Chapter 13 Microbiological criteria

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Meat Industry Guide
Chapter 13 Microbiological criteria
13.
Introduction
13.1.
Meat category micro-organisms
13.2.
Food safety and process hygiene criteria
13.3.
Sources of micro-organisms
13.4.
Testing for micro-organisms
13.5.
Sources of advice and information
13.6.
Legal requirements for microbiological criteria
A. Demonstration of compliance
B. Microbiological testing against the criteria
C. Labelling
D. Unsatisfactory results
13.7.
Official control requirements
13.8.
Applying procedures continuously and properly
Annex 1.
Sampling frequency for red meat carcases
Annex 2.
Sampling frequency for poultry meat carcases
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13. Introduction
The aim of the hygiene legislation is to ensure that food is produced safely. This is achieved
through the identification and effective control of food-borne hazards. In order to contribute to the
protection of public health and to prevent differing interpretations, the legislation establishes
harmonised safety criteria on the acceptability of food, in particular as regards the presence of
certain pathogenic micro-organisms. It is generally recognised that the most significant food-borne
hazards from fresh meat are bacteria which can cause disease in humans (pathogenic bacteria),
such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and human pathogenic E.coli such as E.coli O157. Some of
these, particularly E.coli O157, require only a few bacteria to cause food poisoning in humans see Chapter 1 section 1.3 ‘Hazards in meat production’ and ’13.1.’.
Bacteria cannot be seen by the naked eye. They cannot be detected at post-mortem inspection.
The production of visually clean meat, monitored by visual inspection, is an important starting
point for meat safety, but visual inspection can detect only gross faecal and other contamination.
Although this gives a useful indication of the microbiological status of fresh meat, it is only by
undertaking further testing that the presence and/or number of bacteria present on the surface of
carcase meat or in processed meat can be assessed objectively.
Testing against microbiological criteria provides a way of measuring how well the operator has
controlled the slaughter, dressing and production processes to avoid and control contamination.
The results of testing can be used to validate whether the operator’s HACCP-based procedures
are controlling food safety and food quality and verify they are being correctly applied.
Examples demonstrating the importance of microbiological criteria procedures:
Problem
Slaughter and dressing
operations without
proper inspection
procedures
Effect
Increased risk that bacteria
contaminating carcases will not be
detected
Introduction of
contamination from
equipment, handling,
working environment
and poor temperature
control
The risk of spoilage and
dangerous bacteria increases
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Possible outcome
A source of microbiological
contamination resulting in a
serious food safety hazard
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13.1. Meat category micro-organisms
Micro-organisms
Enterobacteriacae
(ENT)
Description
The name given to a group of bacteria
that live predominantly in the
intestines of animals. The group
includes most of the major food-borne
pathogens of animal origin such as
Salmonella, Yersinia and E.coli O157.
Test indication
The presence of these
organisms on the surface
of carcases is an indicator
of faecal and
environmental
contamination.
Generic E.coli (EC)
A group of bacteria that live in the
intestines and are shed in the faeces
of man and food producing animals.
Presence of E.coli is an indicator of
faecal contamination.
The test procedure does
not specifically recover
E.coli O157 but does
indicate the risk of
contamination with this and
other dangerous faecallyderived bacteria.
Salmonella species
(Sal)
A group of bacteria that includes
several pathogens of significance in
human food poisoning disease. They
mainly arise from faecal contamination
but can also arise from the processing
environment.
Salmonella
Typhimurium
Types of Salmonella that have been
associated with frequently causing
disease in humans. Known as
salmonella with public health
significance (SPHS). Also includes
monophasic salmonella typhimurium
with the antigenic formula 4 5 12 i.
Further analysis of the type
of Salmonella can be
useful in investigating and
preventing the
reoccurrence of positive
results as well as providing
information that can be
used in a risk analysis.
Salmonella Enteritidis
Listeria
Monocytogenes
A pathogenic bacterium that occurs in
the environment. Able to survive and
grow at chill temperatures.
The presence of the
bacteria in ready to eat
food that can support the
growth can be a problem.
13.2. Food safety and process hygiene criteria
Legal basis for microbiological criteria
The Microbiological Criteria Regulation 2073/2005 establishes microbiological criteria for certain
micro-organisms and provides rules to be complied with by food business operators when
implementing the general and specific hygiene measures referred to in Article 4 of Regulation
(EC) 852/2004. Articles 4(3) and (4) of Regulation 852/2004 provide the legal basis for
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Regulation 2073/2005. Relevant definitions are set out at Article 2 of 2073/2005 and those
relevant to meat are included for reference in Chapter 1, section 1.4.
Two different types of criteria are established in Regulation 2073/2005, namely food safety criteria
and process hygiene criteria. The main difference between them is the additional action required;
when a food safety criterion is not met, the batch of food in question should be withdrawn from or
not placed on the market. Failure to meet either class of criteria should always result in an
investigation to find the cause of contamination and action taken to prevent contamination of
future production.
Microbiological criteria should be used in validation and verification of procedures based on
HACCP principles and failure of meeting the limit of a criterion indicates that the HACCP based
procedures have failed.
Food safety criteria
Food safety criteria have been set for fresh poultry meat, minced meat, meat preparations, meat
products, mechanically separated meat and ready to eat food and, if exceeded, indicate that the
batch tested is unsatisfactory and should be removed from or not placed on the market.
Demonstration of compliance with food safety criteria for meat and processed meat is required as
follows:

