File - AP Art History

OutlineHigh Renaissance-Italy
(+ Mannerism)
edited November 23, 2015
1500-1600 CE
Enduring Understanding
 Art of this period reflected interest in classical models, enhanced
naturalism, Christianity, pageantry, and increasingly formalized
artistic training
 The Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter Reformation caused
divergence between northern and southern western European art with
respect to form, function, and content
Essential Knowledge
 Religious imagery declined in northern Europe; non religious genreslandscape, still life history, mythology etc. –flourished
 In south increase of political propaganda, religious imagery, pageantry;
use of naturalism, dynamic composition, bold color schemes
Geographic/cultural Context
Time of social, religious, intellectual change
Continued rivalry between Italian city states
Continued interest in scientific study and intellectual growth
role of the printing press
Role of the Reformation
 Increasing frustration with/schism within Catholic Church
o Papal largesse;
o Indulgences
o Protestant Reformation
Role of the Counter-Reformation and the Catholic Church
 Council of Trent 1545-1563 –condemned Protestant beliefs and
defined Catholic teachings of sin, Eucharist, sacraments, etc.
Travel, exploration
Political growth and conflict throughout Europe
 France, England, Portugal=all nation states with kings
 Holy Roman Empire including Spain (the Americas), German
Territories, Netherlands
 Italian city states
Rome as center
 Classical ruins
 Home of Michelangelo. Raphael
 Patronage of church, aristocracy
o Influence of Pope Julius II
Art Context
Geographic/ Cultural Context
 Medici’s fell, popes, Florence as patrons
 Rise of Venice as art center
 Printing press and its effects
Art Making-Themes and Materials
Key!-16th Century artistic developments:
 Maturing of mastery of technical artistic skill
o Focus on composition
o Continued interest in perspective
o Integration of form, and space with figure vs. not
just a stage-like setting
 Use of chiaroscuro as 3D effect
o Focus on physiological aspects of man
 More accurate “scientific” rendering of
 Focus on psychological aspect of man
o Focus on monumental interpretation of form
 with human figure at center
 figures/form in action
 Continued interest in classical cultures
o Intellectual and philosophical
 Art prominent throughout Italy-Rome, Florence, Venice
o Regional styles developed: Venetian-colorito
(color, light), mood, emotion, beauty
o Rome & Florence-disegno (drawing and design)
o Major artists – da Vinci, Michelangelo,
o Continued changes in architecture-variations on
classical (rational!) themes
 Major architects-Bramante, Palladio,
 the artist was seen as even more of a legitimate and
esteemed profession-a truly intellectual figure like other
liberal professions; to some a genius
 Art was chronicled and surveyed by Giorgio Vasari
o A critical look at specific accomplished artists
o Led to view to view of the period as High
Renaissance that started with Giotto and Cimabu
 Use of tempera gave way to oil paint
Emergence of Mannerism-a more flamboyant, less rational artistic style
indulgences -pardons for sins thus reducing time soul was in purgatory
colorito- term used to describe the application of paint; associated with 16th
century Venetian artists who looked to direct observation of nature as their
disegno– Italian for drawing and design; associated with Florence and
Roman painting (sculpture-like form); looked to art of antiquity for
chiaroscuro – the treatment of light and dark parts in a work of art
sfumato – a technique of modeling light and color to soften the edge of
objects ; a smoke like haze; applied as a glaze
Poesia – painting that has a poetic quality-lack of a rigid, obvious narrative
Jesuit - a Catholic religious order engaged in missionary and educational
work. Founded by St. Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the
Mannerism-later Renaissance style of art that emphasized a more contrived,
less formal and more fantastical approach; included a more flamboyant, anticlassical take on architecture
+ Leonardo Da Vinci – 1452-1519
- Art – Virgin of the Rocks
- Cartoon for Virgin and Child
- + Last Supper
- Mona Lisa
- Vitruvian Man
+ Michelangelo – 1475-1564
- Art – David
- + Sistine Chapel Ceiling
- Creation of Adam (Sistine Chapel)
- Last Judgment (Sistine Chapel)
Architecture –
Capitoline Hill
St. Peter’s Basilica (partial)
Palazo Farnese (partial)
+ Raphael – 1483-1520
- Art – + School of Athens
- Madonna in the Meadow
- Baldassare Castiglioni
Antonio da Sangallo –
- Architecture –
- Palazzo Farnese (partial)
Bramante –
- Architecture –
- Plan St. Peter’s
- Tempietto
Bellini – ca. 1430-1516
- Art – San Zaccaria Altarpiece
- The Feast of the Gods (with Titian)
Castelfranco –
- Art – Pastoral Symphony
- The Tempest
+ Titian – ca. 1490-1576
- Art – Assumption of the Virgin
- Madonna of the Pesaro Family
+ Venus of Urbino
Pontormo –
- Art – Descent From the Cross
+ Entombment
Parmigianino –
- Art – Madonna With the Long Neck
Bronzino –
- Art – The Exposure of Luxury
- Portrait of a Young Man
Anguissola –
- Art – Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters and Brother
Della Porta - Architecture – Il Gesu
Tintoretto –
- Art – Last Supper
Veronese –
- Art – Christ in the House of Levi
- Triumph of Venice
Palladio - Architecture – Villa Rotonda
- West Façade, San Giorgio Maggiore
- + Viceroyalty of New Spain