Dr Rob David
16 Green Road
25 May 2005
Summary and Recommendations
For many reasons it would be desirable to develop a project based on
Cumbria’s connections to slavery and associated with the 2007 bi-centenary.
The top four slave ports in Britain (Liverpool, London, Bristol and Lancaster)
are already very involved in this aspect of their past, and are all developing
museum displays and educational projects connected to 2007. Whitehaven
was the fifth port and up until now the slavery heritage has been largely
ignored in the county. There is enormous expertise on which Cumbria can
draw, and a real desire from the other cities to support any initiative that
Cumbria develops. The title might be the same as the title of this report;
There are enough connections to the slave trade, plantations and black people
in Cumbria to make a project linked to abolition viable;
Connections to the National Curriculum and GCSE syllabi are not strong in
any particular subject. The issues of slavery are difficult at KS2 and a project
should probably focus on KS3. Citizenship may provide the best focus for a
cross-curricular project;
It would be sensible to link the Cumbrian experience to the history of the
slave trade more widely. Cumbria should use the proximity of Lancaster and
the resources of Liverpool in particular, given the connections between
Cumbrian slave traders and both ports.
There is coniderable expertise around the country with regard to teaching and
learning using the context of slave trading, and it would be sensible to make
use of it. Cumbria should become a member of the ‘Bi-centenary of the
abolition of the British trade in enslaved people’ organisation, and should be
part of the E-bulletin network (see p.32). Links should be established with all
the members of the Understanding Slavery initiative. In particular links
should be made with Hull Museums Education Service which is using its
slave heritage to tackle racism in Hull’s largely monoethnic urban community;
There are a variety of resources in Cumbria but they are geographically
dispersed. It is suggested that all holders of archives, pictures and artefacts
are asked to contribute to an electronic database either organised through
CLEO or in the form of a CDRom. This would help to ensure that no school
is disadvantaged by being distant from the resource collections;
Whitehaven is the obvious location to centre Cumbria’s project on slavery;
Recent developments in slave trade museum display and education are
concerned to promote the idea that slavery should not be regarded solely as an
historical event. New museum displays are being constructed to demonstrate
its legacy which reaches into the culture and communities of three continents
(Europe, Africa and America), and to show that slavery (and similar economic
systems) is still carried on in certain parts of the modern world. These
developments should be central to any project in Cumbria. Cumbria
Development Education Centre and Anti-Slavery International will support
such an approach.
Care should be taken not to over-emphasise the significance of the slave trade
for the port of Whitehaven. The trade in sugar, tobacco and coal were much
more important in the longer term.
This is the report of work commissioned by Andy Mortimer, Director of Creative
Partnerships. The brief was:
1. To provide a written account of:
 The history and impact of slavery on Cumbria and a short bibliography and
reading list for teachers
 Specific issues/legacies of slavery associated with Cumbrian ports
 The wider evidence of the impact of the slave trade across Cumbria
2. Explore and report on the resources contained in local museums and archives,
as a potential source of data and information for schools
3. Investigate other organisations and bodies outside Cumbria, and especially in
Liverpool and Bristol, that are planning events around the abolition of slavery
Produce a report and make any recommendations and appropriate
The report is divided into the following sections:
The abolition of the Slave Trade (1807) and the emancipation of the slaves
(1838) - definitions
The history of the Slave Trade and its abolition
The Slave Trade in Cumbria
Furness and the slave trade
Black people in Cumbria in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth
The slave trade and the plantations
Abolition of the Slave Trade and Slavery in Cumbria
Buildings and resource collections in Cumbria which relate to the slave trade and
the abolition of slavery
Connections to the National Curriculum and other syllabi
Educational resources
Resources of use for education in Cumbria
Slave trade and educational resources outside Cumbria
Academic bibliography and academic websites
Education bibliography and education websites
The abolition of the Slave Trade (1807) and the emancipation of the
slaves (1838) - definitions
The initial campaigns were for the abolition of the slave trade in Britain, and the
abolitionists were finally successful in 1807. However without adequate methods of
enforcement or penalties for transgressing, slave trading continued. It was the passing of
the Felony Act in 1811 which made slave trading punishable by 5 years imprisonment or
14 years transportation that succeeded in stopping it.
The act of abolishing the slave trade did not bring slavery to an end, even in British
spheres of influence. A movement for the abolition of slavery which would lead to the
emancipation of the slaves, developed in 1822 but it was not fully successful in its aims
until 1838. The 1834 British Act for Abolition of Slavery required all former slaves to be
apprenticed for a further four years. It was not until 1 August 1838 that all slaves in the
British Empire were finally free. The abolition of slavery in the British Empire did not
mean that slavery ceased to exist world wide. Other European countries and north
America followed suit, but slavery still exists in several parts of the world. Slave trading
and slavery is not therefore confined to the pages of history textbooks.
The history of the Slave Trade and its abolition
See RESOURCE FILE 1A for maps relating to slave trading.
What happened before 1807
The slave trade dated back to the sixteenth century, and though Britain did not initiate it,
British merchants developed the sophisticated structures that enabled its expansion.
Initially Britain supplied slaves for the Spanish and Portuguese colonists in America, but
with the establishment of British settlements in the Caribbean and N. America, British
slave traders increasingly supplied British colonies.
In the century up to 1810, 1.75 million slaves had been imported into British possessions
in the Americas. Cheap labour was central to the economic prosperity of the plantations
in a proto-industrial economy, and the British government encouraged the slave trade
through the provision of royal charters to trading companies and also through giving the
Royal Navy instructions to police the trade during the 18th century. The government and
its agencies were involved in the regulation and control of the trade in Africa, on the sea
and in the plantations. As the number of slaves outnumbered the settlers complex rules
and legal codes came into play to ensure control of the slave population by the
governments and settlers in the Caribbean and the Americas.
The slave trade began to be challenged by white and black abolitionists in Britain. The
leading white abolitionists included Granville Sharp (1735-1813), William Wilberforce
(1759-1833), Thomas Clarkson(1760-1846) and Henry Brougham (1778-1868). Black
abolitionists included Ottobah Cugoano and Olaudah Equiano. A number of movements
and political developments coalesced in the eighteenth century to cause the climate of
opinion regarding slavery to change. In the 1760s Granville Sharp led the abolitionist
movement in Britain. The ideas of the American War of Independence (concluded 1776)
raised questions about the compatibility of slavery in a political system that subscribed to
the notion that it was a ‘self evident truth’ that all men are created equal and are
endowed with ‘certain inalienable Rights’ notably ‘Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of
Happiness’. Religious groups such as the Evangelicals and the Quakers were at the
forefront of anti-slave trade campaigning, and others (such as Henry Brougham) were
against it on humanitarian grounds. Women were also involved campaigning in
particular against the enslavement of women and children. Some of the ideas of the
French revolutionaries were borrowed from the United States. Issues of slavery were
kept in the public eye through the activities of prominent blacks in Britain (such as
Ignatius Sancho, and Olaudah Equiano), writings of Tom Paine in The Rights of Man,
with the slave revolts in Jamaica in 1760 and Haiti in the 1790s, the failure of the Sierra
Leone scheme in the 1780s to repatriate slaves in Africa, and the founding of The Society
for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1787. The latter’s roots lay with
Quaker antipathy to slavery. During the 1770s and 1780s the Quakers in particular used
their networks to organise petitions to parliament both against the slave trade. Supporters
also organised petitions in favour. In 1788 there was Sir William Dolben’s Act regulated
the carrying of slaves on the Middle Passage, and in 1791 there was the evidence put to
the Select Committee of Parliament. Had the French Wars (1793-1815) not intervened,
the slave trade would probably have been abolished during the 1790s. However Britain’s
involvement with the war and the identification of the abolitionist movement with the
ideas of the French revolutionaries, caused the abolition to be delayed until 1807. Only
Denmark was head of Britain in terms of legislation to abolish the slave trade. Denmark
abolished it in 1804.
What happened in 1807 (An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade [25 March
British participation in the slave trade was abolished by act of the British Parliament on
25 March 1807. However enforcement was not easy and in 1811 Henry Brougham
organised the passing of the Felony Act which made trading punishable by five years
imprisonment or fourteen years transportation. The Royal Navy positioned ships along
the West African coast and off East Africa and in the Caribbean to enforce the ban. Slave
ships continued to be intercepted into the 1880s. It is estimated that 600000 slaves were
still at work in the West Indies. The United States abolished the slave trade in the same
What happened after 1807
Other countries followed suit – Sweden (1813), the Netherlands (1814), France (1817),
Portugal (1819) and Spain (1820).
The abolitionists rather assumed that with the abolition of the slave trade, slavery would
wither away – plantation owners would need to look after their slaves to keep their
workforce going and over time slaves would acquire rights and freedoms. The realisation
that there needed to be a further movement for the abolition of slavery only became
apparent from 1822. Henry Brougham was central to this movement. Abolitionists
promoted the idea of an alternative trading system with Africa – in an era of open free
trade Africa could both be a source for raw materials for British industry and a market for
British goods. There was no need for a trade in slaves.
After 1807 slaves continued to be transported across the Atlantic particularly to the
booming economies of Brazil and Cuba. One of the Royal Navy’s main tasks was to
suppress the trade on the west and east African coasts. Between 1810 and 1867 it is
estimated that 2,737,900 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic.