Absence of Salmonella in:

minced meat and meat preparations intended to be eaten raw

minced meat and meat preparations intended to be eaten cooked

mechanically separated meat (MSM)

meat products intended to be eaten raw

meat products made from poultry meat intended to be eaten cooked

fresh poultry meat

Listeria Monocytogenes less than 100cfu/g in ready to eat meats that either do not support
the growth of Listeria or have evidence that Listeria will not reach levels greater that 100cfu/g
during shelf life.

Absence of Listeria Monocytogenes before the food is placed on the market for foods that
support growth and do not have shelf life assessment data.
Process hygiene criteria
It is important to note that the purpose of testing against the process criteria that have been set for
carcases and certain processed meat is not to assess the fitness of individual carcases or
processed meat for human consumption. The results provide an indication of performance and
control of the slaughter, dressing and production process at the time of sampling, and must be
used accordingly.
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If the criteria are exceeded corrective action to improve future production must be initiated but
there is no requirement to remove product from the market. Trend analysis of the results from
testing against process hygiene criteria should be undertaken.
Demonstration of compliance with process hygiene criteria for meat and processed meat is
required as follows:

Aerobic Colony Count and Enterobacteriaceae – on cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pig
carcases (below specified limits).

Salmonella spp – on cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pig, broiler and turkey carcases (absence
from a specified number of samples per 50 samples examined).

Aerobic colony count and E.coli – in minced meat and mechanically separated meat
(below specified limits).

