In fact, cognitive
deficits and disordered thoughts among schizophrenic patients appear to be connected to
disturbed neuronal synchronization. On the other hand, a healthy brain is an active receiver
of news from the environment. It is an active system, one that controls itself via a complex
internal dynamic. Our experiences, intentions, expectations and needs affect this dynamic
and thus determine how we perceive and interpret our environment.
1. Who are the people interested in answers to the questions in paragraph 1?
2. Why, according to William James, can we not focus conscious attention on everything at
3. A. Name the two main types of attention distinguished by psychologists:
a. ________________________
b. ________________________
B. What does the example of listening to a conversation at a noisy party illustrate?
4. What is the definition of the V4 area of the visual region? (Par. 4)
5. What may provide an answer to the “binding problem”?
6. What is the relation between paragraphs 5 and 6?
a. Par 6 illustrates an idea presented in par 5.
b. Par 6 contrasts par 5.
c. Par 6 is in a cause and effect relationship with par 5.
d. Par 6 adds information to par 5.
7. In par. 7 it says “Christoph von der Malsburg suggested a solution”. A solution to what?
8. Assemblies of nerve cells working together effectively can send messages to the
consciousness. True / False
Justify your answer from the text:
9. In his experiment with macaques Fries discovered that if the animal didn’t focus on the
stimuli, the synchronization became (weaker/ stronger).
10. What does the experiment described in paragraph 9 illustrate?
Complete the sentence:
The experiment described in paragraph 9 illustrates the ______________
11. What does the writer compare the process of neuron synchronization to?
Write ONE word in each space.
In par 10, the synchronization of neurons in our brain is compared to a ______________
______________ . Like the individual instruments in the latter, the individual ______________
in the former start acting together, i.e. become synchronized.
12. a. Why did the scientists need a research technique to compare two conditions?
In order to ________________________________________________________
b. What was the research technique?
13. What were the findings of the MRI study, described in paragraphs 11-13?
a. ______________________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________________
14. According to paragraph 14, what are the two factors that contribute to the neuronal
a. ______________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________
15. What is the writer’s conclusion?
a. The expected location of the stimuli strengthens synchronization.
b. Human brain is a passive system entirely controlled by its environment.
c. Schizophrenic patients suffer from disturbed neuronal synchronization
d. Human brain responds to incoming stimuli via neuronal synchronization
1. _________________ and theories regarding the question how the brain decides what to focus
conscious 2. _________________ on. William James was the first to theorize about the 3.
_________________ capacity of our consciousness, which makes us unable to pay attention to
everything at once. While the previous studies focused on the connection between attention and
neuronal 4. ______________, recent research explores the link between attention and 5.
_________________ synchronization. The experiment using acoustic stimuli demonstrated that
7. _________________ to the chaos of external stimuli by neuronal synchronization. To achieve
this goal the brain controls itself through a 8. _________________ dynamic.
The Effects of Divorce on Children
Apr 10, 2009.
Robert Hughes, Jr., Ph.D. , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Probably one of the most frequently asked questions over the last two decades about
family life has been, "Is divorce harmful to children?" Although this may seem like a very
important question, I would suggest that it is time to examine a more important question
which is-- "what are the factors in divorcing families that contribute to children having
difficulties and what are the factors that foster children's adaptation?" In this paper I will
review several explanations for why children have difficulty and the scientific evidence
regarding these factors.
Are children of divorce worse off than children in married two-parent families?
Since there is so much discussion of the effects of divorce on children, I want to begin
by addressing whether there are really any differences between children who live in divorced
families and children who live in married two-parent families (I will call them "intact."). In 1991
Amato and Keith examined the results of 92 studies involving 13,000 children ranging from
preschool to young adulthood to determine what the overall results indicated. The overall
result of this analysis was that children from divorced families are on "average" somewhat
worse off than children who have lived in intact families. These children have more difficulty
in school, more behavior problems, more negative self-concepts, more problems with peers,
and more trouble getting along with their parents. A more recent update of the findings
indicates that this pattern continues in more recent research (Amato, 2001).
Despite this general finding across many studies, there are important qualifications of
these findings. First, the actual differences between the two groups are relatively small
(Amato, 2001; Amato & Keith, 1991). In fact, the children in the two types of families are
more alike than different. Amato (1994) reminds us that average differences do not mean that
all children in divorced families are worse off than all children in intact families. These results
mean that as a group children from divorced families have more problems than children from
intact families.
Another way to examine this issue is illustrated by findings of Mavis Hetherington
(1993). Hetherington, like many others, finds these average differences, but she also looked
at some of her measures and examined the degree to which children in divorced and intact
families had more severe problems. On a measure of behavioral problems, Hetherington
(1993) reports that 90% of adolescent boys and girls in intact families were within the normal
range on problems and 10% had serious problems that we would generally require some
type of professional help. The percentages for divorced families were 74% of the boys and
66% of the girls in the normal range and 26% of the boys and 34% of the girls were in the
problematic range. Amato (1999) estimates that about 40% of the young adults from divorced
families were doing better than the young people from nondivorced families.
