READING PASSAGE 1

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解 析 使 用 说 明 :为 了 便 于 阅 读 ,本 解 析 采 用 不 用 的 颜 色 ,加 下 划 线 和
斜体,加粗等形式对文章进行标记。
红 色 部 分 :( 第 1, 2, …,题 ) 表 示 各 个 题 目 的 答 案 所 在 地 。
加 下 划 线 和 斜 体 :表 示 答 案 。由 于 有 时 答 案 密 集 ,分 别 用 加 下 划 线 和
斜体将前后不同题目的答案区分开来。
加粗:加粗的部分表示该单词或词组在后面或者段落下面做了注释。
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are
based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Let's GO Bats
A
Bats have a problem: how to find their way around in the dark. They hunt at
night, and cannot use light to help them find prey and avoid obstacles. You
might say that this is a problem of their own making(构造), one that they could
avoid simply by changing their habits and hunting by day. But the daytime
economy is already heavily exploited (利用或开发)by other creatures such
as birds. Given that there is a living to be made at night, and given that
alternative daytime trades are thoroughly occupied, natural selection has
favored bats that make a go of the night-hunting trade.(第 3 题)It is probable
that the nocturnal (夜的, 夜曲的)trades go way back in the ancestry (
祖先)of all mammals. In the time when the dinosaurs dominated 主宰 the
daytime economy, our mammalian 哺 乳 动 物 的 ancestors probably only
managed to survive at all because they found ways of scraping a living 谋生
at night. (第 2 题)Only after the mysterious mass extinction of the dinosaurs
about 65 million years ago were our ancestors able to emerge into the
daylight in any substantial numbers.
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【难句分析】Given that there is a living to be made at night, and given that
alternative daytime trades are thoroughly occupied, natural selection has
favored bats that make a go of the night-hunting trade.
考虑到夜间可以生存,并且其他白天的交易已经被全部占有,自然选择偏爱可以成
功在夜间捕食的蝙蝠。
【重要短语】Given
介词 taking (sth) into account 考虑到(某事物):
Given the government's record on unemployment, their chances of winning the
election look poor. 鉴於政府在解决失业问题上成绩不佳, 他们在选举中获
胜机会似乎不大.
Given her interest in children/Given that she is interested in children, I am
sure teaching is the right career for her. 考虑到她喜欢孩子, 我可以肯定教
书是最适合她的职业.
Favor: prefer
Make a go of: 成功地达到某种目标
She's determined to make a go of her new career.
她决心在新事业上有所成就.
"Chang-lin, you're too timid ever to make a go of anything big!
“长林,你那么胆小,成不得大事!
He was sure he could make a go of the gas station.
他相信他能经营好加油站。
B
Bats have an engineering problem: how to find their way and find their prey
in the absence of light. Bats are not the only creatures to face this difficulty
today. Obviously the night-flying insects that they prey on must find their
way about somehow. Deep-sea fish and whales have little or no light by day
or by night. Fish and dolphins that live in extremely muddy water cannot see
because, although there is light, it is obstructed 阻碍, 阻挡 and scattered 使
消散 by the dirt in the water. Plenty of other modern animals make their living
in conditions where seeing is difficult or impossible. (第 1 题)
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【难句分析】Obviously the night-flying insects that they prey on must find their
way about somehow.
很明显,它们(蝙蝠)捕食的夜间飞行的昆虫也要设法辨别方向。
【重要短语】prey on sb/sth (a) hunt or catch (an animal, etc) as prey 捕食(
动物等):
hawks preying on small birds 捕食小鸟的老鹰.
find their way about:
By noting how the pattern of electricity in the water changes, they can find their
way about.
通过电的波型在水里的变化,它们可以来去自如。
People were trying to find their way about on foot,
人们步行着,尽力摸索前进,
New Members of Parliament take a long time to find their way about and it is
unlikely that any one man has ever been everywhere.
新上任的议员要花不少时间来熟悉他们要走的路。至今都不可能有任何人走遍宫
殿的各个地方。
Somehow: in some way; by some means 以某种方式; 通过某种途径:
We must stop him from seeing her somehow. 我们得想个办法不能让他再跟
她来往。
Somehow we must get to Glasgow. 我们得设法到格拉斯哥去.
C Given the questions of how to manoeuvre 调动, 操纵; (这里指找到方向)
in the dark, what solutions might an engineer consider? The first one that might
occur to him is to manufacture light, to use a lantern or a searchlight. Fireflies and
some fish (usually with the help of bacteria) have the power to manufacture their
own light, but the process seems to consume a large amount of energy. Fireflies
萤火虫 use their light for attracting mates. This doesn't require a prohibitive
amount of energy: a male's tiny pinprick 针孔 of light can be seen by a female from
some distance on a dark night, since her eyes are exposed directly to the light
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source itself. However, using light to find one's own way around requires vastly
more energy, since the eyes have to detect the tiny fraction 小部分, 一点儿 of the
light that bounces off each part of the scene. The light source must therefore be
immensely brighter if it is to be used as a headlight to illuminate 照明 the path,
than if it is to be used as a signal to others. In any event, whether or not the
reason is the energy expense, it seems to be the case that, with the possible
exception of some weird deep-sea fish, no animal apart from 除了 man uses
manufactured light to find its way about.