The 1832 Reform Act resulted in a House of Commons more sympathetic to the antislavery movement. Discussions over emancipation focused on whether it should be
immediate or gradual and whether the plantation owners should be compensated. (there
was no mention of compensating the slaves!). Slaves were emancipated between 1833
and 1838 by acts of the British Parliament. In 1833 slavery was abolished throughout the
British Empire – an act which came into force in 1834. All those enslaved and over 6
years of age were transferred to the status of ‘indentured labourer’ prior to full
emancipation in 1838. Henry Brougham moved the resolution for the full emancipation
of slavery in parliament. When slavery ended in 1838 0.75 million+ slaves freed in
British colonies, and the plantation owners received £20million in compensation. After
1838, Britain, rather self-righteously, campaigned for the abolition elsewhere, despite
creating the indentured labour system which saw many thousands of Indians in particular
transported around the world to work as indentured labour for 7 years. From the 1840s
slavery began to be abolished in the colonies of other European countries. Slavery
continued in the southern states until after the American Civil War (1861-65) until 1865;
in Cuba until 1886 and Brazil 1888.
The slave trade is now sometimes referred to as the African Holocaust. Estimates of the
numbers involved varies. Shipping records suggest 12 million, but this may be an
underestimate and it may have been nearer 20 million. Afrocentric historians have
suggested that those affected may have numbered between 50 and 100 million.
The situation in the twenty first century
The legacy of slavery is the new focus. 2004 was designated UNESCO Year for
Commemoration of the Struggle Against Slavery and its Abolition. A current issue is the
question of reparations for families and countries caught up in the slave trade. A
conference will be held at Merseyside Maritime Museum from 12-18 October 2005 on
‘Liverpool and Transatlantic Slavery’.
In May 2004 slavery became illegal in Niger. In March 2005 a Tuareg slave owner in
Niger freed 7000 slaves as Islam was incompatible with slave owning (see The Guardian,
The Slave Trade in Cumbria
Whitehaven was the only Cumbrian port that had any direct connection to the slave trade,
and that was only for a relatively few years during the eighteenth century. Maryport was
only founded in 1749 by the Senhouse family – mid way through the slave trading era at
Whitehaven – and was not involved in slave trading though some Senhouse owned ships
did sail from the port to their New World plantations. Workington port was connected to
the Curwen family and was not involved in the slave trade or American trade at all – in
fact in the mid eighteenth century it was in decline. Barrow was a mid to late nineteenth
century creation and therefore post dates the slave trade. Cumbrian traders and mariners
were connected to the slave trade through involvement at other ports – in particular
Lancaster and Liverpool; and merchants who traded with the West Indies and the
Americas were probably trading commodities that had used slave labour (such as sugar,
tobacco and rum). Some products manufactured in Cumbria were exported to Africa as
part of the Triangular Trade. In addition some Cumbrian landowners owned slaves
through their ownership of plantations in the Caribbean. A surprising number of black
people lived in Cumbria in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and some of
these may have arrived in Britain through connections with the slave trade.
The Slave Trade and Whitehaven
M. Elder, The Slave Trade and the Economic Development of Lancaster, Halifax, Ryburn
Publishing, 1992.
E. Hughes, North Country Life in the Eighteenth Century: volume II Cumberland and
Westmorland, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1965.
D. Richardson and M.M. Schofield, ‘Whitehaven and the eighteenth-century British slave
trade’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and
Archaeological Society, vol.92, (1992) 183-204.
A.N. Rigg, Cumbria, Slavery and the Textile Industrial Revolution (privately published),
Royal Commission for Historical Monuments in England, Whitehaven 1660-1800,
London, HMSO, 1991.
N. Tattersfield, The Forgotten Trade, London, 1991.
The slave trading era
Whitehaven’s prosperity 1688 - c1750 was based on importing tobacco for re-export
(1639193lbs in 1712; in 1721 there were 24 vessels listed as sailing to Virginia for
tobacco), and exporting textiles, shoes, clothing, horse equipment and iron goods to
Virginia and the West Indies, and coal more locally. Sir John Lowther was instrumental
in attracting maritime expertise into Whitehaven (and in improving the port). Isaac
Milner, a native of Whitehaven, but a resident of London, was encouraged by Lowther to
persuade Whitehaven merchants to become involved in the Africa trade. Merchants like
the Lutwidges, Hows, Flemings and Speddings were involved not only in the transAtlantic trade but also in a trade between the West Indies and the coast of America. The
slave trade should probably be seen as an attempt at economic diversification capitalising
on existing contacts with the Americas, when the tobacco trade declined. During the
1730s and 1740s Whitehaven’s tobacco trade was very successful – second only to
London. The slave trade seems to have functioned prior to 1720 and again after 1750
when Glasgow dominated the tobacco trade.
The Whitehaven slave trade lasted from 1710-1769 during which 69 slave voyages were
fitted out (between 1-2% of total voyages made by British slave ships):
1710-1721 – 8 ships
1722-1749 – no ships (but according to M. Elder, Walter Lutwidge sent his tobacco ships
on 3 slaving ventures to Angola (1733-9) – but these were isolated ventures).
1750-1759 – 18 ships
1760-1769 – 43 ships (busiest year 1763 with 9 ships)
By way of comparison:
1750 – 1769: 1250 ships from Liverpool; 500 ships from London; 470 ships from Bristol;
86 from Lancaster (1757-76).
Traders and investors
Between 1710-1721 Thomas Lutwidge Sr fitted out 5/8 ships. (His nephew Walter
Lutwidge was also involved). He was initially involved in the wine trade and later in
tobacco and sugar trade, so slave trading was an extension of his American interests. His
first slave venture The Swift, failed because the 95 slaves on board were taken by a
French privateer. ( N. Tattersfield, The Forgotten Trade, p326-349 describes in detail the
various Lutwidge voyages in the 1720s). His letter books (1739-49) which are available
at Whitehaven RO (YDX79) include references to his interests in the trade. In 1749 he
was in correspondence with John Hardman of Liverpool about using some of his ships
which were lying idle at Liverpool for slaving in Guinea. Another document lists the
cargo in his ships destined for Angola. – mainly fabrics and guns See RESOURCE
FILE 1C for a copy of this list from Hughes, North Country Life.. (These are also
displayed on the Whitehaven RO boards).
Thomas Rumball fitted out one out of the eight ships and was Master on five of the ships.
1750-1769 investment in slave trade was dominated by a small number of the
commercial elite of Whitehaven along with old Ships Masters. Ships had multiple
owners: eg. The Venus of Whitehaven in 1763 had 12 co-owners. The owners were
generally local to Whitehaven.
The trading system
See RESOURCE FILE 1D for general statistics about the trade
Slave trading was a risky venture – everything needed to be in place for the three legs of
the voyage (with maximum cargoes on each leg). The whole voyage often lasted over
one year. The success of the voyage was very dependent upon the skills of the Sailing
Master who was crucial both in relation to safe sailing and as negotiator over the
purchase of cargoes.
At Whitehaven 7 Sailing Masters were responsible for
commanding 60% of the voyages 1750-69. When everything worked it was highly
profitable, but often it did not work out.
Initially Whitehaven traders, sailors and fitters were ‘strangers’ to the skills necessary
due to inexperience. Other disadvantages included: the town was distant from the supply
of many of the goods destined for sale in West Africa.; the lack of returning ships made it
difficult for Whitehaven traders to keep up to date with developments in Africa and the
Americas; the lack of sugar refining opportunities in Whitehaven was a disadvantage to
slave traders as sugar was vital for the Americas-Whitehaven leg. (It is interesting that in
the 1760s the shopkeeper Abraham Dent at Kirkby Stephen purchased all his sugar from
Lancaster, not Whitehaven). Because of the difficulties in acquiring cargoes for the first
and third legs, the importance of the Middle Passage for profit was essential.
The cargoes on the Whitehaven Triangular Trade
Whitehaven - Africa
Cotton (East Indies)
Bar iron (Sweden)
Beads (Italy)
Linen (Germany)
Textiles (Britain - possibly
Kendal (Kendal cottons))
Brass/copper wares (Britain possibly Furness)
Iron ware (Britain - possibly
Furness where the introduction of
blast furnaces in 1711 increased
The Backbarrow
Iron Company made ‘Guinea
kettles’ in 1744)
Gunpowder (Britain - possibly
Kendal/Elterwater/Low Wood*)
Glass (Britain)
Spirits (Britain
Beans-to feed the slaves on
the Middle Passage (Britain
The Middle Passage
Slave ships collected slaves
from (1750-1769):
Senegal – 1
Windward Coast – 7
Gold Coast – 6
Bight of Benin – 5
Guinea – 8
(Rest from ‘Africa’ and 4
ships seized by enemy
Americas - Whitehaven
The ability to fill the ships
for the return leg was very
varied. Cargoes included:
wood (mahogany),
Slave ships discharged at
Barbados – 16
Jamaica – 23
St Kitts – 2
Guadeloupe – 2
Antigua – 1
Cuba – 1
S. Carolina – 1
Virginia - 1
possibly Walney Island)
*Pre 1807 Low Wood (Nr Haverthwaite) gunpowder was used in slave trade and was
known as ‘Africa’ powder. After abolition in 1807 the company had to refocus on
blasting powder (Lancashire Record Office: DDLO)
Whitehaven ships
*Star exhibit at the Beacon Museum, Whitehaven*: The Beilby Goblet at the Beacon
Museum was designed and made by William Beilby in 1763. It is decorated with coat of
arms of George III and a painting of a sailing ship with ‘Success to the African trade of
Whitehaven’. The goblet was made to commemorate the launch of the ship King George
in 1763. There is also a ceramic bowl commemorating the Whitehaven ship ‘Love’
which was involved in th tobacco trade. See RESOURCE FILE 1E for photographs
and information about this goblet and bowl. There is also a model of the ship on
As in the rest of Britain, Whitehaven ships became bigger:
1710s average 65 tons
1760s average 110 tons
Betsy Jane sank in 18th century apparently with gold made in the slave trade. The ship’s
ghost is seen on the approach to Whitehaven harbour around Christmas.