E.coli – in meat preparations (below specified limits).
13.3. Sources of micro-organisms
Livestock
All animals carry a very large number of bacteria in their stomachs and intestines, which are
excreted in their faeces. Bacteria are also present on the skin, hide, fleeces and feathers of
animals, including those from direct contact with faeces or from indirect contact with the
environment of the farm, transport vehicles or lairage.
The bacteria in or on animals may include those which can cause food poisoning in humans and
which are recognised hazards from meat. Most of these bacteria do not cause illness in meat
producing animals, which will appear healthy. Although ante-mortem inspection will enable
clinically ill animals to be detected, it is not possible to identify healthy carriers of pathogenic
organisms. It must, therefore, be assumed that all animals entering the slaughterhouse have the
potential to carry pathogenic organisms in or on them.
Carcases
Bacteria from the surface or digestive tract of an animal may be transferred onto the carcase or
onto other carcases during slaughter and dressing. This transfer may be caused by direct contact
or through cross-contamination by slaughterhouse staff, equipment, surfaces, water or aerosols.
The correct application of HACCP-based principles to the process aims to ensure that such
transfer is minimised.
Scientific research has shown that the cleanliness of animals at slaughter is an important control
to minimise the risk of transfer of pathogens from the hide, fleece, skin or feathers to the carcase.
Processed meat
The further processing of meat into minced meat, meat preparations and meat products provides
an opportunity for any dangerous bacteria on the surface of the carcase meat to be spread
throughout the product and also for new bacteria to be introduced from the environment, handling
and processing.
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In particular, bacteria will be spread into the centre of the food, where they will be less easily
destroyed on cooking. If the production process does not contain a pathogen reduction step such
as cooking then any bacteria on the carcase meat will be present in the processed meat.
If the product is intended as a ready to eat food such as steak tartare then special care will need
to be taken to ensure absence of Salmonella and the safety of the food. For minced meat and
meat preparations intended to be eaten cooked, absence of Salmonella, although ultimately
desirable, is not practical with the current prevalence of Salmonella in some animal species other
than chicken and turkey for which there are currently no requirements for National Control
Programmes on farm. Mince is often an economical product containing trim as well as other
surface parts of the carcase. Labelling the product with advice on cooking and safe handling in
addition to hygienic production controls the risk to human health.
The criteria in the regulation for Salmonella in raw processed meat intended to be eaten cooked
are food safety criteria. Failure to meet these means the meat must be removed from the market.
13.4. Testing for micro-organisms
Aerobic Colony Count (ACC)
This test is also known as Aerobic Plate Count (APC) and Total Viable Count (TVC). It describes
a measure of bacteria in the sample that can survive in the conditions on the surface of carcases
or in processed meat, be harvested by the sampling procedure used and grow in the presence of
air on an agar plate. These bacteria include those arising both from animals and from the
slaughterhouse or meat processing environment.
Because the ACC includes the organisms responsible for spoilage of meat, it will also give an
indication of the keeping quality of the meat.
Indicator organisms
Indicator organisms are larger groups of bacteria, including certain pathogenic bacteria, which are
relatively easy to measure as a group and whose presence is likely to indicate an increased risk
of the presence of pathogenic bacteria.
Aerobic Colony Count (ACC) is a general measure of the background microbiological status of
meat, but ACC results and the number of pathogens present may not always be related. Testing
for Enterobacteriaceae, a group of indicator organisms that live in the intestines of animals and
the environment, will give a better indication of the risk of pathogenic organisms being present.
Control measures that reduce the number of Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and the ACC will reduce
the risk of the presence of pathogenic bacteria being present on meat carcases and processed
meat.
If animals enter the slaughter process carrying Salmonella on their feathers, hide or fleece, there
is a risk that their carcases will be contaminated after dressing. Although the Salmonella group of
organisms does contain bacteria of significance in terms of human disease, there are also many
Salmonellae that may occur in animal production that are rarely associated with human disease.
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For these reasons the Salmonella spp. criteria set for carcases are, like Enterobacteriaceae and
ACC, process criteria. Failure to meet these does not in itself indicate the meat from the carcase
tested or batch of carcases tested will be unfit for human consumption but it does mean that
investigations to find the cause of contamination to prevent a reoccurrence should take place.
The UK results of the Salmonella National Control Programmes (SNCP) in the breeding chicken,
laying chicken, broiler, and turkey sectors showed prevalence levels well below the EU reduction
target levels. Food safety criteria for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in fresh
chicken and turkey meat are also in place. Failure to meet the criteria means the meat from the
tested batch must be removed from the market.
Carcase testing
When pathogenic bacteria are transferred to carcases they are usually present in only small
numbers and on a small area of the carcase. This means that a negative result from
microbiological testing for pathogenic bacteria will not guarantee the absence of such organisms.
A large surface area of a high proportion of carcases needs to be tested to obtain a statistically
valid result for many pathogenic bacteria. This is neither practical nor economically feasible and is
why E coli O157 on beef and sheep carcases or in processed meat is not currently included in
Regulation 2073/2005. This does not mean that this organism is unimportant but that process
control is best achieved by setting a criterion for an indicator group of micro-organisms such as
Enterobacteriaceae or generic E.coli.
Campylobacter, however is present in a high percentage of chicken and turkey flocks and on
carcases from birds slaughtered from those flocks. Action is being taken at many levels to try and
address Campylobacter, from UK Government lobbying the EU, to farmers and produces,
processors, caterers, local authorities and right down to consumer awareness.
13.5. Sources of advice and information
Additional guidance may be found in:

General Guidance for Food Business Operators on Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on
Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs: http://www.food.gov.uk/businessindustry/guidancenotes/hygguid/microbiolreg.

BRC/CFA Guidance on the Practical Implementation of the EC Regulation on Microbiological
Criteria for Foodstuffs: www.chilledfood.org/content/guidance.asp.

Guidelines for the Microbiological Quality of Some Ready-to-eat Food Sampled at the Point of
Sale from the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS): www.hpa.org.uk

Development and Use of Microbiological Criteria for Foods ISBN 0 905367 16 2 from the
Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST): www.ifst.org
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13.6. Legal requirements for microbiological criteria
The following sections set out the microbiological criteria requirements of the regulations that apply
to carcases after slaughter and further processed meat.
A. Demonstration of compliance
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 3 point 1
A1. Food business operators shall ensure that foodstuffs comply with the
relevant microbiological criteria set out in Annex I.
The food business operator at each stage of food production, processing and
distribution, including retail, shall take measures, as part of their procedures
based on HACCP principles together with the implementation of good
hygienic practice to ensure the following:

that the supply, handling and processing of raw materials and foodstuffs
under their control are carried out in such a way that the process hygiene
criteria are met

that the food safety criteria applicable throughout the shelf life of the
products can be met under reasonably foreseeable conditions of
distribution, storage and use
A1. Compliance regarding microbiological criteria for meat