The implications of these findings are two-fold. On the one hand, the majority of
children from divorced families do not have serious problems requiring professional help. On
the other hand, a larger percentage of children from divorced families than intact families are
likely to have serious problems. Another way to say this is that MOST children in divorced
families do not need help, but MORE children in this group than in intact families are likely to
need help. This is a complicated message and the media often errs on the side of one or the
other of these two types of findings. Both findings are important.
What causes the differences between children in divorced versus intact families?
As I said in the beginning, the general question of differences between children in
different types of families is less important than what causes these differences. Now let’s look
at what we know about what causes these differences. One way to think about this is to
consider the risks that may cause difficulties for children. Paul Amato (1993) and Kelly and
Emery (2003) indicate that there are several types of risks that may contribute to children's
difficulties. These are:
a. PARENTAL LOSS-- divorce often results in the loss of contact with one parent and
with this loss children also lose the knowledge, skills and resources (emotional,
financial, etc.) of that parent.
b. ECONOMIC LOSS-- another result of divorce is that children living in single parent
families are less likely to have as many economic resources as children living in intact
c. MORE LIFE STRESS-- divorce often results in many changes in children's living
situations such as changing schools, child care, homes, etc. Children often also have
to make adjustments to changes in relationships with friends and extended family
members. These changes create a more stressful environment for children.
d. POOR PARENTAL ADJUSTMENT-- generally how children fare in families is due in
part to the mental health of the parents, this is likely to be true for children in divorced
families as well.
e. LACK OF PARENTAL COMPETENCE-- much of what happens to children in general
is related to the skill of parents in helping them develop. The competence of parents
following divorce is likely to have considerable influence on how the children are
f. EXPOSURE TO CONFLICT BETWEEN PARENTS-- conflict is frequently part of
families and may be especially common in families that have undergone divorce. The
degree to which children are exposed to conflict may have substantial effects on
children's well-being.
What evidence do we have about how each of these factors affects children in
divorced families?
Parental loss. Mothers and fathers are important resources for children. They provide
emotional support and practical assistance as well as serve as role models for their children.
Kelly and Emery (2003) report that on average, nonresidential fathers see their children only
4 times per month following divorce and about 20% of children have no contact with their
fathers 2-3 years after divorce. In contrast, non-residential mothers visit their children more
frequently and are less likely to cease contact.
The amount of contact between the nonresidential father and their children is not the
determining factor; it is the quality of the father-child relationship that matters. There is a
growing body of evidence that illustrate how nonresidential fathers affect their children. First,
when a nonresidential father has frequent contact and there is minimal conflict, children are
faring better; however, when there is conflict, frequent visits are related to poorer adjustment
of children (Hetherington & Kelly, 2002). In a study that looked at results across a broad
range of factors, Amato and Gilbreth (1999) found that when fathers helped with homework,
set appropriate limits and expectations and demonstrated warmth, children fared better. In
other words, good parenting by noncustodial parents matters. In short, children benefit from
continued relationships with nonresidential parents.
Economic losses. Due to limited economic resources, children in single-parent
families may have more difficulties. Following divorce, custodial parents (mostly mothers)
generally have less income than most two-parent families. There is a common belief that
many of the difficulties experienced by children are the result of the economic difficulties
experienced in these families. The overall evidence is not as strong in support of this
hypothesis as might be expected. Generally, family income is positively associated with
children's well-being, but some studies have not found that income improves children's wellbeing. It is important to note the divorced families economic circumstances do not account
completely for the well-being of children. Researchers have statistically controlled for income
differences between intact and divorced families and all of the differences between children
in these two types of families do NOT disappear. In other words, there are still some other
factors affecting children's well-being above and beyond money. One of the ways that lower
income may impact children is through disruptions that may result from less money. Many
divorced families change residence which may result in changes in schools, child care,
friends, and other supportive relationships. In short, less money often leads to more
Life stress. In general, the accumulation of multiple stressors and changes create
difficulties for children. There are only a few studies that have explored this hypothesis, but
the results seem to support it. Recently, Crowder and Teachman (2004) found that the more
often children in single parent families moved the more likely they were to drop out of school
or become pregnant during the teen years. In general, the more stressful experiences that
children encounter during divorce the more difficulty they will have. There is also evidence
that indicates that children whose parents divorce more than once are worse off than children
Parental adjustment. The psychological adjustment of parents is a significant factor in
children's well-being. There have been many studies examining the relationship between
divorced parents' psychological well-being and children's well-being. Of the 15 studies that
have examined this relationship 13 found that there was a positive relationship between the
mental health of parents and children's mental health (Amato & Keith, 1991). That is,
children whose parents are better adjusted fare better than children whose parents are not
adjusting well. There is some evidence to suggest than when the divorced parent's
adjustment is taken into account that some of the differences between children from intact
and divorced children disappears. Despite the general support for these conclusions, there is
at least one important caution. The causal relationship between parents' and children's
adjustment is not clear. It could be that having better adjusted children improves the wellbeing
Parental competence. The skills that parents have in dealing with children have a
profound influence on children's well-being. Overall, the evidence indicates that many parents
report diminished parenting practices immediately following divorce which appears to
contribute to some of the problems that children experience. Many studies have also
examined the relationship between child-rearing skills and children's well-being. There is
overwhelming research evidence that indicates that parenting skills and the types of
relationships between parent and child are strong influences on how well children are doing.