Size of slave cargoes
The figures represent discharges in the Americas. They do not show how many slaves
died on the voyage.
1710-21: mean 100 slaves/ship
1750-59: mean 126 slaves/ship
1760-69: mean 200 slaves/ship
The largest cargo was the ‘Venus’ in 1764 with 340 slaves sold at Barbados.
The ‘Happy’ embarked 326 slaves in the Bight of Benin, 57 died (17.5%) on the Middle
Passage (13 weeks voyage), and 269 were disembarked at St Kitts.
Length of voyages from Whitehaven - Whitehaven
1710-21 average 14 months (range from 10 – 16 months)
1750-69 average 16 months (range from 11 – 24 months)
By way of comparison: Bristol
1723-26 average 12.2 months
1763-67 average 14.5 months
Productivity improved between the earlier and later phases. Whitehaven ships performed
as well as rivals except in Middle Passage where loading rates were higher in both
Liverpool and Bristol (but not in London). The difficulty for Whitehaven ships was that
with fewer voyages they received less information about conditions in W. Africa.
Knowing where slaves were located for embarkation was vital, and it varied from year to
year depending on conditions in Africa and the availability of slaves gathered by African
The accounts (1757-84) of William Davenport, a Liverpool trader are amongst the most
complete. They reveal that his profits from 74 voyages were 8% per annum (65% made a
profit, 35% made a loss) which was about average. They also show that profit margins
fluctuated wildly from year to year.
Why did the slave trade at Whitehaven end in 1769?
Difficult to say except that it became more difficult for Whitehaven merchants to make it
pay as compared with their rivals. Its failure and the continuing difficulties with tobacco
prompted Whitehaven merchants to abandon the Atlantic trade in favour of coastal
Houses, warehouses and offices of Whitehaven merchants
The historic core of Whitehaven is largely an eighteenth century development, and much
of it has survived. Therefore any walk around the town centre gives an idea of the style
and type of houses that the eighteenth century merchants would have lived in. (The
poorer housing used by the mariners has not survived as well). The RCHM volume,
Whitehaven 1660-1800, contains both plans and pictures of the town from the eighteenth
century. It is not easy to link the merchants involved with the slave trade to specific
houses, but a merchant’s house that is well documented is described in some detail. It is
the house and warehouse owned by the Gale family at 151/2 Queen St. Details can be
found on p.93, 94, 128-9. Parts of other merchant house survive in Queen St and
Lowther St – such as those belonging to the Speddings and the Lutwidges, and the book
provides details of them.
Material in the National Archives in London relating to Whitehaven and the slave
The records are kept in enormous volumes which it is impossible to photocopy (although
they could be digitally photographed). Exact copies of some of the more interesting
entries follow along with the reference numbers of the documents. Some of this data can
also be found in N. Tattersfield, The Forgotten Trade, London, 1991, p377-379. See for
photocopy in RESOURCE FILE 1F.
CO33/15 ff9-12
A list of Such Vessells that have imported Negroes to the Island of Barbados with the
Number of negroes reported by each vessell to the Naval Office of the Said Island, with
an account to what Port each vessell from 25 March 1708 to the 25 March 1726.
Vessells names
Of what place
June 6
Brigantine Swift
Ship Thomas*
Ship Susannah
Nathaniel 80
in such
Total number
imported into
during the year
See table below for the information recorded for the clearance of this ship from
July 29
CO142/14/60 and CO142/15
Ships entering the port of Kingston in Jamaica
Ships clearing the port of Kingston in Jamaica:
Ships entering the port of Kingston in Jamaica:
Ships and
Where and
Sept 1751
Ships clearing the port of Kingston in Jamaica:
Ships and
Where and
To where
Sept 1751
CO157/1 ff75-84
Antigua. A List of all Ships and Vessells that have Entred at the Navall Office in His
Majesty’s Island of Antigua from 25 June 1719 to 25 September 1719:
Name of
Of what
built and
June 30,
106 Negro
Not every Whitehaven ship that sailed to Antigua had slaves on board. For example in
August 1719 Peace (70 tons) had sailed from Dublin with beef, corks and candles. Also
in 1719 the Susannah (40 tons) with George Gibson as Master sailed from Whitehaven
and Dublin to Antigua with butter , candles and rope (See CO33/15 ff9-12 for
information on the same ship).
CO388/13 L87
An account of ships sent from Great Britain to Africa by the Separate Traders with
numbers of Negroes and amount of woollen goods:
1709-10 Whitehaven – one, the name not yet sent
(This means the compiler of the list had been told that one ship had left Whitehaven for
the triangular trade, but he had not been told its name).
An account of the Number of ships and their Tonnage that Cleared Out from Great
Britain to the Coast of Africa from the year 1734 to the year 1754:
From Whitehaven:
1750 1 ship of 100 tons total
1751 2 ships of 200 tons total
1752 2 ships of 120 tons total
1754 3 ships of 170 tons total
Other ports that were recorded as having ships sailing to Africa were:
London, Bristol, Liverpool, Lancaster. Portsmouth, Plymouth, Cowes, Poole, Preston,
Poulton, Chester, Shoreham, Dover, Lynn.
Not all Whitehaven ships trading with Caribbean islands were involved with the slave
Ships entering the port of Kingston in Jamaica
built and
From what
and Dublin
18 May
1 June
Furness and the slave trade
Source: information mostly from M. Elder, The Slave Trade and the Economic
Development of Lancaster, Halifax, 1992.
A number of Lancaster slave ship captains came from Furness:
Captain’s name
Place of origin
Date &age at first
African Command
John Addison
1763/24 years
Samuel Bainbridge
1755/c23 years
Robert Dodson
Stony Cragg (Nr Yeoman
1753/24 years
Richard Millerson* Ulverston
1752/22 years
James Sawrey
1771/26 years
Samuel Simondson Urswick
1771/26 years
John Tallon
1755/28 years
Henry Tindall
Thomas Woodburne Ulverston
*Richard Millerson skippered and owned a large number of Lancaster slave ships. His
ship Cato arrived in Barbados with 560 slaves in 1761. His older brother Thomas
(baptised Ulverston 28/7/1728) had shares in two of them. Thomas spent many years in
Barbados up to his death in 1768. Richard’s ships had sold in Barbados which suggests
that Thomas may have acted as his agent for the African cargoes. When Thomas died he
left his personal slave, Stephen, to his Barbadian wife.
Lancaster slave ship captain’s turned investors (Furness born)
No. of voyages
as captain
No of years as
Total no. of
(age at death)
6 or 7
6 or 7
American War of
American War of
5 or 6
(Richard Millerson and Robert Dodson owned at least 6 slaving vessels together between
1763-71. They were both younger sons and had to make their own way in the world.
John Addison was related to Dodson and served as their captain during these years.
Addison later went into partnership with James Sawrey and were partners in 4 slaving
vessels. One of these was the Molly III which brought 205 blacks to Grenada in Dec
1787. Sawrey had skippered ships for another ex-African captain Thomas Woodburn of
Hawkshead. These Furness men had significant influence in Lancaster’s slave trade.)
Joseph Fayrer of Milnthorpe was part owner of the slave vessel Golden Age between
Jonathan Lindall, a mariner from Ulverston was lost on the Guinea Coast in 1757.
Eleanor Kilburn’s husband was ‘kill’d on board the Mary at Gambia by the Negro’s’ in
1761. (Eleanor came from Ulverston)
William Spencer Barrow (aged 23) died on the coast of Guinea in 1793 (a stone
commemorates him inside Cartmel Priory).
1753 Bryan Christopherson of Penny Bridge contracted James Danson of Hawcoat,
Master of the Brig Endeavour (80 tons) to take cargo from ‘Amerside hill near
Ulverstone’ to Liverpool and thence to N Carolina. Apparently the boat was so
undermanned at Roanoke port that Christopherson’s local factor had to organise and pay
to put the cargo on board, except for 2000 slaves (an error presumably for 200).
(TCWAAS 1960, p125)
Ulverston men also became Liverpool slavers:
Moses Benson (1738-1806), son of an Ulverston salt dealer. Resident in Jamaica for a
Joseph Threlfall, slave-ship captain from Furness. A booklet about his career is in
Barrow RO (BX 413)
John Bolton (1756-1837), son of an Ulverston apothecary. Apprenticed to a Liverpool
firm; arrived St Vincent 1773, and St Lucia 1778. Had a West Indian family whom he
abandoned in 1780s when he returned to England. When back in England he married
Elizabeth Littledale daughter of Henry Littledale of Whitehaven. The following Bolton
ships sailed on slaving voyages in 1798:
King George
S. Hensley
E. Mosson
J. Watson
W. Neale
J. Boardman
E. Neale
Gold Coast
John Bolton
John Bolton
John Bolton
John Bolton
John Bolton
John Bolton
of Date
20 Mar
20 Mar
30 July
8 Sept
12 Nov
12 Nov
He acquired Storrs Hall, Windermere in 1806 and extended the building and the estate to
3000 acres. He had acquired such wealth from his trading business that he employed a
butler, 2 footmen, a housekeeper, a cook, a kitchenmaid, 3 housemaids, farm bailiff, 9
gardeners, coachmen, 2 grooms. Died 1837 and is buried at St Martin’s parish church,
James Penny (1741-99)
Born at Egton-cum-Newland in Furness.
