VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT A. Write the terms and key takeaways for the definitions given below. We will include examples, where applicable under our key takeaways. Term Definition Key Takeaway/Examples Key Issue 1: Why does Development Vary Among Countries? Development is a narrow way of indicating human progress. Why? (Doesn't necessarily bring happiness, social stability, or environmental sustainability.) Development is a relatively new idea (took hold after IR) Start with EF Schumacher: Why Germany developed in ten years after WWII from nothing. The only reason MDC/LDC labels makes sense or are used is the sad fact that countries tend to cluster at the high and low ends of the development continuum. To say and LDC is at an "earlier" point of development or is "developing" or "emerging" assumes what? (development is somehow natural or inevitable) 1. Development The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology. 2. More Developed Country (MDC) A country that has moved further along the continuum of development. (aka: (relatively) developed country.) 3. Less Developed Country (LDC) A country at the lower (earlier?) end of the development continuum. (aka: "developing" or "emerging" country) 4. globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. 5. Human Development Index (HDI) An United Nations indicator of level of development based on Note the HDI recognizes development is not based income, literacy, education, and life expectancy. on economic factors alone. 6. Gross National Product (GNP) The total value of officially recorded goods and services produced by citizens of a country both inside and outside a country's territory. GDP per capita is rising in both MDC's and LDC's but the gap between MDC's and LDC's is rising (GDP per capita is faster in MDCs than in LDCs.) 7. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The total value of officially recorded goods and services produced within a country, usually measured over the course of a year. The value of the total value of goods and services produced in a country divided by the population. This shows the average Limitations of these measures: 1. Doesn't show variations of wealth within countries or among individuals (a few wealthy people can skew country statistics, and 8. GDP per capita contribution made by individuals to a country's wealth in a year. 9. Gross National Income (GNI) The value of everything produced in a country plus income received from other countries minus payments to other countries. 2. Only counts formal economy (much economic activity in LDC's doesn't show up in these measures of wealth. (that's why countries with GDPs per capita of $1000 don't mean people are surviving on such a low income) 3. Doesn't account for how far a dollar goes in different countries. 4. Measures only economic outputs. Therefore even negative economic activity (cleaning up an oil spill, creating nuclear missiles or other weapons, sale of cigarettes AND health care costs those sales create) all show up as positive wealth. Energy efficient devices LOWER GDP and these other measures. But in general the higher GDP per capita , the greater potential for citizens in that country to enjoy a comfortable life. Home gardens, illegal drug trade, black markets for various goods, barter in rural areas. Big part of LDC economies (also in former USSR) 10. informal economy The uncounted or illegal economy that governments do not tax and keep track of. 11. primary sector The portion of an economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from earth's surface, including agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry. 12. secondary sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials. 13. tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with providing goods and services for payment. This includes retail sales, banking, education, law, etc. 14. quaternary sector Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Note overlap with tertiary sector definition. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal The relative share of GDP accounted for by these various sectors of an economy varies between MDCs and LDCs and helps to explain the gap in GDP and development between them: 1. Primary sector share of GDP has decreased for LDCs but remains higher than in MDCs. 2. Secondary sector (manufacturing) share has declined sharply in MDCs and is now less than in LDCs. 3. Tertiary sector share of GDP larger in MDC and growing; declining or flat in LDCs. services. 15. productivity The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. Often measured by value added (the value of a product minus costs of raw materials and energy that went into it.) 16. Big Three consumer goods Cars, telephones computers are key indicators of development because they are vital to the productivity and efficiency of an economy. 17. literacy rate The percentage of a nation's population that can read and write. 18. Three health/welfare indicators of development 19. Five demographic indicators of development Value added per capita: (write on board have kids match countries with figures: Japan: $7,000 per capita, US: $5,000, China: $500, India; $100) REFLECTS: Why? (Technology, machinery, education) There is a large gap in consumer good ownership in LDCs. Who has them? Government officials, urbanites, wealthy elites. Creates "have" vs. "have nots" tensions. Cell phones as an example of skipping a stage of technology. MDCs spend lower % of GDP on education but LDCs spend less overall on education. Show maps have kids mark low and high regions. Daily calorie and protein consumption, % of GDP spent on health care, public assistance programs (to protect those unable to work or care for themselves. Show maps have kids mark low and high regions. Life expectancy, Dependency Ratio, Infant Mortality Rate, Natural Increase Rate, and Crude Birth Rate LE: MDCs 70/LDCs 60 DR: 1:1 in stage 2 DTM countries vs. 1:2 in stage 4 NIR: 1.5% in LDCs vs. .2% in MDCs CBR: 23 in LDC (per 1,000) vs. 12 in MDCs. NOTE: Death rate higher in MDCs. Why? (diffusion of medical technologies to LDCs AND more older people in MDCs.) Show maps have kids mark low and high regions. 20. Brandt Line (aka North-South split) Key Issue 2: Where are MDCs and LDCs located? An imaginary line circling the globe about at 30° N latitude which divide most MDCs (north of the line) from most LDCs (south of the line). Key Issue 3: Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? 