Contextualized Leadership Development

Contextualized Leadership Development
Sponsored by Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary
CLS 2100 Intermediate Old Testament
3 Hours
This class will ordinarily meet for fifteen weeks for periods of two hours and fifty minutes including two
ten minute breaks.
Course Description
An intermediate level course, which builds upon CLS 1114, designed to further the student’s
competency in exegesis and understanding the content, background, and message of the Old Testament.
This will be done through the select examination of one representative book from each of the three
divisions of the Hebrew canon of the Old Testament: Torah, Prophets, and Writings.
Course Objectives
This course is designed to provide you with a more advanced foundation upon which to build
fruitful exegetical, theological, and ministerial practice.
Upon successful completion of this course you should have:
1) an intimate knowledge of three representative Old Testament books, including their historical and
literary contexts, detailed outlines, and individual messages,
2) an understanding of the place and function in the overall canon of the Old Testament for each of these
books and the passages within each book, including inter-textual connections and canonical
3) an in-depth understanding of the interpretation(s), significance, and message, of each of these books,
4) an ability to understand and utilize proper exegetical methodologies (hermeneutics), and
5) an ability to apply the Old Testament to personal Christian growth as well as the individual’s mission
and ministry.
The basic teaching method will be lecture; time will be set aside for questions and answers.
Other formats may be utilized as well, including video and class discussion periods. The classroom is
designed to be a “safe” environment of mutual respect for ideas and interpretations.
Each student is expected to be ON TIME for class and ABSENCES SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
Please turn off cell phones and pagers during class.
Each student is expected to prepare for each class period by reading the assigned material. Most
material will be taken from the following required sources:
The Bible
Three Commentaries: Exodus, Isaiah, Job *** (see notes to instructors, below)
McKenzie and Haynes, eds., To Each Its Own Meaning, 2nd ed, John Knox Press, 1999
Fee, G.D., and D. Stuart. How to Read the Bible For All Its Worth. 3rd ed. Zondervan, 2003
***Note: The inclusion of any given text on the above list or in any bibliography given in this course, in
no way indicates that any or all views espoused within said text represent those of the instructor. Reading
at this level of education is designed to stimulate critical thinking and discernment on the part of the
student rather than indoctrination.
Evaluation and Grading
Three evaluating instruments will be used to determine grades. All assignments must be
completed in order to pass the class; a student may not simply choose to not complete a particular
1) TESTS (60%)
Three sectional exams will be given. These tests will consist of both objective and discussion
questions, from both class material and the required readings. Each of these tests is worth 20% of the
student’s grade. Students MUST be present for the scheduled exams.
There are 39 books in the Old Testament. Each of these has its own content and literary and
historical context(s), and each contributes to the overall theology of the Old Testament. Since this course
is only about 40 hours long, it is therefore essential that students place a priority upon class attendance.
Only one absence will be excused, two will result in a significant grade deduction, and three will result in
failure of the course.
The student will write a paper which will examine a given text. The paper will be between eight
and ten double-spaced type-written pages in length (not including bibliography).
The outline for the paper is as follows (please work through the sections in the order presented):
NOTE: Students are encouraged to survey the relevant sections in McKenzie and
Haynes, To Each Its Own Meaning (TEIOM), revised and expanded edition, 1999 (on reserve in
the Library), for a summary of the critical methodologies/tools needed for each section of the
paper. These are listed after each section. Students might also wish to consult: Fee and Stuart:
How to Read the Bible For All Its Worth. 3rd ed. Zondervan, 2003.
i) Reader Response. Read the passage in your favorite version. What do YOU make of what's going on?
McKnight, Reader-Response Criticism, TEIOM, pp. 230-252.
(1 page at most)
ii) Read the passage in at least three different translations. Please use different types of translations,
including one in your first language. For example: Literal (NASB, NKJV, RSV), Idiomatic
(NRSV, TaNaKh), Thought-for-Thought (NIV, HCSB), Dynamic Equivalent/ Paraphrastic (TEV,
LB, Message, NLT). Make note of any significant differences, but remember that subtleties in
translation can alter how one perceives a text. Q: Are these differences textual or translational?
(Footnotes in your Bible and/or The Word Biblical Commentary could be helpful here) How do
the differences alter my understanding of the passage?
DiVito, Tradition-Historical Criticism, TEIOM, pp. 90-104; and also Tov, “Textual Criticism (OT)”, in
The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. VI, pp393-412 (esp sections:A1, A2, E, F)
(1.5 pages at most)
iii) Genre (Form Criticism) and Source study. Q: What genre(s) are used in the passage? How does this
affect my reading? Are there sources for this material? How does the editing (Redaction) of
these sources influence the text/reader? (Use commentaries if necessary).
