Biology Mrs. Terhune Name:_______________________ Chapter 17 + 18 Review Sheet: Protists and Fungus 1. What are some of the basic characteristics of the organisms in Kingdom Protista? - Eukaryotic, unicellular 2. Discuss protist complexity. - Protists are considered to be the most complex cells because their one cell can carry out all life functions such as ingestion, digestion, excretion, reproduction 3. How are Protists classified? - Based on how they get their nutrition 4. What does “protozoan” mean? - “little animal” 5. Explain the similarities between protozoans and animals, explain the differences. - Similarities: both are heterotrophs and both can move - Differences: Animals are multicellular and animal like protists are unicellular 6. How are the protozoans classified? List below and explain how each of them move. 1. Zooflagelletes: move by flagella (whip like tail) 2. Ciliates: move by ciliar (hair-like structures) 3. Psuedopodia: move by extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods 4. Sporozoans: do not move, use a host 7. Give an example of a flagellete, psuedopod, ciliate, and sporozoan. Know the examples (name of protists and diseases they cause if any) . - Flagellete: Giardia (causes Giardiasis), Trypanasoma (causes African Sleeping Sickness spread by tse tse fly Ciliate: Paramecium Pseudopod: Amoeba (can cause Amoebic Dysentary) - Sporozoan: Plasmodium causes Malaria carried by mosquito 8. Study your paramecium/amoeba packet (structures/functions) 9. How are the fungus-like protists similar to fungi? Explain - Both are decomposers and break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients into soil 10. How are plant-like protists similar to plants? What are the plant-like protists? - Both do photosynthesis and the plant-like protists are algae 11. What are the different types of unicellular algae that we talked about? Discuss their significance on the environment. - Dinoflagellets: 2 flagella that cause them to spin. Can cause red tides, or can be bioluminescent. Produce oxygen for aquatic ecosystem - Diatoms: glass like cell wall of silica, create diatomaceous earth and we mine this material for insect repellants, building materials, also produce oxygen - Euglena: Can do photosynthesis but can also be heterotrophic - Phytoplankton: Dinoflagelletes and diatoms are examples of phytoplankton. Big oxygen producer and also food for fish and whales! 12. List and explain the different kinds of multicellular algae. Green algae: ancestor of modern plant, found in all aquatic ecosystems Brown algae: most common form of seaweed. Includes kelp, which is important habitat for fish and necessary for fish spawning. Red algae: photosynthesize at deep depths, tropical waters 13. What is the significance of kelp? - Food source for fish, crustaceans - Habitat, protection - Where fish spawn 14. Why is phytoplankton so important? List a few reasons. - food source for fish and whales - produce a majority of ocean’s oxygen FUNGUS (Chapter 18) - Characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Fungi: - heterotrophs, multicellular, eukaryotic - Composition of fungi cell wall: - made of chitin (polysaccharide that makes cell wall flexible) - Discuss structures (hyphae, fruiting body, mycelium) - hyphae make up body of fungus and made of cell wall filled with cytoplasm - fruiting body is the cap of the mushroom with the gills where spores are produced - mycelium is underground extension of hyphae and feeding structure - How do fungi feed? through absorptive nutrition: fungus will secrete enzymes and digest food outside of their cells, then absorb nutrients through cell wall - Types of fungi (examples) - parasitic fungus, mushrooms as decomposers, mold, yeast (unicellular) - Explain significance of lichen, mycorrhizae, and parasitic fungi. - Lichen: mutualistic relationship between fungus and algae (plant like protist) OR cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) where fungus provides water to the algae through the mycelium and the algae provides food in the form of carbohydrates to the fungus - Mycorrhizae: mutualistic relationship between plants (trees) and fungus. Its why you see fungi growing around trees. The fungus (mycorrhizae) provides water and nutrients through the soil to the tree and the tree provides carbohydrates for the fungus - Parasitic Fungi: Ringworm, yeast infections, athletes foot cause tissue damage as fungus decomposes living tissue.