Demonstrate compliance with the criteria at Annex I of 2073/2005 Article 3 for meat and
processed meat.
A1. Good practice
The Regulation establishes two types of microbiological criteria and requires that food business
operators take corrective action when these criteria are not met. These two types are:

food safety criteria – which should be used to assess the safety of a product or batch of
foodstuffs; and

process hygiene criteria – which should be used to ensure the production processes are
operating properly
Food safety criteria
The food safety criteria are absence of Salmonella in the samples as specified in the sub-sections
1.4 to 9 of Annex I of 2073/2005 Article 3 and absence of Salmonella Typhimurium and
Salmonella Enteritidis in the samples specified in sub-section 1.28.
For any ready-to-eat meat the Listeria Monocytogenes criteria (1.2 -1.3) apply:
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
Ready-to-eat meat – where Listeria Monocytogenes could be present and either does not
grow or will not grow to more than 100cfu/g before the end of shelf life (5 x 25g samples
Listeris Monocytogenes <100cfu/g per samples).
Ready-to-eat meat where Listeria could be present and information on growth and shelf life
has not been undertaken (Listeria monocytogenes absent in 5 x 25g samples). When shelf
life assessment has been undertaken and a safe shelf life applied, this criteria no longer
applies.

Minced meat and meat preparations intended to be eaten raw – take 5 x 25g samples
from a batch of minced meat or meat preparations intended to be eaten raw made from any
species of meat e.g. steak tartare.

Minced meat and meat preparations from poultry meat intended to be eaten cooked –
take 5 x 25 samples from a batch of minced meat or meat preparations made from poultry
meat intended to be eaten cooked. This applies to poultry meat of all species including ducks,
geese, turkeys spent hens and broilers e.g. minced chicken, turkey burgers, chicken
sausages chicken and turkey escalopes.

Minced meat and meat preparations from red meat intended to be eaten cooked – take
5 x 10g samples from a batch of minced meat or meat preparations made from other species
than poultry intended to be eaten cooked. This applies to all species of red meat including
game e.g. minced meat for bolognaise sauce or shepherd’s pie, sausages, burgers.

Mechanically separated meat – take 5 x 10g samples from a batch of mechanically
separated meat (MSM).

Meat products intended to be eaten raw – take 5 x 25g samples from a batch of meat
products intended to be eaten raw e.g. air dried smoked duck, partially fermented sausages.
This does not apply to products where the manufacturing process or the composition of the
product will eliminate the Salmonella risk such as certain types of salami, nor does it apply to
fully cooked ready to eat meat products such as cooked ham.

Meat products from poultry meat intended to be eaten cooked – take 5 x 25g samples
from a batch of meat products made from poultry meat intended to be eaten cooked e.g.
turkey bacon and chicken nuggets1. This does not apply to meat products made from meat
other than poultry meat intended to be eaten cooked such as bacon and gammon streaks.

Fresh poultry meat – absence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium from
25g fresh poultry meat including meat from hens, broilers and turkeys (including breeders).
Samples taken in slaughterhouses when checking against the process hygiene criteria (2.15)
if positive for Salmonella spp, must be serotyped to check compliance with the food safety
criterion.
When and how often to sample is covered in ‘B’.
1
Some nuggets may be a meat preparation.
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If a food safety criterion is not met, this means the food business operator will not be able to place
the foodstuff on the market or will need to remove the food from the market (as required by
Regulation 178/2002) and take steps to ensure future production meets the criterion. If the food is
intended to be cooked a withdrawal is required, however in certain circumstances, such as if the
food is ready to eat, a recall of the food may also be required. Enforcement authorities will require
sufficient evidence that the food business operator has taken the appropriate corrective action in a
timely manner – see ‘D1.’.
Process hygiene criteria
The process hygiene criteria are detailed below:

Carcases of cattle, sheep, goats and horses – five carcases of each species are required
to be sampled per sampling session. One sample is from one carcase.

For Aerobic Colony Count (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT), use the specified
mean log level below for the five samples. The limits given in the regulation are for an
excision method, the limits for the swab or sponge method are lower and are given in ( )
below after the figures for excision.