Sweeney, Form Criticism, TEIOM, pp. 58-89.
(1.5 pages at most)
iv) Literary study. Q: What does the passage actually say? What types of literary devices are employed?
Think about Plot and Character. What does the author think of the characters or the situation?
What is the context for the text? Does the passage seem to "flow" or are there "breaks"?
Tull, Rhetorical Criticism and Intertextuality, TEIOM, pp. 156-181.
Gunn, Narrative Criticism, TEIOM, pp. 201-229.
(2 pages at most)
v) Background study. Q: What pertinent social, cultural, or historical understandings aid in
understanding? Be specific to your passage; a passage from Amos does not need a discussion of the
entire history of the 8th century. Examine, if helpful, the cultural preconceptions behind the text, not just
the social dimension of the text. (Thus a passage on Israelite priests might require brief background
information on priests in the Ancient Near East). Bible Dictionaries, journals, and commentaries may be
Martin, Social-Scientific Criticism, TEIOM, pp. 125-141.
(1 page at most)
vi) Synthesis. Q: Well now what do you think of the text? How does all of the research you have just
done effect the interpretation of the text? Has your interpretation changed from ii above? If so, how? If
the general meaning of the text has stayed largely the same, has it been nuanced? Are their additional
meanings that come to light? Are there details in the text that escaped you before? How does this text
function Canonically?
Callaway, Canonical Criticism, TEIOM, pp. 142-155.
(2 pages at most)
vii) Application. Choose one of the following formats and make your application focusing on and
incorporating the exegesis, interpretation, and insights you have just completed. Do not simply use the
above work as a jumping-off point to say things which are not found in the passage.
1) Sermon: Outline a sermon, including a main topic or thesis statement, and give a manuscript of
the conclusion
2) Adult Bible Study: Outline your notes for your class and write out your wrap-up
3) Youth Bible Study: Outline your notes for your class and write out your wrap-up.
*** Outline should follow Turabian 6th, section 2.73 p. 38; you should single space the outline
itself and double space the conclusion or wrap-up. (2 pages at most)
viii) Bibliography. Includes biblical versions, commentaries, Bible dictionaries, and journal articles.
The passage(s) for the paper will be given out in class. The paper will count for twenty-five percent of
the student's grade.
A grading summary is as follows:
Hermeneutics Paper
Class Content
Review: Canonization, Transmission, and
Review: Production and Preservation of the OT
Review: Hermeneutical Methods
Review of Hebrew Narrative Art and
Review Introduction to Exodus
Historical and Archaeological Considerations
Exodus as Literature
Structures, Devices, Motifs, Plot, Characterizations
Scripture Readings
Exodus 1-6: Bondage
Exodus 1-6
Exodus 7-18: Deliverance
Exodus 19-40: Community and Covenant
Exodus and Canon: Torah, Old Testament, New
Exodus and Theology
Exodus 7-18
Exodus 19-40
Deuteronomy 1-11*
Joshua 1-5
Isaiah 43
Matt 1-4
And selections from
Psalms, and Prophets
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Review of Hebrew Poetry
Review Introduction to Isaiah
Historical Considerations
Literary Considerations
Genre and structures, motifs and themes
Foci and authorship of 1-39; 40-55; 56-66
Isaiah 1-5
Isaiah 1-5
Isaiah 6-39
Isaiah 6-39
Isaiah 40-66
*Isaiah and Canon: Prophets, Old Testament, New
*Isaiah and Theology: Monotheism, Redemption,
Creation, Salvation, etc
*Isaiah and “Messianic” Prophecy:
Meaning in the OT, Shift in the Intertestamental
Period, Use in the NT, Use in the Early Church
Review Introduction to Wisdom Literature
Review Introduction to Job
Literary Considerations: Structure and Design
Similar Ancient Near Eastern Compositions
Isaiah 40-66
2 Kings 15-17*
Zechariah 3, 6
Various NT passages
quoting Isa
Handout: ANE Wisdom
Commentary* Compositions***
Job 1-14
Job 1-14
Job 15-42
*Job and Canon: Ketuvim, Old Testament, New
*Job and Theology: Wisdom Correction,
Experiential Faith, “Satan” in the Old Testament,
Ethics and Integrity
Job 15-42
Deut 1-4, 27-28
Joshua 1-2
2 Kings 17
Various Psalms
NT: ?
