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U niversity of S outhern C alifornia School Of Engineering Department Of Electrical Engineering EE 348: #34056 Course Syllabus Spring, 2002 Choma ABSTRACT: EE 348 establishes a foundation for electronic circuit design. The course addresses bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) characteristics and circuit topologies that comprise the foundation for practical electronic circuit design. The fundamental tools exploited to consider these electronic networks and relevant device characteristics derive largely from the theoretic concepts and analytical strategies developed in the first circuits course, which is EE 202 at USC. Design is a challenging undertaking because it is not the problem of finding the N solutions to a system of N equations in N unknowns. The most typical design problem is one in which there are more specifications that must be satisfied or more variables that need to be determined than there are independent equations that can be written. Basic algebra teaches that a problem for which the number of unknowns does not match the number of available independent equations has no unique solution. Since poorly structured mathematical problems are implicit to virtually all design issues, unique design solutions rarely prevail. Nevertheless, viable and even creative solutions can be determined. The best of these solutions, in the sense of yielding reliable electronic and efficient networks that can be manufactured cost-effectively to meet operating specifications, are rarely forged by trial and error strategies. Instead, optimal solutions derive from fundamental phenomenological understanding. The task necessarily preceding such an understanding of complex electronic engineering design problems is the conduct of thorough mathematical and computer-based analyses that insightfully highlight both the attributes and the limitations of the circuit and system architectures under consideration. The satisfying understanding that conduces completing the genuinely difficult task of creative circuit design ensues when analytical disclosures can be creatively interpreted and lucidly explained in terms of fundamental physical laws, basic circuit and system theoretic concepts, and simple mathematical emulations. Because understanding is such a crucial ingredient of the design recipe, computational precision is rarely the primary objective of design-oriented engineering circuit analysis. Instead, analyses are conducted to gain insights into the circuit responses defined by the mathematical solutions for the electrical variables of a circuit. Insights are cultivated by conceptually comprehending solutions cast in forms that underscore circuit advantages, disadvantages, best case operating features, and worst-case response properties. In short, design skills are not nurtured by elegant mathematical delineations of circuit responses. They are more likely to derive from approximate circuit solutions that, when properly interpreted in light of any meaningfully invoked approximations and an awareness of desired circuit and system operating specifications, paint an understandable engineering picture of circuit dynamics. EE 348 attempts to paint these images. EE 348 USC Spring Semester 2002 J. Choma, Jr. 1. COURSE ADMINISTRATION The prerequisites for EE 348 are EE 202 and EE 301. Although EE 338 is formally a prerequisite, it can be taken concurrently with EE 348. Course lectures are given on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 10:00 to 11:20 in Kaprielian Hall (KAP), Room #158. EE 348 lectures commence on Tuesday, 08 January 2002 and end on Thursday, 25 April 2002. Students who are absent from given lecture or discussion sessions should arrange for a friend to obtain any notes, homework assignments, homework solutions, or other information distributed during their absence. Copies of material handed out in class are not retained by the instructor. The last day to drop the course without a “W” grade is Friday, 25 January 2002. The last day to drop the class with a “W” grade is Friday, 05 April 2002. An Incomplete “IN” course grade is rarely given. An “IN” grade can be justified only in substantiated exceptional cases such as an extended student illness, a temporary physical disability, or an unfortunate personal hardship experienced after the twelfth week of the semester (after 29 March 2002). The final examination is scheduled for Thursday, 02 May 2002, from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM. Two midterm examinations will also be administered. After hours optional review sessions for impending examinations may be scheduled two to three lecture days before the date of an exam. Other optional review sessions can be given, pending student interest and need. Homework is assigned nominally weekly, and solutions are normally distributed on the day that assignments