For Salmonella (Sal), the criterion is equal to or below a specified number of positives in
10 consecutive sampling sessions (that is 50 samples) using a sponge method.
APC
ENT
Unacceptable - mean log /number of positives is above
5.0 (4.3)
2.5 (1.8)
Acceptable - mean log below
5.0 (4.3)
2.5 (1.8)
Satisfactory - mean log / number of positives is equal to
or below
3.5 (2.8)
1.5 (0.8)

Sal
2/50
2/50
Carcases of pigs – five carcases are required to be sampled per sampling session. One
sample is from one carcase.

For Aerobic Colony Count (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT), use the specified
mean log level below for the five samples. The figures given are for the excision method,
the figures for the swab or sponge method are lower and are given in ( ) after the figures
for excision.

For Salmonella (Sal), the criterion is equal to or below a specified number of positives in
10 consecutive sampling sessions (that is 50 samples) using a sponge method.
APC
ENT
Unacceptable - mean log /number of positives is above
5.0 (4.3)
3.0 (2.3)
Acceptable - mean log below
5.0 (4.3)
3.0 (2.3)
Satisfactory - mean log / number of positives is equal to
or below
4.0 (3.3)
2.0 (1.3)
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Sal
3/50
3/50
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
Carcases of broilers and turkeys – 15 carcases are required to be sampled per sampling
session. One sample is composed of three pooled neck skins. The 15 carcases sampled
result in five samples for testing.

For Salmonella (Sal), the criterion is equal to or below a specified number of positives in
10 consecutive sampling sessions (that is 50 samples). If a sample tests positive for
Salmonella spp in any sampling session it must be serotyped to check compliance with
the food safety criteria.
Sal
Unacceptable - mean log /number of positives is above
5/50
Satisfactory - number of positives is equal to or below
5/50


Minced meat and mechanically separated meat – five samples must be taken from one
batch per sampling session:

For Aerobic Colony Count (ACC) – all five samples must be less than 5 x 106 cfu/g and
three samples must be less than 5 x 105 cfu/g.

For E.coli (EC) – all five samples must be less than 500 cfu/g and three samples must be
less than 50 cfu/g.
Meat preparations – five samples must be taken from one batch per sampling session:

For E.coli (EC) – all five samples must be less than 5000cfu/g and three samples must
be less than 500cfu/g.
Species for which criteria are not specified e.g. game, rabbits, ducks and geese carcases, are not
required to be sampled.
If a process hygiene criterion is not met, the meat can be placed or remain on the market, but the
food business operator must review the production processes and improve process hygiene to
ensure future production will meet the criteria. The actions should be included in the food safety
management procedures, which should also include relevant actions specified in Annex I
(Chapter 2) of the Regulation. Enforcement authorities will require sufficient evidence that the
food business operator has taken the appropriate corrective action – see ‘D1.’.
When and how often to take samples is covered in ‘B’. Sampling methods are fully described at
‘B7. Samples of processed meat’.
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B. Microbiological testing against the criteria
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 4
B1. Food business operators shall perform testing as appropriate against
the microbiological criteria set out in Annex I when they are validating or
verifying the correct functioning of their procedures based on HACCP
principles and good hygiene practice.
B2. Food business operators shall decide the appropriate sampling
frequencies except where Annex I provides for specific frequencies ... the
sampling frequency shall be at least that provided for in Annex I.
B1. and B2. Compliance regarding when and how often to take samples

Carry out testing against the criteria.

Follow the specified sampling frequency for carcases, minced meat, meat preparations and
MSM.

Determine a sampling frequency for ready to eat meat based on risk.
B1. and B2. Good practice
Frequency of testing – testing is one of the ways to demonstrate compliance with the criteria. It
should be undertaken as part of the process of validating and verifying procedures based on
HACCP.
The Regulation requires weekly sampling at slaughterhouses producing meat carcases, and
establishments producing minced meat, meat preparations and mechanically separated meat.
The weekly sampling specified in the Regulation does not apply to small slaughterhouses and
establishments producing minced meat and meat preparations in small quantities. The FSA has
produced sampling frequencies for small slaughterhouses and establishments producing minced
meat and meat preparations in small quantities.
Species for which criteria are not specified e.g. game, rabbits, ducks and geese carcases, are not
required to be sampled.
The frequency for sampling for ready to eat meat, using the Listeria criteria, has not been specified
and should be decided based on risk.
B2. Compliance regarding establishments producing meat products