In 1764 master of 200 tons ship Jupiter to transport 250 slaves from Sierra Leone to
In 1765 another similar voayage
In 1768 master of 120 tons Cavendish from Sierra Leone to Jamaica
1769-70 appointed a factor in West Africa – ob the Windward coast and in Bonny
In 1770 master of Cavendish
1772-76 four voyages as master of Wilbraham from Bonny to America
In 1777 master of Nicholson from Bonny to America and of Carolina from Angola to St
In 1783 master of Count du Nord from Liverpool – Angola – S. Carolina
Further information on the voyages from 1775-86:
Wilbraham 1775/1776 – purchased 531 Negroes, 27 died (5%). 40 seamen, 6 died, 1
Wilbraham 1776/1777 – purchased 539 Negroes, 24 died (4.5%). 38 seamen, 4 died
Nicholson 1777-1778 – purchased 560 Negroes, 31 died (5.5%). 48 Seamen, 3 died
Carolina 1781/1782 – purchased 571 Negroes, 26 died (4.5%). 45 Seamen, 1 drowned
Madame Pookata 1785 – Purchased 209 Negros, 1 died (0.5%). 20 seamen, 3 died
Madame Pookata 1786 – purchased 166 Negroes, 1 died (0.6%). 20 Seamen, 2 died
Penny then became an investor and part owner of slave ships. For one voyage Penny
bought the following to take from Liverpool to W. Africa:
40000 beads
4 kegs peas
2 barrels barley
2 barrels bread
110 leg irons
4 deck chains
43 empty butts
14 cwts beans
4000lbs beans
1380 lbs barley
50lbs iron collars and chains
See RESOURCE FILE 1G for information about James Penny and his participation
in the anti-abolition movement in Liverpool.
[William and John Watson: came from Crosby Ravensworth where their grandfather
was vicar. They were key figures in financing and organising the Lancaster slave trade
(See Elder p144-7).
Christopher Hasell (1739-73), not a Furness man, but a younger son of the Hasells of
Dalemain, near Penrith, was a significant slave trader in Liverpool.
Black people in Cumbria in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth
For an extensive (but not exhaustive) list see Rigg, p57-61 in RESOURCE FILE 1H.
A short article reviewing the position is also in RESOURCE FILE 1H.
Black people came here as servants, sometimes accompanying families who had been
working in the West Indies, the southern states of America or India. Were they slaves?
They could not be as slavery did not exist in Britain, but did that mean that they were
free? Their exact status is unclear - it was not tested.
Little information exists about these people beyond being recorded in parish registers.
Many parish registers contain incidental examples, although it is not always easy to
recognise black people as the registers did not always record them as such.
St Mary’s Carlisle, 6 March 1687, ‘Charles, a blackamoor’ (may indicate N African or
Indian origin). NB There is a Blackamoor pub in Wigton.
Westward, 6 Oct 1771, Richard, Indian or black servant of Henry Fletcher MP (of Clea
Thursby 24 Oct 1772, Prince Crofton, a negro servant at Crofton Hall (home of the
Brisco family). He was buried on 15 May 1781 at Thursby
Carlisle St. Mary, 5 April 1787, Robert Carlisle, a black servant of Robert Collins Esq of
Carlisle, adult.
Whitehaven, St Nicholas Church: Between 1700 and 1796, 47 black people (8 were
female) were baptised, many as adults. Some are referred to as being servants of named
local people. (this list is displayed on the Whitehaven RO boards and can be seen in
Moresby: Leonard Jackson, a Blackman married Bella Johnston in 1803. He was
described as ‘Aged thirty years, A Negro Man settled at Workington, born at Savannah,
Georgia….an iron Dresser’.
James Anthony, servant of the Giles family of Scotch Street, Carlisle, 19 Jan 1844. (Lost
tombstone, St Mary’s, Carlisle) See photocopied information sheet in folder
Cockermouth, All Saints: Jan 1773, Robinson Crusoe, a black, aged 22.
The family of Cato Robinson
It is difficult to trace the history of a black family. One from Whitehaven has been traced
with some success:
Cato was baptised in Whitehaven in Jan 1773 as an adult. He was in the employ of Mr
John Hartley. By the time of his marriage to Mary Sharp in St James’s Church,
Whitehaven in 1778, he had become a brewer. His children, Mary and Joseph were
baptised in Whitehaven in 1779 and 1781 respectively. Cato died thirteen years after the
birth of his son. He was buried as a ‘Negro pauper’ in Workington in 1794. (this
information is displayed on the Whitehaven RO boards)
The slave trade and the plantations
E. Hughes, North Country Life in the Eighteenth Century Vol. 2, Oxford University Press,
1965 (especially chapter 10)
A.N. Rigg, Cumbria, Slavery and the Textile Industrial Revolution (privately published),
There is a substantial collection of documents relating to Cumbrian gentry who owned
West Indian plantations. These are mostly at Carlisle Record Office. The best
documents have been copied and form part of the Black History in Cumbria display
created by the Record Office. This exists in dismantled form at Carlisle (ask for Black
History exhibition box compiled by Susan Dench) and in display format at Whitehaven.
The following material is taken from the display and provides a good idea of what is
available. RESOURCE FILE 1J contains photocopies of some of the panels from the
display. RESOURCE FILE 1K incorporates some of the correspondence associated
with the Senhouse plantations
Robert Lowther of Maulds Meaburn (1681-1745); married Joan Carleton (widow of
Robert Carleton of Penrith) and by this marriage acquired a sugar plantation at
Christchurch (the Carleton Plantation – later renamed Lowther Hall) in Barbados.
See also Rigg p38-45. See photocopied family information sheet in folder
D/Lons/L Box 1031/9
A fantastic inventory of ‘Negroes, Cattle, Horses on the Estate (Christchurch Plantation)
of Sir James Lowther Bart in Barbados, 31 December 1766’. This is part of an account
book which also covers 1765 and is beautifully written and very useable. It would be
possible to compare the slave lists of 1765 and 66 to establish wastage etc. (The years
1765 and 66 are photocopied in the ‘Slave Trade’ folder at Whitehaven RO).
D/Lons/L Box 1032
12 July 1715: an order for a census of the white inhabitants
20 August 1715: an order to a sea captain to cruise amongst the Leeward Is to spot
D/Lons/L box 1031: an account of sugar produced on the Christchurch plantation 170531.
D/Lons/L: plan of the Carleton Plantation, Christchurch, Barbados (later renamed
Lowther Hall), 1701.
William (1741-1800) and Joseph (1743-1829)Senhouse of Netherhall: as younger sons
of Humphrey Senhouse II, the founder of Maryport, they had to make their own way in
the world (Their older brother Humphrey III inherited Netherhall). See photocopied
family information sheet in folder. William Senhouse’s correspondence about his life as
Surveyor General in Barbados with his brother Joseph and his mother has been printed in
Hughes p334-54. So many Cumbrians found employment through the Senouses and the
Lowthers that William Senhouse referred to this ‘little Cumberland in the West Indies’.
D/Senbox 194B: Sir Joseph Senhouse’s plantation named after his benefactor Sir James
Lowther and known as Lowther Hall Plantation, Dominica: ledger 1772. Expenditure
including ‘6 Negroe jackets’, making Negroe clothing’, ‘Lowell, Morson and Co. for 9
Negroes @£62 14s 0d = £564 6s 0d’.
D/Sen box 194B: Joseph Senhouse wrote his ‘Memoirs’ an account of his experiences in
the West Indies, including an account of the plantation of Colonel James Bruce (Castle
Bruce Plantation on Dominica), p10 (a good description of what a plantation consisted
of) - photocopied.
D/Sen Box 220: William Senhouse wrote ‘Recollections’ of his time in Barbados
including a detailed account of some of the difficulties of running a sugar plantation –
weather and insects predominate.
Plan of the Lowther Hall plantation
William Hudleston (1736-66) (Hutton John nr. Penrith), a younger son who had to
make a career for himself. He was apprenticed to John Younger, a Merchant of
Whitehaven, for 4 years, the last 2 on one of Younger’s American plantations.
D/Hud8/81: this is William Huddleston’s indenture. There are also two letters from
William to his father Andrew commenting on the high price of tobacco and the inclement
weather causing deaths.
Thomas Milbourne
Ca7/32: 2 documents recording the purchase, in Jamaica, of Negro slaves by Thomas
Milbourne – a woman and child for £140 and a man for £35. Milbourne has no particular
connection with Cumbria – the documents happen to have survived in Cumbria.
William Crosier (1738-80) (Dalston): a younger son. Started in Antigua and about
1775 moved to Tobago where he died of fever. See photocopied family information sheet
in folder
D/Ing185: A superb painting by George Heriot of a plantation (Orange Valley Estate,
Tobago, 1780)
John Forrester and Edward Forrester (Bewcastle) younger sons of Edward Forrester,
both of whom died prematurely in Grenada . See photocopied family information sheet in
folder: based on tombstone at Bewcastle Church.
Robert and Henry Jefferson, wine and spirit merchants of Lowther St, Whitehaven.
An example of Whitehaven merchants owning plantations in the West Indies and using
slave labour, and trading in the West Indies in commodities where slave labour had been
used, but not being directly involved in the slave trade is provided by the Jefferson’s.
(The Rum Story is situated in this company’s warehouse in Lowther St., Whitehaven).