Conflict between parents. Another risk that causes children's difficulty is conflict
between parents prior to, during and after the divorce that contributes to lower well-being.
There have been a number of studies examining this issue. Generally, it has been found that
children in high conflict families (either intact or divorced) fare worse than children in low
conflict families. Some studies have found that children in non-conflictual single parent
families are doing better than children in conflictual two-parent families. There is also
evidence that children begin to have difficulties prior to divorce and that some of these
difficulties are associated with the conflict present prior to divorce. Post-divorce conflict has a
strong influence on children's adjustment. Children in those families that can cooperate and
reduce conflict are faring better.
Summary. There are a number of factors that account for why children in divorcing
families may have difficulties—loss of contact with a supportive parent, fewer economic
resources that lead to multiple changes, more stress, poor parental adjustment, lack of
parental competence and conflict between parents. When these risks can be reduced or
overcome, then children will fare better.
Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits
September 6, 2010
Education research doesn’t offer clear guidance for parents who are trying to help their
children become successful students. Student traits and teaching styles interact, as do
personalities and at-home rules. Unfortunately, no one can predict how. Yet there are
effective approaches to learning, at least for those who are motivated. In recent years,
cognitive scientists have shown that a few simple techniques can reliably improve how much
a student learns from studying.
The findings can help anyone, from a fourth grader doing long division to a retiree
taking on a new language. But they directly contradict much of the common wisdom about
good study habits. For instance, instead of sticking to one study location, simply alternating
the room where a person studies improves memory. Also, studying distinct but related skills
or concepts in one sitting rather than focusing intensely on a single thing develops recall.
According to Robert A. Bjork, a psychologist at the University of California, Los
Angeles, “We have known these principles for some time, and it’s intriguing that schools
don’t pick them up, or that people don’t learn them by trial and error. Instead, we walk around
with all sorts of unexamined beliefs that are mistaken about what works.”
In a recent review of the relevant research, published in the journal Psychological
Science in the Public Interest, a team of psychologists found almost zero support for the
notion that children have specific learning styles, that some are “visual learners” and others
are auditory; some are “left-brain” students, others “right-brain.” The term “learning styles”
refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is
most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal
instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly.
Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information
presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of
mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although
assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common—but not the only—
hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis,
according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of
the learner (e.g., for a “visual learner,” emphasizing visual presentation of information).
The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is
frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a
thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and
many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators
built around the concept of learning styles.
We conclude therefore, that at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify
incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice. Bjork adds, “The
contrast between the enormous popularity of the learning-styles approach within education
and the lack of credible evidence for its utility is, in our opinion, striking and disturbing.”
The same is true for teaching styles, researchers say. Some excellent instructors jump
about in front of the blackboard like summer-theater actors; others are snobbish or shy. “We
have yet to identify the common threads between teachers who create a constructive
learning atmosphere,” said Daniel T. Willingham, a psychologist at the University of Virginia
and author of the book Why Don’t Students Like School?
Psychologists have discovered that some of the most hallowed advice on study habits
is flat wrong on the topic of individual learning. For instance, many courses that teach how to
study insist that students find a specific place, a study room or a quiet corner of the library, to
do their work. The research finds just the opposite. In one classic 1978 experiment,
psychologists found that college students who studied a list of 40 vocabulary words in two
different rooms — one windowless and cluttered, the other modern, with a view on a
courtyard — did far better on a test than students who studied the words twice, in the same
room. Later studies have confirmed the finding, for a variety of topics.