21. Gender Related Development Index (GDI) Hungary and Saudi Arabia similar GDPs but Hungary A U.N. indicator of the level of women's development in a higher GDI because of less disparity of income country based on the HDI factors as compared to that of both between women and men. sexes. Show maps have kids mark low and high regions. 22. Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) 23. Self Sufficiency Approach 24. import substitution 25. International Trade Approach 26. Four Asian Dragons/Tigers 27. Rostow's Modernization Model of Development (aka Rostow's Ladder to Development) Based on four factors: women's income as percentage of men's, professional or technical jobs A U.N. indicator of the measuring the ability of women to held by women, percentage of women in participate in economic and political decision making in a administrative jobs, and percentage of women in a country. nations' parliament. Show maps have kids mark low and high regions. Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? An approach to development that promotes development in a country by spreading investment throughout all areas of a country and all sectors of an economy and by shielding domestic (inside the country) industries from foreign competition. The government policy, typically part of a Self Sufficiency Approach to development, of encouraging local manufacturers to produce goods to replace imports. An approach to development that promotes development in a country by developing only one or a few local industries in which the country may have a competitive advantage and then selling the resulting products on the world market. Money from these sales can then be used to fund further development. A term used to refer to four Asian countries (South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) who achieved rapid development despite a relative lack of natural resources by concentrating on producing only a few manufactured goods (mostly clothing and electronics). As such they were early adopters of the International Trade Approach. A model of development that maintains that all countries go through the same five stages of development which lead to self-sustaining economic growth and high levels of mass consumption. The five stages are: 1. Traditional Society (subsistence farming (live off land with little or no surplus), low technology), 2. Preconditions for Takeoff (an elite group innovates and diversifies the Criticism: 1. No context. Black box. Sees country's development is isolation of global forces. 2. No place for cultural or political decision making within a country. 3. Need of sixth stage: deindustrialization in MDCs. 4. No place for idea that rapid industrialization may economy), 3. Takeoff (a few areas of economy receive technical advances and grow rapidly), 4. Drive to Maturity (technology diffuses throughout economy, incomes rise, and 5. Mass Consumption (production shifts from heavy industry (steel, energy) to consumer goods and service industries. A theory created by Immanuel Wallerstein that views the world economy as one interconnected capitalist market with a three tier structure: 1. Core: higher levels of education, higher salaries, higher 28. Wallertstein's World levels of technology. The core gains power by exploiting the semi-periphery and periphery. Systems Theory 2. Periphery: lover levels of education, , lower salaries, less technologies. 3. Semi-periphery: places were both core and periphery processes are taking place simultaneously. The periphery is exploited by the core but exploits the periphery. 29. Traditional Society (Rostow stage 1) A society in which the dominant activity is subsistence farming and technology is slow to change. 30. Foreign direct investment (FDI) Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country. 31. Structural Adjustment Program 32. Fair Trade Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services. An alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit unionization, and comply with minimum have high costs (social disruptions, loss of culture, environmental degradation, pollution.) Notes: 1. Unlike Rostow, Wallerstein does not assume all countries can develop at the same time. Since core countries depend on exploitation of the periphery, SOMEONE has to be the exploited periphery. Not all places can be equally wealthy at same time. 2. Core/Periphery analysis works on local level too 3. Tadpole analogy: all in same pond (world capitalism), only some tadpoles can survive to become toads. 4. Basic idea: Exploitation is a function of the basic drive for profit in the global system of capitalism. environmental and safety standards. 33. U.N. Millennium Development Goals 34. stucturalist theory / neocolonialism / Dependency Theory 35. sustainable development A set of eight goals set by the U.N. to reduce the disparity of wealth and development between MDCs and LDCs. They focus on poverty, primary education, gender equality, child mortality, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, environmental sustainability, and aide from MDCs to LDCs. A group of theories that maintain that MDCs continue to control LDCs even though the poorer LDCs have officially gained their independence and that the concentration of wealth in MDCs make it difficult for LDCs to improve their economic situation. A pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. 36. obstacles to development Exploitation by MDCs, malnutrition, natural disasters (without preparedness), desertification, climate change, high population growth, lack of education, foreign debt, corrupt governments, political instability, disease (i.e. AIDS, malaria (150,000 children dead per month!). 37. micro-credit programs Programs which offer small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage the development of small businesses. 38. maquiladoras An example of an Export Processing Zone (EPZ) on Mexico's northern border with the United States. These are special zones within a country which offer favorable tax or trade to foreign companies. 39. commodity chain A series of links connecting the many places involved in the production and distribution of a product for sale in the global marketplace. Is a response and criticism of Rostow: Rostow does not see countries in global context. LDCs are facing very different challenges to development than countries that developed during Industrial Revolution. Many of these challenges mean that for the people in the periphery of the periphery (the poorest citizens of the poorest countries), the goal of development takes a back seat to daily survival. Commodity Chain is a key concept in understanding uneven development because different links in the commodity chain add more value to the product and therefore more wealth for those involved at that link.