(Much of the Jefferson story with copies of associated documents is displayed on the
Carlisle and Whitehaven ‘Black History’ boards)
They owned 2 ships in the second decade of the 19th century. The Thetis (161 tons) and
Doris (133 tons) – both built in Whitehaven. They later purchased a number of other
ships, some locally built. Rum, sugar and molasses were brought back from the West
Indies. Much of the sugar and rum came from the Yeaman estate in Antigua which was
owned by the Jeffersons. The round trip from Whitehaven to the West Indies took 5-6
months, so two trips could be made in a year. They bought York Plantation in Antigua in
1832. The conveyance includes the transfer of slaves (including children) (Whitehaven
RO: YDB 18/66/1). There are also other references to slaves amongst the Jefferson
papers. (YDB 18/66/1: an Indenture of 1836, p15, (list of possession including slaves); A
Conveyance of 1842, p6 mentions compensation in relation to Act of Abolition of
Slavery); (YDB 18/66/2) Abstract of title 1836, p12 mentions slaves being emancipated;
(YDB 18/66/21) Antiguan newspapers 1840s+.
The following information exists about one voyage of the Thetis.
Left Montego Bay, Jamaica, 10th October 1828, arrived Whitehaven 11th December – 62
days; distance by log 5917 miles. Crew: Captain, mate, carpenter, cook, 3 seamen and 2
boys. Cargo:
rum 20 hogsheads, 45 puncheons, 31 tierces;
sugar 12 hogsheads, 1 barrel, 86 tierces;
limejuice 21 hogsheads, 4 pipes, 1 puncheon;
coffee 35 barrels, 20 tierces;
pimento 65 bags;
molasses 7 puncheons;
ginger 10 barrels;
fustic 14 tons;
timber 65 logs of mahogany, 1 log of cedar and 22 spars of lancewood.
[Jamaica in 1779. An interesting printed description of Jamaica including information on
its economy, the wealthy and the slaves ‘the misery and hardship of the negroes is truly
moving…’ (The Cumberland Magazine, Jan 1779 p.32-34 ( in ‘Slave Trade’ folder,
Whitehaven RO)].
Other plantation owners with Cumbrian origins who owned slaves included:
John Greenhow from Stainton, near Kendal (Rigg, p47)
William Nelson, eldest son of Hugh and Sarah Nelson of Penrith and Thomas Nelson,
son of William (Rigg, p48-51).
Industries in Cumbria connected to the slave trade
See in particular Rigg, A. N., Cumbria, Slavery and the Textile Industrial Revolution,
There is no direct evidence of Cumbrian firms (except shipping companies) being
directly involved in the slave trade. However some Cumbrian industries were dependent
upon raw materials from the West Indies and Americas which used slaves in all or part of
the labour force. It is also likely that some Cumbrian industries provided some of the
manufactured products that were taken to West Africa to be sold for slaves.
Spinning and weaving of cotton took place in Carlisle, Brough, Kirkby Stephen. Penny
Bridge, Cark, Backbarrow and Ulverston after 1774, which was after the last slave
voyage from Whitehaven. Although early cotton came via the East India Company from
India, American cotton was imported at a time when slaves were still working on the
plantations of the southern United States. Shaddon Mill in Carlisle received bales of raw
cotton from the US, but the disruption in supplies during the American Civil War and the
demand by freed slaves after the war for different styles of clothing which they could not
supply, bankrupted the mill. (NB Kendal ‘cottons’ were poor quality wool not cotton).
West Indies plantations produced sugar from the 17th century, and some Cumbrians
owned plantations where sugar was grown. Some sugar was refined on the west coast of
Cumbria, but the lack of a significant refining industry was one of the factors hindering
Whitehaven’s growth as a slave port. Anyone buying and consuming sugar in the 18 th
century and early nineteenth century was probably buying slave sugar.
Whitehaven was a major port for the importation of tobacco up to the 1760s.
Tobacconists can be found in many Cumbrian towns in the 18th and early 19th century –
Longtown, Workington, Maryport, Ulverston, Kendal. This tobacco will have come from
Virginia and other southern states and much will have been slave produced. The Kendal
snuff industry is a survival of Cumbria’s involvement with tobacco.
Products exported to West Africa
There is some evidence that iron from Backbarrow, cloth form Kendal and ‘peas’ from
Furness were purchased by Whitehaven traders for sale in West Africa
See RESOURCE FILE 1L for further information
Abolition of the Slave Trade and Slavery in Cumbria
The Quaker connection
As elsewhere the Cumberland Quakers were in the forefront of the anti slavery
movement, though as a folder of records at Carlisle Record Office show, some Quakers
had to be periodically reminded to stay away from slavery.
Records of the Carlisle Monthly Meeting (Carlisle Record Office: DFCF/2):
1727 slavery censured by the Meeting (this is also displayed on the Carlisle/Whitehaven
RO boards)
1758, 1761 and 1763 warnings given not to unintentionally find oneself profiting from
this ‘unrighteous gain of oppression’. An exhortation to Quakers ‘to keep their hands
1772, 1774 self congratulatory statements indicating that Friends had been successful in
raising awareness against slavery in Britain and the American colonies
A Quaker pamphlet called ‘An Appeal to the Inhabitants of Europe on Slavery and the
Slave-Trade 1839 explained the position in several European countries on pages 8-10.
An undated doc ‘Slavery in the West Indies’ (between 1807 and 1838) – RESOURCE
13 March 1838, a newspaper report on an anti-slavery meeting at the Friends meeting
House in Whitehaven (Whitehaven RO ‘Slave trade’ folder)
William Wiberforce
William Wilberforce visited Greta Hall in 1818 at invitation of Southey and apparently
took ages to leave. Southey was initially irked by his chaotic family, but in time grew
fond of him – ‘there is such a constant hilarity in every look and motion, such a
sweetness in all his tones, such a benignity in all his thoughts, words and actions, that all
sense of his grotesque appearance is presently overcome, and you feel nothing but love
and admiration for a creature of so happy and blessed nature’ (letter Nov 1818 in Mark
Storey, ‘Robert Southey: A Life’, Oxford University Press, 1997, p.269.)
1824 Southey forwarded a petition to Wilberforce from Keswick ‘for the gradual
abolition of slavery’ (Storey, p.302) – see also Kendal for same year. (See also Bott,
Keswick, 1994, Ch 9).
Henry Brougham
Henry Brougham (1778-1868), the son of Henry and Eleanora was born in Edinburgh but
the family estates were based on Brougham Hall. He was a leading campaigner in the
anti slave trade and slave emancipation movements (see sheets on Henry Brougham in
RESOURCE FILE 1M). He became Lord Chancellor in 1830 when he was created
Baron Brougham and Vaux of Brougham, Westmorland. Brougham Hall was built
c1830-1840 and demolished in 1934 (except various out buildings which are still in use
and open as part of the craft centre). He also refurbished St Wilfred’s Chapel, Brougham
(adjacent to the hall and across the road). This was filled with furnishings acquired from
across Europe by Henry Brougham on his travels – a treasure house of the unexpected in
art and crafts. In 1829 Henry Brougham was described as ‘the most brilliant literary
ornament of Westmorland, and ranks as one of the ablest lawyers, and most patriotic,
indefatigable, and enlightened statesmen of the present age’ (Parson and White Directory
of Cumberland and Westmorland, 1829, p.52). There is not much evidence of his being
at Brougham Hall. He seems to have spent some months at an earlier version of the Hall
in 1791 before entering the University of Edinburgh. He is not recorded as residing at the
Hall in the 1851 census.
Henry Brougham also became a leader of the anti slavery circle, though he did not
approach it from any particular religious sense but from a humanitarian standpoint.
Wilberforce and Brougham knew each other from 1804, and by 1806 Brougham was
instrumental in anti-slave trade agitation.
Anti-slavery petitions
One of the best weapons the anti-slavery campaigners used was the sending of petitions
to parliament. The use of petitions was particularly popular during the movement for the
emancipation of slaves between 1807 and 1838, and the surviving examples from
Cumbria all date to that period.
Keswick: petition 1824 (see Wilberforce above)
Kendal Record Office: WD/CU/160
Various anti slavery posters from Kendal include:
1. Resolution of Kendal inhabitants to send a petition to Parliament ‘expressive of our
desire to annihilate the abominable traffic in slaves…..a traffic repugnant to every
Principle of Justice, Morality, Humanity and Charity, productive of unspeakable and
direful Calamities to the Continent of Africa, and attended at the same time with a
wonderful and immense Destruction of Mankind’ 6 July 1814.
2. Various other posters requesting the Mayor of Kendal to call meetings to petition
parliament to abolish slavery – dated Feb 18, 1824; Feb 10, 1826; Oct 8, 1830; and April
8, 1833.
3. A circular from the Committee of the Anti-Slavery Society in Kendal (22 Sept 1834)
urging interested organisations to petition parliament about its abolition.
Buildings and resource collections in Cumbria which relate to the slave
trade and the abolition of slavery.
One of the problems is that as Cumbria covers such a large area the resources are very
dispersed. Only Whitehaven has enough resources (and facilities) to make an educational
visit worthwhile. However there are good resources elsewhere, and it would be a pity if
they were not accessed. Digital photography and the use of CLEO or the creation of a
CDRom including some or all of this material would be an effective way of overcoming
these difficulties. This section lists the sites and resources linked to slavery in
alphabetical order of place. See RESOURCE FILE 2A for leaflets about some of these
Record Office
Contact: Aidan Jones: 01229 894377
Email: [email protected]
A small number of interesting records but some not connected to Cumbria. Z/177/1 is a
Deed of Sale of three negro slaves in Jamaica (an interesting document but no Cumbria
connection), and BDX 413, a booklet of the life of a Furness slave trade captain are the
most useful. An education room can be made available.