The brain makes subtle associations between what it is studying and the background
sensations it has at the time, the authors say, regardless of whether those perceptions are
conscious. “What we think is happening is that when the outside context is varied, the
information is enriched, and this slows down forgetting,” said Dr. Bjork, the senior author of
the two-room experiment. This means that it associates the terms of the Versailles Treaty
with the dim fluorescent glow of the dorm study room, or the elements of the Marshall Plan
with the jade-curtain shade of the willow tree in the backyard. Forcing the brain to make
multiple associations with the same material may, in effect, give that information more neural
Varying the type of material studied in a single sitting — alternating, for example,
among vocabulary, reading and speaking in a new language — seems to leave a deeper
impression on the brain than does concentrating on just one skill at a time. Musicians have
known this for years, and their practice sessions often include a mix of scales, musical pieces
and rhythmic work. Many athletes, too, routinely mix their workouts with strength, speed and
skill drills.
The advantages of this approach to studying can be significant in some topic areas. In
a study recently posted online by the journal Applied Cognitive Psychology, Doug Rohrer and
Kelli Taylor of the University of South Florida taught a group of fourth graders four equations,
each to calculate a different dimension of a prism. Half of the children learned by studying
repeated examples of one equation -- calculating the number of prism faces when given the
number of sides at the base, then moving on to the next type of calculation, studying
repeated examples of that. The other half studied mixed problem sets, which included
examples of all four types of calculations grouped together. Both groups solved sample
problems while participating in the learning process.
A day later, the researchers gave all of the students a test on the material, presenting
new problems of the same type. The children who had studied mixed sets did twice as well
as the others, outscoring them 77 percent to 38 percent. The researchers have found the
same in experiments involving adults and younger children.
Researchers explain these
results as follows:
“When students see a list of problems, all of the same kind, they know the strategy to
use before they even read the problem,” said Dr. Rohrer. “That’s like riding a bike with
training wheels.” With mixed practice, he added, “each problem is different from the last one,
which means kids must learn how to choose the appropriate procedure — just like they had
to do on the test.”
These findings extend well beyond math, even to aesthetic intuitive learning. In an
experiment published last month in the journal Psychology and Aging, researchers found that
college students and adults of retirement age were better able to distinguish the painting
styles of 12 unfamiliar artists after viewing mixed collections (assortments, including works
from all 12) than after viewing a dozen works from one artist, all together, then moving on to
the next painter.
The finding undermines the common assumption that intensive immersion is the best
way to really master a particular genre, or type of creative work, said Nate Kornell, a
psychologist at Williams College and the lead author of the study.
He concludes his
discussion: “What seems to be happening in this case is that the brain is picking up deeper
patterns when seeing assortments of paintings; it’s picking up what’s similar and what’s
different about them,” often subconsciously.
Cognitive scientists do not deny that honest-to-goodness cramming can lead to a
better grade on a given exam. But hurriedly jam-packing a brain is compared to speedpacking a cheap suitcase: as most students quickly learn it holds its new load for a while,
then most everything falls out.
When the neural suitcase is packed carefully and gradually, it holds its contents for far,
far longer. An hour of study tonight, an hour on the weekend, another session a week from
now: such so-called spacing improves later recall, without requiring students to put in more
overall study effort or pay more attention, dozens of studies have found.
No one knows for sure why. It may be that the brain, when it revisits material at a later
time, has to relearn some of what it has absorbed before adding new stuff — and that that
process is itself self-reinforcing. “The idea is that forgetting is the friend of learning,” said Dr.
Kornell. “When you forget something, it allows you to relearn, and do so effectively, the next
time you see it.”
That’s one reason cognitive scientists see testing itself — or practice tests and quizzes
— as a powerful tool of learning, rather than merely assessment. The process of retrieving an
idea is not like pulling a book from a shelf; it seems to fundamentally alter the way the
information is subsequently stored, making it far more accessible in the future. “Testing has
such bad connotation; people think of standardized testing or teaching to the test,” Dr.
Roediger said. “Maybe we need to call it something else, but this is one of the most powerful
learning tools we have.”
In one of his own experiments, Dr. Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke, also of Washington
University, had college students study science passages from a reading comprehension test,
in short study periods. When students studied the same material twice, in back-to-back
sessions, they did very well on a test given immediately afterward, then began to forget the
material. But if they studied the passage just once and did a practice test in the second
session, they did very well on one test two days later, and another given a week later.
Of course, one reason the thought of testing tightens people’s stomachs is that tests
are so often hard. Paradoxically, it is just this difficulty that makes them such effective study
tools, research suggests. The harder it is to remember something, the harder it is to later
forget. This effect, which researchers call “desirable difficulty,” is evident in daily life. The
more mental sweat it takes to dig it out, the more securely it will be subsequently anchored.
None of which is to suggest that these techniques — alternating study environments,
mixing content, spacing study sessions, self-testing or all the above — will turn a smart but
lazy student into a smart student who earns good grades. Motivation matters. (So do
impressing friends, making the hockey team and finding the nerve to text the cute student in
social studies.)
The cognitive techniques give parents and students, young and old,
something many did not have before: a study plan based on evidence, not schoolyard folk
wisdom, or empty theorizing.
Source: New York Times