【重要短语】Prohibitive:(of prices, etc) so high that one cannot afford to buy
(指价格等)高得买不起的: The cost of property in the city is
prohibitive. 城里房地产的价格高得使人望而却步.
D
What else might the engineer think of? Well, blind humans sometimes
seem to have an uncanny 超常的 sense of obstacles in their path. It has
been given the name 'facial vision'面感视觉, because blind people have
reported that it feels a bit like the sense of touch, on the face. One report
tells of a totally blind boy who could ride his tricycle 三轮车 at good speed
round the block near his home, using facial vision. Experiments showed
that, in fact, facial vision is nothing to do with touch or the front of the face,
although the sensation may be referred to the front of the face, like the
referred pain in a phantom limb (截肢后依然感到肢体存在的)幻肢(感). (第
6 题)The sensation of facial vision, it turns out, really goes in through the
ears. Blind people, without even being aware of the fact, are actually using
echoes of their own footsteps and of other sounds, to sense the (截肢后依然
感到肢体存在的)幻肢(感) presence 存在 of obstacles. (第 7 题)Before this
was discovered, engineers had already built instruments to exploit the
principle, for example to measure the depth of the sea under a ship. (第 8 题
)After this technique had been invented, it was only a matter of time before
weapons designers adapted 改建, 改造 it for the detection 侦查,探测 of
submarines. (第 5 题和第 9 题)Both sides in the Second World War relied
heavily on these devices, under such codenames as Asdic (British) and Sonar
(American), as well as Radar (American) or RDF (British), which uses radio
echoes rather than sound echoes.
【重要短语】Uncanny:
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beyond what is normal or expected; extraordinary 超
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常 的 ; 出 乎 意 料 的 ; 非 凡 的 : an uncanny coincidence,
resemblance, etc 意料不到的巧合﹑ 相似等
E
The Sonar and Radar pioneers didn't know it then, but all the world now
knows that bats, or rather natural selection working on bats, had perfected
the system tens of millions of years earlier, (第 10 题)and their “radar” achieves
feats of detection and navigation 航海, 导航 that would strike an engineer
dumb with admiration. It is technically incorrect to talk about bat 'radar', since
they do not use radio waves. It is sonar. (第 11 题)But the underlying
mathematical theories of radar and sonar are very similar,(第 12 题)and much
of our scientific understanding of the details of what bats are doing has come
from applying radar theory to them. (第 4 题)The American zoologist Donald
Griffin, who was largely responsible for the discovery of sonar in bats,(第 13
题)coined the term 'echolocation' to cover both sonar and radar, whether
used by animals or by human instruments.
【重要短语】strike dumb 愣住了,目瞪口呆
例句:
He was struck dumb by her sharp question.
他被她那尖锐的问题弄得哑口无言。
We were struck dumb with horror and grief.
惊恐和忧伤使我们哑口无言
Coin: invent (a new word or phrase) 创造(新词语): coin words for new
products 为新产品创造新词.
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Test 1
Questions 1-5
Reading Passage 1 has five paragraphs, A—E.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A—E, in boxes 1-5 on your
answer sheet. NBYou may use any letter more than
once.
B 1 examples of wildlife other than bats which do not rely on vision to
navigate by
A 2 how early mammals avoided dying out
A 3 why bats hunt in the dark
E 4 how a particular discovery has helped our
understanding of bats
D 5 early military uses of echolocation
Questions 6-9
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for
each answer. Write your answers in boxes 6-9 on
your answer sheet.
Facial Vision
Blind people report that so-called 'facial vision' is comparable to the
sensation of touch on the face. In fact, the sensation is more similar to the
way in which pain from a 6 phantom arm or leg might be felt. The ability
actually comes from perceiving 7 echoes through the ears. However,
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even before this was understood, the principle had been applied in the
design of instruments which calculated the 8 depth of the seabed. This
was followed by a wartime application in devices for finding 9
submarines.
Questions 10-13
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage
for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your
answer sheet.
10 Long before the invention of radar, natural selectionhad resulted in a
sophisticated radar-like system in bats.
11 Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because radio
waves/echoes are not used in their navigation system.
12 Radar and sonar are based on similar mathematical theories.
13 The word 'echolocation' was first used by someone working as a
zoologist.
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