Brougham Hall (Nr. Penrith)
Henry Brougham (1778-1868), a leading campaigner in the anti slave trade and slave
emancipation movements, and the son of Henry and Eleanora was born in Edinburgh but
the family estates were based on Brougham Hall. Brougham Hall was built c1830-1840
and demolished in 1934 (except various out buildings which are still in use and open as
part of the craft centre). He also refurbished St Wilfred’s Chapel, Brougham (adjacent to
the hall and across the road). This was filled with furnishings acquired from across
Europe by Henry Brougham on his travels – a treasure house of the unexpected in art and
crafts. There is not much evidence of Henry Brougham being at Brougham Hall. He
seems to have spent some months at an earlier version in 1791 before entering the
University of Edinburgh. He is not recorded as residing at the Hall in the 1851 census.
The surviving buildings are now used as a craft cooperative.
Record Office
Contact: Susan Dench: 01228 607285
Email: [email protected]
Many of the most interesting records, particularly connected to plantation ownership are
kept at Carlisle RO. The office also has the dismantled ‘Black People in Cumbria’
display. Educational facilities are limited to a small room which can house an absolute
maximum of 15 pupils at a time.
Tullie House Museum
Contact: Matthew Constantine
The museum has very little connected to slavery. They have a Bible presented at the
laying of the foundation stone at Rickerby School in August 1834, and which records the
abolition of slavery that year. They also have some Roman shackles
Whernside Manor
300 years old. Extended by Sill family from Liverpool as an elegant country residence.
Family of slave traders, they kept 25 slaves to work the house and grounds.
Abbot Hall Art Gallery
Contact: Cherrie Trelogan
01539 722464
Two items connected with slavery have been identified at this museum. 1. there is a
painting by the local early nineteenth century artist, John Hardman, called Galley slaves.
There is also a ceramic jug of cream ware made by an unknown maker in Liverpool about
1818. See RESOURCE FILE 2B. Photograph copyright Abbot Hall
Kendal Record Office:
Contact: Margaret Owen: 01539 773540
Email:[email protected]
There are few documents, the most interesting being a series of anti-slavery petitions and
posters. The office is well provided with an education room.
Quaker Tapestry: Panel F3 is about the slave trade and on it is written ‘British Quakers
protest to parliament against the slave trade in 1783. ( The panel is illustrated. See RESOURCE FILE 2C.
Greta Hall
William Wilberforce visited Greta Hall in 1818 at invitation of the poet Robert Southey
and apparently took ages to go. Southey was initially irked by his chaotic family, but in
time grew fond of him – ‘there is such a constant hilarity in every look and motion, such
a sweetness in all his tones, such a benignity in all his thoughts, words and actions, that
all sense of his grotesque appearance is presently overcome, and you feel nothing but
love and admiration for a creature of so happy and blessed nature’ (letter Nov 1818 in
Mark Storey, ‘Robert Southey: A Life’, Oxford University Press, 1997, p.269.)
1824 Southey forwarded a petition to Wilberforce from Keswick ‘for the gradual
abolition of slavery’ (Storey, p.302) – see also Kendal for same year. (See also Bott,
Keswick, 1994, Ch 9).
The Rum Story
Tel: 01946 592933
There is a charge for school groups.
Contacts: Phil Hazelhurst – General Manager
Anne Stafford – Booking office
John Delap – Education Officer (part time)
The museum is located in the original premises of the eighteenth – twentieth century
Whitehaven merchants- the Jeffersons.
Educational experience:
They have an Education Officer (part time). They have visits from many schools (mostly
primary) across the north of England, though many visits are of the end of term
recreational type. They have a music education connection with Generator based at The
Sage and its Cumbrian offshoot, Cumbrio..
Educational facilities:
CD Rom (in RESOURCE BOX) provided for each school booking a group – otherwise
sold at £4.95
Education suite consisting of flexible space for up to 80 in lecture format or 35 around
tables. Full audio visual provision. Hanging space for art work. No water available.
Toilets nearby. Not accessible by lift – there are four steps between the lift and the suite.
An alternative space can be provided in the Vault Dining Room. This is in one of the
eighteenth century rum vaults (and you have to pass through an intact vault maintained in
its original form to get there). This is a very atmospheric room, with water available and
toilets nearby and accessible by lift. An odd shape (very long and thin) but set out with
tables and they are very willing to alter table layout to suit the group. I think this would
be a super space in which to be creative – better than the Education suite which is
The displays:
A mixture of original features and modern recreations. Originals include 1) the Jefferson
Office which has been left like a nineteenth century office. On the wall are portraits of
Robert Jefferson and his wife – she brought the Jeffersons the Yeamans Estate in
Antigua. There re other artefacts in the room that connect to this estate; 2) the rum vault.
Modern recreations include 1) aspects of plantation life and environment in Antigua; 2)
reconstructions o scenes in Africa; 3) a reconstruction of between decks on the Middle
Passage; 4) Life on the plantations; 5) scenes on Whitehaven quays; 6) more on rum (not
very useable). There are relatively few original artefacts except warehouse items left in
the efferson warehouses which form the basis of the museum – most of these displays
rely on reconstructions
NB. The museum is used for many functions and its facilities tend to be booked up
well ahead.
The education rooms are fine, especially the atmospheric vault. There are plenty of
displays to do with plantations and slavery, though they are rather of the theme
park/heritage centre type in the absence of many original artefacts. Issues of
interpretation abound (History KSU3). The Jeffersons connect well with material in the
Whitehaven RO.
See RESOURCE FILE 2D for a list of Jefferson papers at Whitehaven Record Office
Whitehaven, The Beacon Museum
Tel:01946 592302
There is a charge for school groups.
Sue Palmer (Manager)
Michelle Kelly will take over as collections curator in July 2005
The Beacon is a purpose built museum opened in 1997.
Educational experience:
Has targeted schools in Allerdale and Copeland. Mostly used by primary schools, but not
for slavery or related topics.
Educational facilities:
Has an Education suite with large teaching room with tables, water accessible, kitchen
and toilet adjacent. Full disabled access. They are also prepared to set up the Met Office
Gallery as an education space with tables etc. This is at the top of the tower and has a
magnificent view over the harbour (and the students can remain dry in bad weather).
However other facilities (water, toilets not available at that level). Disabled access. A
third space is the Harbour Gallery which doubles as an art gallery and performance space,
but also has a coffee bar in it.
The displays:
Not extensive because they have very little original material from the slaving era. The
prize exhibit is the Beilby Goblet (photographs and information in folder and other
references in report). Other items include a model of The King George, a Whitehaven
vessel of 1762-3 fitted out as a slave ship. There are also more Jefferson barrels and
related warehouse items.
The education spaces are fine and an asset (especially the tower room overlooking the
harbour). The slavery related displays are not extensive enough to warrant the admission
Whitehaven Record Office and Local Studies Library
Scotch St., Whitehaven, CA28 7BJ
Catherine Clark (archivist in Charge)
Robert Baxter (Senior archivist)
Tel: 01946 852920
Email: [email protected]
Educational experience:
Has built up a range of experience with primary and secondary schools.
Educational facilities:
The far end of the Record Office/Library can be made into a separate room big enough
(just)) for a class. Tables and electronic power points are available. Toilets nearby. Full
disabled access.
An 8 panel display on Black History already exists (and is intended for loan to schools).
This is best at KS3 and 4, but with some adapting by the teacher would be alright at KS2.
A variety of records connected with plantations, traders/merchants in Whitehaven,
shipping, black people in West Cumbria are available (see more details in the sections on
Whitehaven and Plantations).
A well organised location and a must as it is a chance for students to see examples of
original documents about slavery/plantations and work with photocopies. (The only
other place to see any substantial number of original records is Carlisle RO where the
education facilities are poor. Photocopies of Carlisle documents can be made available at
Whitehaven). The Record Office works best with The Rum Story as some of the records
connect to the Jefferson business.
Rayrigg Hall
Wilberforce lived there for a time.
Storrs Hall
John Bolton of Storrs Hall made a fortune based on the slave trade. Some of the slaves
found their way back to Storrs smuggled up Lake Windermere by boat, then by
underground tunnel which ran from the lake shore through the grounds of the hall to the
cellars. A slave girl is supposed to have put a curse on the house that it should never pass
from father to son, and it never has. (
Barrow Dock Museum, Maryport Maritime Museum and Workington’s Helena
Thompson Museum do not have material related to the slave trade or connected topics.
Connections to the National Curriculum and other syllabi
The National Curriculum – History
Opportunities for teaching slavery and associated topics
Key Stage 1
6c Pupils should be taught about the lives of significant men, women and children drawn
from the history of Britain and the wider world: eg William Wilberforce
Key Stage 2
7 Local history study: A study investigating how the locality was affected by a
significant national or local event, or development or by the work of a significant
individual: eg Whitehaven and the slave trade
Key Stage 3
10 Britain 1750 -1900: A study of how expansion of trade and colonisation,
industrialisation and political changes affected the United Kingdom, including the local
area: eg the abolition of the slave trade and of slavery in the British Empire, and the work
of reformers such as William Wilberforce and Ouladah Equiano. Possible local area
connections include Whitehaven and the slave trade, the plantation owners such as the
Lowther and Senhouse families, and abolitionists such as Henry Brougham..
GCSE syllabi
Opportunities at GCSE are very limited. All three GCSE boards offer similar syllabi.
Syllabus A (the Schools History Project syllabus) has a Study in Depth paper, and one of
the optional studies is ‘Britain 1815-51’. This period includes the anti-slavery movement
and the 1838 legislation, but the syllabus does not specifically refer to any of this, though
teachers may mention it in passing as an example of the reforms of that period.