* = The Scripture readings from other portions of the Bible are intended to give the student a glimpse of
the canonical place and importance of the book being studied, as well as to show intertextual links. Each
instructor should be free to modify these readings within the scope of the intent.
** = Assign relevant sections of each commentary on specific days.
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*** = This “handout” can be in the form of copies taken from books with ancient near eastern wisdom
texts: for example; Matthews & Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels, rev. ed., Paulist, 1997, esp pp. 203230, 265-296; or Arnold & Beyer, Readings from the Ancient Near East, Baker, 2002, esp. pp. 175-191.
**** Notes for CLD professors
1. Example syllabus prepared by Dr. G. P. Arbino
2. This is intended to be an example for your course. You may add to it or re-arrange material, but please
do not delete any topics from your curriculum. Feel free to find a suitable substitute for the
Hermeneutics paper, or to modify it to suite your needs. Understand that the purpose of the paper is to
determine if the student can use exegetical methodology on their own, in order to gain a good
understanding of the text.
3. Your grading system may be different from the one outlined above. You are encouraged to assign
evaluative instruments (research papers, presentations, etc) that will enhance learning and permit
evaluation of students. Personally, I might caution against assigning in-class presentations by students
since there is so little time to cover the vast amount of material as it is.
4. Books are given as suggestions. Feel free to choose different texts as you feel necessary, in order to
assist students, especially when there are linguistic needs. If you decide to choose Biblical Books other
than those used above, please make sure that they are indeed representative of the section of the Bible and
that they have enough connections to the rest of the canon and Biblical theology. Other good choices
would be: Deuteronomy (Torah), Jeremiah (Nevi’im), and Psalms (Kethuvim).
***NOTE: Commentaries are expensive. Those that are not, tend not to deal with the actual text, but are
rather devotional in nature and are not really suitable for learning about the biblical book. Therefore, the
following list of commentaries is only a suggestion of possibilities. Please choose three commentaries
which suit your specific situation (but make sure that the text and context of the biblical book is being
taught). Try to avoid any Old Testament-in-one-volume commentaries, as these are usually too thin on
any one book for class work. Avoid also any very old sets from before 1960 (Keil & Delistch, Matthew
Henry, etc), so much scholarship has taken place in the past 45 years. Of course, any of the New
American Commentary (Broadman Publishers) series on these books would be acceptable. Keep in mind
that every commentary will have sections in it that expose students to material with which they might be
uncomfortable, it is the instructor’s job to guide students through this discomfort and assist them to
evaluate scholarship for themselves.
Durham, J. Exodus. Word Biblical Commentary. Word, 1987.
Fretheim, T. Exodus. Interpretation. John Knox Press, 1991.
Sarna, N. Exodus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1991.
Isaiah: (most Isaiah commentaries are multi-volume, I have not included any of those out of fiscal
Goldingay, J. Isaiah. New International Biblical Commentary. Hendrickson, 2001.
Motyer, J.A. Isaiah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. IVP, 1999.
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Habel, N. The Book of Job. The Old Testament Library. Westminster, 1985.
Jantzen, J.G. Job. Interpretation. John Knox Press, 1985.
Whybray, N. Job. Readings: A New Biblical Commentary. Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.
Additional Helpful Books for Basic Old Testament Study
Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981
Alter, The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985.
Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction. John Knox Press, 1981
Long, The Art of Biblical History. Zondervan, 1994.
Sailhamer, The Pentateuch as Narrative. Zondervan, 1992
Wilson, Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel. Fortress, 1980.
Yancey, The Bible Jesus Read. Harper Collins, 1999
Bright, A History of Israel, 4rd ed. Westminster, 2000.
Hoerth, et al, Peoples of the Old Testament World. Baker, 1994.
King and Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. WJK, 2001.
Matthews and Benjamin. Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East, 2nd ed.
Paulist Press, 1997.
Provan, Long, Longman III, A Biblical History of Israel, WJK, 2003.
Wegner, The Journey from Texts to Translations: The Origin and Development of the Bible.
Baker, 1999
Baker and Arnold, eds., The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary
Approaches, Baker, 1999
Bray, Biblical Interpretation: Past and Present, Intervarsity Press, 1996
Fee, G.D., and D. Stuart. How to Read the Bible For All Its Worth. 3rd ed. Zondervan, 2003
McKenzie and Haynes, eds., To Each Its Own Meaning, 2nd ed. John Knox Press, 1999.
Ollenberger, The Flowering of Old Testament Theology. Eisenbrauns, 1992., 2004
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