AP Human Geography
1. In what ways can tourism create tension between vacationers and local populations?
2. What aspects of development are geographers most concerned with?
Case Study: Bangladeshs’s Development Challenges
3. What is a tenant farmer?
4. Why is the plight of women the main underlying development challenge in
5. Define development.
6. How does the text divide the world according to levels of development?
7. What are some other terms for LDCs?
Key Issue I
Why Does Development vary Among Countries?
8. Describe the basic factors that make up the Human Development Index (HDI)
Economic Indicators of Development
9. Fill in the chart below
Gross Domestic Product
10. What is the difference between GDP and GNP?
11. Describe the statistical trends with respect to GDP in MDCS and LDCS, since 1980.
12. What is the geographic weakness of a country’s GDP?
Types of Jobs
13. Generally, why are incomes high in MDCs?
14. Fill in some basic information regarding the three main sectors of an economy.
Tertiary Primary Secondary
15. What are three basic conclusions one can make for Figure 9-3?
16. Define productivity, and why are workers in MDCS the most productive in the world?
17. What are some of the most important goods & services produced in MDCs? Why?
18. Why are these products more important and accessible in urban areas?
19. What segments of society in LDC save access to consumer products on a regular basis?
Social Indicators of Development
20. How do MDC governments help their citizens be more economically productive?
Education and Literacy
21. Describe the pattern in Figure 9-6.
Health and Welfare
22. Describe the patterns in Figure 9-9. Why is the daily available calories consumed an important measure of development?
23. Why is it important to spend a high percentage if GDP on healthcare? How is this tangibly reflected?
24. Why is it becoming more difficult for MDCs to provide a high level of health care for its population?
Demographic Indicators of Development
25. Name the demographic indicators that distinguish MDCS from LDCs.
26. Define life expectancy.
27. Describe the differences in the dependency ratio between LDCS and MDCs.
Infant Mortality Rate
28. What do most infants die from in LDCs?
29. What factors contribute to a lower CBR in MDCs?
30. Why do many LDCs have a lower CDR than some MDCs?
Key Issue II
Where Are MDCs and LDCs Distributed?
31. For Figure 9-11 describe the general pattern of world development.
More Developed Regions
32. What line of latitude is considered the dividing line between MDCs and LDCs?
North America (Anglo-America)
33. Why is the United States not in the top ten with respect the HDI?
34. What advantage did the United States’ economy used to have?
35. How has the United States compensated for the loss of manufacturing jobs?
36. What does the United States export to the world?
37. Why is Europe treated as on intact region today?
38. Why is the largest and wealthiest market in the world?
39. How do European countries pay for imports that they need?
40. What is the economic core of Europe?
41. What areas lag behind the core? What is the geographic relationship to the core?
Eastern Europe (Russia)
42. Describe how the Soviet Union’s centrally planned economy worked.
43. How well did Russia transition to a market economy?
44. What industry has helped Russia’s HDI the most?
45. What are Japan’s two major development obstacles?
46. Describe the four steps Japan took to revitalize their economy after WWII.
South Pacific (Oceania)
47. Why is Oceania a marginal player in the world economy?
48. Describe Australia and New Zealand’s recent contributions to the world’s economy.
Less Developed Regions
49. What region has the highest and lowest HDI of the LDCs?
52. Describe the population distribution of South America.
53. Describe the two ways development varies within Latin America.
54. What are the major impediments to development in Latin America?
55. Why did Communist China emphasize rural development?
56. Why have many prices for consumer goods worldwide declined?
57. Describe China’s major development challenges.
Middle East (Southwest Asia and North Africa)
58. How do religious practices and beliefs come into conflict with development efforts?
59. How are internal conflicts impacting development in the region?
60. To what degree does climate impact development?
61. What allows Java to support such a large population?
62. What areas have suffered from the legacy of war? Which areas are now rapidly developing?
63. Why is this area now considered a distinct region?
64. What products are produced in this region?
65. Why are development prospects bleak in this region?
66. To what extent does climate impact development?
67. What accounts for the recent growth of India’s economy?
Sub Saharan Africa
68. What are some of the region’s assets?
69. Why does this region have some of the least favorable conditions for development?
70. What factors have contributed to the region’s declining HDI?
71. What is the region’s fundamental development challenge?
Key Issue III
Where Does Level of Development Vary By Gender?
Contemporary Geographic Tools
Walmart and China
72. How does distance-decay model explain the growth of Walmart in the United States from 1970 – 2000?
73. Describe Walmart’s geographic strategy with respect to adding new stores.
Gender-Related Development Index
74. What is the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)?
75. Why do you think no country has achieved gender parity?
76. Describe the patterns on the map in figure 9-17. What is the relationship between
HDI and GDI? Give examples of both high and low values.
77. Where is the income gap the greatest from a percentage perspective? What is the average income gap in MDCs? What might account for this income gap in MDCs?
78. According to figure 9-19, where in the world are there more girls in school than boys?
What surprises you on this map?
79. According to figure 9-18, where is the income gap the greatest? Why do you think the income gap is so consistently high in Latin America?
80. Approximately what percent of girls attend school in the Middle East and sub-
Saharan Africa? What factors contribute to this low percent attending school? What countries in the region have a high school enrollment for girls?
81. Outside of the two regions mentioned in question 80, where else is the female literacy rate low? Why?
82. According to figure 9-21, where do males live longer? Why? Where do females live longer? Why?
83. In general, where is the life expectancy ratio the largest?
84. Why is the life expectancy gap lower in LDCs?
85. What is the GEM? What does it measure?
86. How many women are in the U.S. Senate? Who are they and what states do they represent?
87. Politically speaking, where are women the least represented?
88. What role does culture play with respect to gender empowerment issues?
89. Where are women empowered economically?
90. What are the two most important indicators of political empowerment for women?
Key Issue IV.
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?
91. Describe the fundamental development challenges LDCs face.
Development Through Self-Sufficiency
92. Why do you think the self-sufficiency or balanced approach was the main school of thought for LDCs in the latter part of the 20 th
Elements of Self-Sufficiency Approach
93. Why do some countries feel it is imperative to balance development throughout their country?
94. What is the rationale for protecting fledging businesses and industries?
95. What strategies do countries use to protect their struggling industries?
96. Describe the unique steps India took to protect its own industries.
Problems with the Self-Sufficiency Alternative
Protection of inefficient businesses
97. Describe the drawbacks of protecting inefficient industries.
Need for large bureaucracy
98. Why does protecting inefficient industries lead to a large bureaucracy? How do business people often respond to a large bureaucracy?
Development Through International Trade
99. What is the main focus of the International Trade Approach to development?
Rostow’s Development Model
100. Fill in the chart with 2-3 points for each stage of the model.
The traditional society
The preconditions for takeoff
The drive to maturity
The age of mass consumption
101. Describe the two factors that Rostow’s model was based on.
Examples of the International Trade Appoach
The Four Asian Dragons
102. Describe the steps the Four Asian Dragons took to grow their economies during the late 20 th
Petroleum-Rich Arabian Peninsular States
103. How have these countries used their petro-dollars to economically develop?
Problems with the International Trade Approach
104. Describe in depth a common drawback to the international trade approach for each of the following categories.
Increase Dependence on
International Trade Approach Triumphs
105. Why did many LDCs convert to the international trade approach to development?
106. What is fair trade and how does it work?
Fair Trade Producer Standards
Fair Trade Worker Standards
107. Describe how fair trade influences worker standards and producer standards.
Case Study Revisited / Future Prospects for Development
108. Why is gender inequality an impediment to development, and how is the Grameen
Bank trying to resolve this situation?