Syllabus C is the Social and Economic History of Britain from the eighteenth century to
the beginning of the twentieth century, and therefore the dates cover the events leading
up to 1807 and those of 1838. However none of the Key Questions around which the
examination boards’ syllabi are constructed allows any significant development of the
slavery issue.
The National Curriculum – Citizenship
There is no direct place for the slave trade in the Citizenship National Curriculum.
However at both KS3 and KS4 pupils should be taught about topical political, spiritual,
moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events by analysing/critically evaluating
information and its sources; and pupils should be taught to use their imagination to
consider other people’s experiences and to be able to think about, express and explain
views that are not their own. The issues of slavery, particularly slavery in its modern
contexts, could be a subject for discussion to fulfil these parts of the curriculum.
The National Curriculum – Geography
Key Stage 2
The KS2 curriculum requires pupils to study a distant place. A choice of west Africa or
the Caribbean could allow some discussion of the legacy of the slave trade.
Key Stage 3 and GCSE syllabi
Some opportunities exist to teach about slavery under headings such as world trade.
GCSE and GCE Economics
Some opportunities exist to teach about slavery under world trade.
GCE General Studies
The slave trade could be considered as a theme relevant to a number of sections of this
Educational resources
Understanding Slavery Initiative
This project links the National Maritime Museum, National Museums Merseyside,
British Empire and Commonwealth Museum, Bristol City Museums, Hull Museums and
(to a lesser extent) Lancaster Museum. It is funded externally by Dept of Culture, Media
and Sport and DfES. It has produced a number of resources (including the Freedom Pack
– See RESOURCE BOX) and has commissioned a study of the teaching of slavery in
schools – findings below. This organisation is the repository of enormous expertise,
knowledge and contacts and should be accessed from the beginning.
A summary of the report written by Katherine Hann from British Empire and
Commonwealth Museum was published in GEM News No96, Spring 2005, p20-22.
In relation to pupils it found:
 Students know very little about the economic basis of slavery – they tended to see
it as a domestic system
 Students became interested because they felt a common cause with the oppressed
slaves – they identified with inequality
Students did not enjoy reading, writing, copying and worksheets but enjoyed
coherent activities involving role play, re-enactment, debates or evidence hunts
which led to clear learning outcomes
Student wanted to know the stories of people, rather than be bombarded with
Museum days proved good starting points as long as they were embedded in
narratives that were related to people
In relation to teachers it found:
 Teachers were cautious over issues of race and identity especially in schools with
one or two black pupils in a class
 Teachers were not so keen on artefacts, role play etc
 The majority of teachers limited the subject to 5 lessons or less
 A small number of committed teachers made slavery into a major project,
especially if there were local connections, and cross curricular opportunities and
citizenship (Local heritage, moral debates, legacy issues) were exploited
Phase 2 of the project will focus on the training of teachers.
Resources of use for education in Cumbria
The following locations in Cumbria have resources connected to slave trading,
plantations etc. See: Section B: Buildings and resource collections in Cumbria which
relate to the slave trade and the abolition of slavery for further details
Barrow Record Office
Carlisle Record Office
Carlisle Tullie House Museum
Kendal Abbot Hall Art Gallery
Kendal Record Office:
Kendal Quaker Tapestry:
Whitehaven The Rum Story
Whitehaven The Beacon Museum
Whitehaven Record Office and Local Studies Library
In addition a display has already been created and is available from:
Carlisle Record Office: a box containing a dismantled exhibition on Black History in
Cumbria (ask Susan Dench at Carlisle RO)
Whitehaven Record Office: 8 display boards on Black History in Cumbria. These
contain much of what is in the Carlisle box + some additional material for Whitehaven.
The exhibition is appropriate for KS3 and 4. Some parts (especially some of the
documents) would be accessible at KS2 with teacher help (ask Robert Baxter at
Whitehaven RO)
There is also a folder labelled ‘Slave Trade’ which contains a variety of unsorted
Cumbria Development Education Centre (CDEC): see RESOURCE FILE 2E
Kelsick Annexe, St Martin’s College, Ambleside, LA22 9BB
015394 30231
Email: [email protected]
Contacts: Eleanor Knowles, Arthur Capstick
CDEC combines a resource centre with an inset function. The resource collection
includes material and artefacts about contemporary life and culture in many of the west
African and Caribbean countries involved in the slave trade. There is also an extensive
Citizenship collection which focuses on anti-racism, human rights and development
issues (eg fair trade, water). There is also a large collection of stories from other cultures.
Most, but by no means all, of the collection has a KS2 focus. CDEC personnel are based
at Ambleside, Carlisle, Distington and Barrow and they are available to provide Inset,
and work with classes. They have been central to the forum theatre work that has been
undertaken in Cumbria with the title ‘Ali comes to Cumbria’. They are the first point of
contact for schools seeking to set up school links (both with schools abroad and with
schools in contrasting regions of the UK) as they have a lot of expertise in the area. They
acquire specific funding for every project they take part in, so if they were to play a part
in the 2007 Abolition of the Slave Trade project they would need to be funded by the
Trading People, Longmans/NCET, 1990
This resource on slave trading was created by Margaret Forsman (when she worked for
Cumbria LEA) as part of the Humanities and Information Technology Project. It consists
of a paper based resource pack of information, documents and support material from
Cumbria + a small database of the entries of black people in the parish registers. There
seems to be only one copy left and it is kept by Margaret Forsman. She is willing to lend
it for copying if the project requires it and she can be contacted on 01229 773648. I have
not seen it but my guess is that it is not likely to contain material other than that which I
have identified elsewhere. However it was professionally published so might be worth
Heritage Learning – Citizenship
This English Heritage publications examines opportunities for developing Citizenship
education through investigating the historic environment. One of the case studies is of
Whitehaven (p6) – Rob David led the team developing this case study. See
Slave trade and educational resources outside Cumbria
There is an organisation dedicated to the ‘Bi-Centenary of the Abolition of the British
Trade in Enslaved People’ which Cumbria should join (see RESOURCE FILE 2G for
membership list and minutes of the May 2005 meeting). There is also an E-bulletin
keeping participants up to date ([email protected]) – RESOURCE FILE 2H.
The National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 4DU.
Tel: 020 8876 3444.
Email: [email protected]
Head of Education: Tom O’Leary
In April 2005 the Education Service had not made plans for 2007 (email communication
from Tom O’Leary). However they are very conscious of the significance of 2007 and it
is intended to produce a number of research guides to slavery matters which will be of
use to teachers. These may include:
 General introduction to the history of slavery and its suppression
 British involvement in the slave trade
 The institution of slavery
 British amelioration, abolition and suppression of the slave trade
 British abolition of slavery
 Abolition of slavery in other countries
 Unfree labour: indentured labour from the early period to the 20th century
It is intended that National Archives will mount an exhibition in its museum space and
that there will be accompanying lectures and events. To find out more email:
[email protected]
Lancaster Maritime Museum and The Judges’ Lodgings Museum, Lancaster
Education officer: Laura Pye
Tel: 01524 64637
Email: [email protected]
This is the nearest museum to Cumbria which has a significant display on slavery and has
an educational programme geared to teaching about slavery. Many Cumbrian schools
already visit the museum, though not particularly with slavery as a focus. Laura pointed
out that the nature of the material, the complexity of the subject matter and the contents
of the educational programme are more suited to KS3 than to KS2. The Maritime
Museum is situated in the 18th century Customs House on the quay which still has an 18th
century feel with its old warehouses (now mostly converted into housing). The Judges
Lodgings is in a 17th century building within walking distance.
What is available at the Maritime Museum? See RESOURCE FILE 2I
1. The Slave Trade Arts Memorial Project (STAMP) is about to be completed. This is an
Arts Council/ Millennium Commission/other funders project which involved local
primary and secondary schools working with a lead artist, SuAndi (from Manchester) to
explore the meanings of slavery and its relevance in contemporary society, and to work
with a sculptor (Kevin R. I. Dalton-Johnson also from Manchester) to create a public
sculpture which will be located outside the Maritime Museum building (in July 2005).
Various training days and community days had taken place in association with the
project. On the back of this project the museum is hoping to finance the re-display of the
slavery gallery, but that will not be until after 2007.
2. A small gallery dedicated to a display on Lancaster and the slave trade. It includes:
panels on Gillows, sugar, plantation life, slave trade; copy of a large painting of Cardiff
Hall, Jamaica plantation; an original document listing the number of ships involved in
various trades from Lancaster from 1750-1845. It does not specify the slave trade in
particular but there are columns referring to The Africa Trade and the West Indies Trade;
a display of artefacts exported from Lancaster (felt hats, rope, foods, snuff (from
Kendal)) and goods imported into Lancaster (cotton, sugar, various woods, tobacco,
coffee, cocoa, spices).
At the Judges’ Lodgings Museum
3. A large collection of Gillow furniture made from exotic hard woods from the West
Indies, south and central America. The evidence is inconclusive as to whether the
Gillows employed slaves directly. If they didn’t they may imported wood from
plantations which did use slave labour.
4. A number of portraits of Lancaster merchants (and wives) who were involved in the
slave trade. None can be tied directly to any of the Furness men who became involved in
the Lancaster slave trade. (See leaflet on the museum in the resources folder).
Educational facilities:
The Maritime Museum has an education officer, an education room and sells a teaching
pack on the slave trade for £10 (in RESOURCE BOX). They will run a school session
on the slave trade which is centred on a living history drama involving an abolitionist and
a slave traders wife. This is suitable for KS3.
