Lecture 1

Anatomy 1
Instructor: Greg Gonsalves
Lecture 1: Anatomical Terminology and Medical Imaging
I. Levels of Organization of Organisms
A. atoms (elements of periodic table)
B. molecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid)
C. cells (epithelial, bone, muscle, nervous)
D. tissues (epithelial, connective, muscular)
E. organ (stomach, heart, brain, lung)
F. organ system (muscular, skeletal, digestive, nervous)
G. whole organism (each different species)
II. Anatomy - the study of the structures of an organism
A. Gross Anatomy - structures as seen by unaided eye
B. Developmental Anatomy - study of the anatomy of the developing organism
1. Embryology - fertilization to third month of fetus
C. Histology ("tissues" "to study") - structures that can be seen with the microscope such as
cells and tissues
1. Cytology - study of cell structure/function
D. Systemic Anatomy - study of individual organ system
E. Regional Anatomy - study of structures in particular area
F. Pathology ("disease" "to study") - study of changes in structure due to disease/injury
III. Structure - Function Relationships
Anatomy - study of structure
Physiology - study of function
Structure determines Function
Function determines Structure
Charles Darwin - "Origin of the Species" (1858) - Changes in structure affect
basis of evolution of all organisms
IV. Anatomical Terminology - The Language of Anatomy
A. Summary of Common prefixes and suffixes (Lecture Notes)
B. Anatomical Position
1. subject stands erect
2. upper limbs placed at sides with palms forward
3. feet flat on floor in natural forward direction
C. Directional Terms (practice using them in the lab!)
1. superior (cephalic) : inferior (caudal)
2. anterior (ventral) : posterior (dorsal)
3. medial : lateral
4. ipsilateral (same side) : contralateral (opposite)
5. proximal : distal
6. superficial : deep
7. parietal : visceral
D. Planes and Sections
1. sagittal - divides into right and left parts
a. midsagittal - right down the middle
b. parasagittal - away from the midline
2. frontal (coronal) - divides anterior & posterior
3. horizontal (transverse) - divide superior & inferior
E. Body Cavities
1. Dorsal Body Cavity
a. cranial cavity (brain)
b. vertebral cavity (spinal cord)
2. Ventral Body Cavity (viscera - organs found here)
a. thoracic cavity
i. pleural cavity (space separating the parietal pleura and visceral
pleura of lungs - like balloon pushed in with fist)
ii. mediastinum - all contents of thoracic cavity except the lungs (eg.
b. abdominopelvic cavity
i. abdominal - stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small
ii. pelvic - urinary bladder, cecum, appendix, sigmoid colon, rectum,
reproductive organs
3. Other Body Cavities
a. oral cavity (mouth)
b. nasal cavity (sinuses for air passage)
c. orbital cavities (eyes)
d. middle ear cavities (in temporal bone)
e. synovial cavities (freely moveable joints)
V. Divisions of Abdominopelvic Cavity
A. Quadrants (from the umbilicus - belly button)
1. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
2. left upper quadrant (LUQ)
3. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
4. left lower quadrant (LLQ)
B. Regions (nine regions around umbilicus)
Right Hypochondriac
Left Hypochondriac
Right Lumbar
Left Lumbar
Right Iliac
Left Iliac
VI. Specific Terms for Various Regions (SEE TEXT!)
A. Examples of Regional Terms
1. axillary - armpit
2. brachial - upper arm
3. pubic - around genitalia
4. carpal - wrist
5. antebrachial - forearm
6. acromial - point of shoulder
VII. Medical Imaging Techniques
A. Classic X-ray : radiography (radiograph)
1. good for dense structures (bones and tumors)
B. Computed Tomography (CT) or Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Scanning
1. employs X-ray technology to create clearer image
2. tumors, aneurysms, kidney stones, gallstones, etc.
C. Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction (DSR)
1. employs X-ray technology to see organ action/motion
2. measures physiology of heart, lungs, vessels; can
indicate abnormality/deformity in structure; tissue damage
D. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
1. uses magnetic properties of molecules, not X-rays
2. presence of cancer cells, chemical disease of brain, spinal cord disorders, blood
flow problems, injury after stroke, measure effects of drugs on tissues
3. used chiefly on soft tissues such as brain & heart
E. Ultrasound (US)
1. uses high frequency sound waves
2. gall stones, pelvic organs, blood flow, fetal development
F. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
1. uses radioisotopes such as Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13
2. effects of drugs, site of molecules, cancer cells
3. very good at studying glucose absorption by neurons in the brain during certain
G. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
1. takes X-ray picture before and after administration of contrast substance to the
2. used to study vessels of the brain and heart to help prevent strokes and heart