are handed in. Conscientious efforts are made to have homework assignments complement the lecture material. Moreover, the homework assignments are compiled to provide students with meaningful analytical experiences that effectively help to prepare them for examinations. Completed homework is never accepted after the due date. To compensate for this inflexibility, the lowest homework grade among all homework assignments is ignored in the compilation of the end of semester homework average. The results of the two (2) midterm examinations, the final examination, and averaged homework grades combine with the laboratory grade in accordance with the algorithm given below to determine the final course average for each student. MIDTERM EXAMINATION #1 GRADE: MIDTERM EXAMINATION #2 GRADE: FINAL EXAMINATION GRADE: LABORATORY GRADE: HOMEWORK GRADE: 20% 20% 30% 20% 10% Examinations can never be made up! If a student fails to take either of the two midterm exams, his or her grade will be based on only two (2) examinations and on a normalized maximum score of 80, as opposed to 100. An automatic failure results if the student has a non-excused absence from both midterm examinations, and/or an absence from the final examination. An automatic failure also results if the laboratory component of the course is failed. Laboratory failure is ensured if any one of the laboratory assignments is not completed. ii EE 348 USC Spring Semester 2002 J. Choma, Jr. Prof. John Choma, Jr. is the course instructor, and Mr. Robert Marshall is the Discussion Section Leader. Mr. Jon Roderick is responsible for laboratory coordination; he will also teach all laboratory sections. Prof. Choma’s office hours are 4:00 to 5:30 on Tuesdays and Thursdays and 11:00 to 2:00 on Wednesdays in Powell Hall of Engineering (PHE) Room #616. Appointments for other meeting times can be arranged by telephoning Prof. Choma at 213-740-4692 or by e-mailing him at johnc@almaak.usc.edu. Robert Marshall and Jon Roderick will also establish regular office hours. 2. DISCUSSION SECTIONS Each student is required to attend one of two weekly discussion sections, which are tentatively offered as follows. 1:00 -to- 1:50 1:00 -to- 1:50 Monday Wednesday KAP KAP #138 #138 Homework and laboratory assignments are addressed in the discussion sections, as is particularly challenging lecture material. Discussion sections begin meeting during the week of 14 January 2002. 3. LABORATORY SECTIONS Each student is required to attend one of three weekly laboratory sections, which are tentatively offered as follows. 8:00 -to- 10:40 (AM) 2:00 -to- 4:40 (PM) 6:00 -to- 8:40 (PM) Wednesday Monday Thursday OHE OHE OHE #230 #230 #230 The general nature and specific objectives of all laboratory assignments will be definitively addressed by Mr. Roderick during the actual laboratory sessions. These assignments focus on the development of circuit test methodologies, circuit analysis and assessment strategies, and circuit design skills. Collectively, they imbue students with a meaningful sampling of practical engineering design and characterization problems. Nominally, four or five design projects, each entailing detailed analysis, engineering interpretation of analytical results, SPICE computer-aided simulation, circuit construction, circuit test, and project reporting, are assigned as group undertakings. Each student is required to purchase a proto board by the first laboratory meeting, which occurs during the week of 14 January 2002. Proto boards can be purchased in Olin Hall of Engineering (OHE) Room #246. *** An Absolute Prerequisite To Passing EE 348 Is That All Laboratory Assignments Must Be Completed! *** 4. STUDY GUIDELINES AND SUGGESTIONS 4.1. Spend some time reading the Abstract of this Course Syllabus. It attempts to define the pedagogical philosophy of the course. Fundamentally, it conveys the notion that the solutions iii EE 348 USC Spring Semester 2002 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. J. Choma, Jr. to problems are not the only important issue. Equally important is the ability to develop the engineering insights that conduce creative and efficient circuit and system design. A matter related to interpretive acuity is the development of skills for defining, applying, and assessing meaningful analytical approximations, which you will discover are all but mandated if mathematical tractability and engineering understandability are to be assured. It is imprudent and potentially disastrous to view the 10% weight attached to homework as being sufficiently small to justify your tacit neglect of homework assignments. Many of the problems assigned derive from EE 348 examinations administered in previous semesters, and most, when thoroughly addressed and considered, provide you with the analytical experience and engineering insights that are likely to prove beneficial during formal examinations. Moreover, homework