Laura Pye pointed out that slavery and the slave trade was not a subject that either
museums or schools felt at ease with. Their STAMP project had had a longish lead in
time which she felt had been essential. She also drew attention to how museums were
changing the nature of slave displays. Instead of focusing on slavery as an event which
had been concluded thanks to white abolitionists in the early 19th century, there is now
much more attention given to the continuing presence of slavery in the world and also the
consequences of slavery which effect black people in the UK and elsewhere, eg the lack
of a sense of identity (are they African, Caribbean, British?) and their search for their
roots, development of sub-cultures, lack of success in education.
Although this museum is outside Cumbria, it has the best display of slavery material and
associated educational facility in the region. It also has more educational expertise with
slavery than any similar venue in Cumbria. The fact that Furness people became
involved in the slave trade at Lancaster provides a link, as does the fact that Whitehaven
and Lancaster were the only ports north of Liverpool to have any significant involvement
in the trade. Their involvement in any development in Cumbria would be highly
See RESOURCE FILE 2J for information about Sambo’s grave at Sunderland
Point – this is the best known ‘black’ grave in the north west.
Merseyside Maritime Museum
Curator of Transatlantic Slavery: Sarah Blackstock
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 0151 478 4417
The present exhibition has proved to be extremely popular with schools. It is certainly
the nearest significant exhibition on slavery in the north-west. Visitors are led through
sections in a sequence which first examines the cultures of Africa before and at the time
of the slave trade, early slave trading, the 18th and 19th centuries trade at the English end
(including goods traded with Africa), how the trade operated in Africa, the Middle
Passage, what happened in the Americas and the products that formed the cargoes of the
final leg, abolition, and to a small extent the legacy. There is a massive redevelopment
underway which will be in part be completed by 2007. New galleries to do with slavery
will be open by 2007. There are also plans to link with Brouhaha International
(Liverpool street festival) which will be themed around slavery between 2005 and 2008.
See email response in resources folder. A number of publications and resources are
available. There are full educational facilities.
The museum also advertises ‘The Slavery History Trail’, guided walks which take you to
nearby locations associated with the slave trade. See RESOURCE FILE 2K
Bristol, British Empire and Commonwealth Museum
Head of Education: Katharine Hann
0117925 4980 Ext 212
Most of their work is at KS3 and most of it is primarily connected to History. What KS2
work they do is either part of local schools doing the History Local Study or is part of
extension work for Gifted and Talented.
They have found that Citizenshipp issues can be introduced through the history work at
KS3, and they have found pupils often respond better to the Citizenship than to the
They have found that the most powerful work has used sound and visual media – see
work of Anna Farthing.
Most of the pupils they work with are white and therefore like at Hull they are used to
addressing issues of slavery with monocultural audiences.
Bristol City Museum
01179 223571
Education: Karen Molson 01179 223929
Community History Curator: Rachael Vincent
Email: [email protected]
I have not had an opportunity to speak with Karen. The legacy is the focus of Bristol’s
2007 plans. Rachael told me of putative plans to create a memorial on Bristol docks.
This would involve professional artists submitting designs which would then be voted on
by the public. There are also tentative plans for Bristolians (teachers and young adults) to
visit some of the slave sites in Ghana and for young Ghanains to come to Bristol. Bristol
also has a slavery trail around the city
Hull, Wilberforce Museum
Head of Education: [email protected]
Keeper of Social History: [email protected]
Director of Hull’s Wilberforce 2007 programme: [email protected]
Tel: 01482 613 902
Wilberforce Museum is part of Hull’s museums service. The museum is being
completely redesigned between Oct 2005 and Feb 2007 and will reopen for the
bicentenary in a new format in which Citizenship, African culture, diversity and equality
will be promoted alongside Wilberforce and his legacy. The Education service is new
and will be working to create an education programme to relate to the new displays.
Attention was drawn to Hull’s mono-ethnic makeup and the importance for the museums
to challenge racism which is endemic in some parts of the community – an interesting
similarity to the position in Cumbria. I got the impression that the education service
would be really enthusiastic to work in tandem with Cumbria on the 2007 events given
the similar ethnic mix of the areas. The museum is part of the Understanding Slavery
National Maritime Museum, London
The education department of this museum is the lead partner in the Understanding
Slavery Initiative. 2007 will see significant developments relating to the display of the
slave trade and the education department will be supporting it in full. See RESOURCE
Anti – slavery International
Email: [email protected]
This organisation has an educational arm which provides resources on current issues of
slavery and related economic systems around the world. See RESOURCE BOX for
some of their materials and a worksheet based on their ‘Breaking the Silence’ initiative.
Anna Farthing
Contact: 0161 485 7822
Email: [email protected]
Anna is a freelance educationalist concentrating on slavery education. She has worked
extensively for the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum in Bristol, both leading
teaching sessions and training others to lead sessions. She uses drama/ICT/audio and
digital recording as her media of choice. She has just come to live in Manchester and is
keen to maintain her involvement in this area as she is starting a PhD related to her work.
She has many contacts having worked with others on this subject. These include Shango
Baku, a drama specialist (email: [email protected] tel:0207 2264016). He has
worked at Bristol, and the National Maritime Museum and will be working in
Manchester. Nathan Ng (music and audio specialist) is based in Bristol but works across
the UK. Working on the slave legacy in music. (email: [email protected] tel:
07974 392221). See RESOURCE FILE 2M
Frances Wilkins
Frances Wilkins is a social historian with long term interests in the slave trade in
Cumbria, the Isle of Man, Derbyshire and Scotland, as well as in the Whitehaven
merchant Walter Lutwidge. She worked with the Isle Of Man Department of Education
on a resource pack for schools. She frequently lectures on slave trading and would be
enthusiastic to be involved in a project in Cumbria.
8 Mill Close, Blakedown, Kidderminster, Worcs, DY10 3NQ
01562 700615
[email protected]
For some general information and addresses for museums and the slave trade see
Academic bibliography and academic websites
See also Merseyside Maritime Museum bibliography + other items (RESOURCE FILE
G. Cameron and S Crooke, Liverpool, Capital of the Slave Trade, Picton Press.
R. Costello, Black Liverpool, Picton Press.
M. Dresser, Slavery Obscured: The Social History of the Slave Trade in an English
Provincial Port, London, Continuum, 2001 (An account of Bristol – makes for
interesting comparisons with Whitehaven).
M. Elder, The Slave Trade and the Economic Development of Lancaster, Halifax, 1992
North-west Labour History Journal vol20, p36-38 (Sambo’s grave: Testimony of
Lancaster’s involvement in the Slave Trade)
North-west Labour History Journal vol20, p39-40 (Black people in pre 20th century
D. Richardson and M.M. Schofield, ‘Whitehaven and the eighteenth-century British slave
trade’, TCWAAS 92, (1992) 183-204.
Royal Commission for Historical Monuments in England, Whitehaven 1660-1800,
London, HMSO, 1991.
N. Tattersfield, The Forgotten Trade, London, 1991 (a mixture of a book, but focussing
on the slave trade at the minor ports including Whitehaven (p326-349 and Appendix 6)
A. Tibbles, Transatlantic Slavery – Against Human Dignity, National Museums and
Galleries on Merseyside, HMSO, 1994.
J. Walvin, Black Ivory: Slavery and the British Empire, Oxford, Blackwell, 2001 (This is
the most readable and authoritative account of the slave trade era).
J. Walvin, An African’s Life: The Life and Times of Olaudah Equiano 1745-1797,
London, Continuum, 1998.
J. Walvin, The Slave Trade, Stroud, Sutton Publishing, 1999 (The best short
J. Walvin, Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African Diaspora, London, Cassell,
2000 (An interesting explanation – by a white historian - of what the slave trade meant
for Africans).
F. Wilkins, The Hasells of Dalemain, Wyre Forest Press, 2003.
Web sites
(the excellent National Maritime Museum website + a portal to lots of other maritime
38 A large collection of pictures on line Follow links to Black Presence
– information and documents/pictures about black people in the UK
Education bibliography and education web sites
Most of the textbooks which have been written for the KS3 Study Unit, Britain 17501900 include a section on the slave trade. The following three are typical of those found
in schools:
J. Byrom et al., Think Through History: Minds and Machines-Britain 1750-1900,
Longman, 1999, p14-21 (This KS3 textbook has become very popular in schools and it
includes an extended chapter on the slave trade – more thought provoking than most)
C. Culpin, Expansion, Trade and Industry, Collins, 1993, p32-33 (a double page spread
on the slave trade – a rather usual format)
N. DeMarco, New Worlds for Old: Britain 1750-1900, Hodder, 2000, p40-45.
Merseyside Maritime Museum, Slaves and Privateers, resource pack
Educational websites
See also list in RESOURCE FILE 2P. follow links to Index of topics – 1750-1900 – slavery.
A work programme using pictures and documents on ‘How did the Abolition Acts of
1807 and 1833 affect slavery?’.
An extensive website, with an American bias, that covers almost every conceivable
aspect of the history of slavery. There is a special section on the biographies of British
anti-slavery leaders including Henry Brougham whose parents came from Westmorland
(See resources folder and Abbot Hall ceramic)
(follow links to slavery 1750-1870 [rather an American bias] and also links to History
website Slavery 5-11 and Slavery 11-14 [provides lots of further links]) There is a year 8 session on
the Atlantic slave trade linked to QCA scheme of work Unit 15 Black Peoples of
America: from slavery to equality. Also another session ‘Section4: Sold into Slavery:
What was the reality of the Atlantic slave trade?’
In addition there is an excellent list of websites at the back of the National Maritime
Museum Freedom Pack which is in the RESOURCE BOX