is counted in the compilation of your final course grade only when its average score enhances your final course average. When the homework average degrades your final course average, the homework score is not factored into the final course average, which is then based on an achievable maximum score of 90%, as opposed to 100%. Electrical and computer engineers rarely work in proverbial vacuums. Accordingly, students are encouraged to work in small teams (no larger than three) on homework assignments, assuming, of course, that such collaboration is done intelligently, conscientiously, and in a manner that encourages equal participation among all group members. If you choose to work in homework teams, you need hand in only one assignment per group, making sure that the first page of each submitted assignment clearly identifies all group members. Each member of a given group receives the same numerical mark for the given submission. Do not fall behind in the course lectures, the homework assignments, and the laboratory assignments! Upper division electrical engineering classes, such as EE 348, are hierarchical; that is, the ability to understand material presented in any given week relies strongly on your comprehension of technical matter discussed in preceding weeks. Do not miss class! I rarely follow the textbook closely, and I have no reservations about compiling homework assignments and examinations predicated, at least in part, on material discussed in class but not addressed in the assigned textbook. Do not be shy in the classroom about asking questions about material you do not clearly comprehend. If you do not understand something, chances are that many of your peers are experiencing similar confusion. Do not be shy about coming to my office for additional assistance, and do not hesitate to ask the Discussion Leader or the Laboratory Teaching Assistant for help. The Discussion Leader and the Laboratory Assistant have complete liberty to address course issues in any manner they deem appropriate. This discretionary latitude includes sharing with you any insights they may have about my grading, lecturing, and examination styles. To the latter end, be advised that both of these people have suffered through at least two of the courses I offer. 5. REQUIRED TEXT and SUGGESTED REFERENCES The chapter assignments in the “Course Schedule” below refer to the required textbook: Donald A. Neamen, Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design (Second Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002 [ISBN #0-256-26115-6]. A few of the assigned readings in the “Course Schedule” are prefaced with “LS,” which denotes “Lecture Supplements” that derive from the following list of documents. These reprints will be provided at appropriate times during the semester. LS 1 J. Choma, Jr., Review of the First Circuits Class, University of Southern California, EE 202 Course Notes, April 1996. iv EE 348 USC Spring Semester 2002 J. Choma, Jr. LS 2 J. Choma, Jr. and W-K. Chen, “Linear Two-Port Networks,” in The Circuits and Filters Handbook, ed. by W-K. Chen, et.al. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, published in cooperation with IEEE Press, pp. 532-581, 1995. LS 3 J. Choma, Jr. and J. Trujillo, “Canonical Cells of Linear Bipolar Technology,” in The Circuits and Filters Handbook, ed. by W-K. Chen, et. al., Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, published in cooperation with IEEE Press, pp. 1628-1676, 1995. LS 4 J. Choma, Jr., MOS Technology Models and Basic Analog Cells, University of Southern California, EE 348 Course Notes, Spring Semester 2000. An earlier version of this disclosure appears in The Circuits and Filters Handbook, ed. by W-K. Chen, et. al. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, published in cooperation with IEEE Press, pp. 1509-1557, 1995. The following reference literature may also prove helpful. [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. [13]. [14]. [15]. [16]. [17]. [18]. [19]. [20]. [21]. [22]. [23]. [24]. [25]. [26]. Marco Annaratone, Digital CMOS Circuit Design. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1986. R. Boylestad and L. Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1987. Stanley G. Burns and Paul R. Bond, Principles of Electronic Circuits. Boston: PWS Publishing Company, 1997. W-K Chen, L. O. Chua, J. Choma, Jr., and L. P. Huelsman (eds.), The Circuits And Filters Handbook. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC/IEEE Press, 1995. P. M. Chirlian, Analysis and Design of Integrated Electronic Circuits. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1987. K. K. Clarke and D. T. Hess, Communication Circuits: Analysis and Design. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1978. R. A. Colclaser, D. A. Neamen, and C. F. Hawkins, Electronic Circuit Analysis: Basic Principles. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984. R. C. Dorf (editor), The Electrical Engineering Handbook. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1993. R. C. Dorf and J. A Svoboda, Introduction to Electric Circuits. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. Daniel P. Foty, MOSFET Modeling With SPICE: Principles and Practice. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR, 1997. S. Franco, Design With Operational Amplifiers And Analog ICs. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988. M. S. Ghausi, Electronic Devices and Circuits: Discrete and Integrated. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985. Arthur B. Glaser and Gerald E. Subak-Sharpe, Integrated Circuit Engineering. Reading Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1977. Glenn M. Glasford, Analog Electronic Circuits. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986. Glenn M. Glasford, Digital Electronic Circuits. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1988. Roger T. Howe and Charles G. Sodini, Microelectronics: An Integrated Approach. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997. David A. Johns and Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. E. J. Kennedy, Operational Amplifier Circuits: Theory And Applications. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1988. Kenneth R. Laker and Willy M. C. Sansen, Design of Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. R. Mauro, Engineering Electronics: A Practical Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, 1989. Jacob Millman and Arvin Grabel, Microelectronics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1987. F. H. Mitchell, Jr. and F. H. Mitchell, Sr., Introduction to Electronics Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1992. C. J. Savant, Jr., M. S. Roden, and G. L. Carpenter, Electronic Circuit Design: An Engineering Approach. Menlo Park, California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 1987. D. L. Schilling, C. Belove, T. Apelewicz, and R. J. Saccardi, Electronic Circuits: Discrete and Integrated. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1987. R. M. Warner, Jr. and B. L. Grung, Transistors: Fundamentals for the Integrated Circuit Engineer. New York: Wiley Interscience, 1983. v EE 348 USC Spring Semester 2002 J. Choma, Jr. 6. COURSE SCHEDULE WEEK WEEK OF LECTURE TOPIC READINGS 1, 2 01/07/02 01/14/02 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS REVIEW Nodal and Loop Analysis Thévenin’s and Norton’s Theorems Basic Electronic System Concepts Steady State Sinusoidal Analysis LS 1 PowerPoint SN1 3 01/21/02 AMPLIFIER CONCEPTS Voltage (Operational) Amplifier Current Amplifier Transadmittance (Transconductance) Amplifier Transimpedance (Transresistance) Amplifier Chapter 9 PowerPoint SN1 4 01/28/02 RECTIFIERS AND SIMPLE POWER SUPPLIES Half Wave Rectifier Full Wave Rectifier Capacitive Filter Diode Transient Response Chapter 2 PowerPoint SN2 5 02/04/02 PN JUNCTION DIODE Qualitative Operating Description Time Domain Circuit Model Reverse and Forward Biases Depletion and Diffusion Capacitances 6 02/11/02 6, 7, 8 02/11/02 02/18/02 02/25/02 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT) Qualitative Operating Description Ebers–Moll Equations Small–Signal Model High Frequency Performance Metrics Biasing For Linear Operation Thermal Compensation Constant Current Sources Supply Independent Biasing Chapter 3 Chapter 4 8, 9 02/25/02 03/04/02 CANONIC ANALOG BJT CIRCUIT CELLS Diode-Connected Transistor Common Emitter Amplifier Common Base Amplifier Common Collector Amplifier Current Sources And Sinks Chapter 10 LS 3 MIDTERM EXAMINATION #1 (02/14/02) Chapter 1 Open Book 03/11/02 ***SPRING BREAK*** *NO CLASS* 10 03/18/02 MIDTERM EXAMINATION #2 (03/21/02) Open Book 10, 11 03/18/02 03/25/02 MOS FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) Qualitative Operating Description Schichman-Hodges Model Small–Signal Model Chapter 5 12, 13 04/01/02 04/08/02 CANONIC ANALOG MOS CIRCUIT CELLS Level Shift Unit Common Source Amplifier Two Port Representation Of Common Source Amp. Chapter 6 LS 4 vi EE 348 USC Spring Semester 2002 WEEK WEEK OF 12, 13 04/01/02 04/08/02 CANONIC ANALOG MOS CIRCUIT CELLS Common Gate Amplifier Common Drain Amplifier Common Drain Amplifier Operational Transconductor Chapter 6 LS 4 14, 15 04/15/02 04/22/02 DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUITS Static Analysis Half Circuit Dynamics Performance Metrics Differential Signal Inputs And Responses Common Mode Inputs and Responses Common Mode Rejection Ratio Constant Current Sinks Circuit Examples Chapter 11 LS 3 04/29/02 LECTURE TOPIC J. Choma, Jr. READINGS FINAL EXAMINATION (05/02/02–11:00 to 1:00) John Choma, Jr., Professor of Electrical Engineering 28 December 2001 cc. Prof. M. A. Gundersen (Department Chair) Mr. R. Marshall (Discussion Instructor) Mr. J. Roderick (Laboratory Coordinator & Instructor) EE 348–S02 File vii Open Book