Decide an appropriate sampling frequency for meat products.
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B2. Good practice
The Regulation does not stipulate how often to take samples from an establishment producing
meat products to demonstrate compliance with the criteria for Salmonella or Listeria
Monocytogenes
Determine the frequency of sampling and hence testing according to the specific local risk.
Key manufacturing process stages
HACCP principles must be applied when manufacturing all products. The management of the
microbiological risks at each stage of manufacturing process must be considered.
Key stages include:

ingredients/raw material

factory – design, hygiene of equipment and people

manufacturing process targeting appropriate organism/s

packaging

storage temperature and shelf life

intended use

food safety studies related to similar products
Microbiological testing may be appropriate at certain stages to validate/verify that the procedures
based on HACCP principles are adequate, operational and effectively in control. Monitoring raw
materials and factory hygiene may also be important. Final product microbiological testing against
the criteria can be used to verify that the overall process is in control.
As the HACCP based procedures becomes more established and more satisfactory test results
are obtained the frequency of testing may be able to be reduced based on the historical data
obtained.
If anything significant is changed in the production of the product such as raw material source,
formulation or processing, the HACCP based procedures must be reviewed and it may be
appropriate to increase test frequency.
Example: raw materials
When deciding the frequency of microbiological tests required against the criteria the following
should be considered for raw materials:

the microbiological hazards and risks associated with the raw material

knowledge and confidence in the supplier/ producer of the raw material. The more confidence
you have in the raw material supplier/ producer the less testing is required. Confidence can be
achieved by:

auditing the supplier/ producer and their HACCP including their microbiological checks
and/or
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
increasing the frequency of checks until sufficient historical data is available

the risk associated with the volume of the raw material used

historical data

the supplier/ producer of the raw material should be producing using HACCP principles, which
should minimise the risks, associated with the raw materials
A similar approach should be taken for other key stages.
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Annex I Chapter 3.2
B3. The food business operators of slaughterhouses or establishments
producing minced meat, meat preparations or mechanically separated meat
shall take samples for microbiological analysis at least once a week. The day
of sampling shall be changed each week to ensure that each day of the week
is covered.
B4. As regards the sampling of minced meat and meat preparations for E.
coli and aerobic colony count analyses and the sampling of carcases for
Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic colony count analyses, the frequency may be
reduced to fortnightly testing if satisfactory results are obtained for six
consecutive weeks.
B5. In the case of sampling for Salmonella analyses of minced meat, meat
preparations and carcases, the frequency can be reduced to fortnightly if
satisfactory results have been obtained for 30 consecutive weeks. The
Salmonella sampling frequency may also be reduced if there is a national or
regional salmonella control programme in place and if this programme
includes testing that replaces the above-described sampling. The sampling
frequency may be further reduced if the national or regional Salmonella
control programme demonstrates that the Salmonella prevalence is low in
animals purchased by the slaughterhouse.
B6. However, when justified on the basis of a risk analysis and
consequently authorised by the competent authority, small slaughterhouses
and establishments producing minced meat and meat preparations in small
quantities may be exempted from these sampling frequencies.
B3. to B6. Compliance regarding red meat slaughterhouses

Take weekly samples at slaughterhouses producing red meat carcases.
B3. to B6. Good practice
Take five samples once a week for all specified species in a sampling session.

Specified species – are cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses of all ages – see ‘Annex 1.’.
The day of the week that sampling is carried out must be alternated. Sampling frequency can
be reduced following satisfactory results as detailed in ‘Annex 1. ‘.
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
Small quantities of the specified species – the weekly frequency does not apply to small
quantities. See ‘Annex 1.’ for the throughput for small quantities on a per species basis and
the sampling frequencies to be followed.
B3. to B6. Compliance regarding poultry slaughterhouses

Take weekly samples at slaughterhouses producing poultry carcases.
B3. to B6. Good practice
Take samples once a week for all specified species in a sampling session.

Specified species – for the process hygiene criteria are broilers and turkeys – see ‘Annex 2.’.
The day of the week that sampling is carried out must be alternated. Sampling frequency can
be reduced following satisfactory results as detailed in ‘Annex 2.’.
The specified species for the salmonella food safety criteria are laying hens broilers and
turkeys and breeding birds.

Small quantities of the specified species – the weekly frequency does not apply to small
quantities. See ‘Annex 2.’ for the throughput for small quantities on a per species basis and
the sampling frequencies to be followed.
B3. to B6. Compliance regarding establishments producing processed meat

Take weekly samples at establishments producing minced meat, meat preparations and
mechanically separated meat.
B3. to B6. Good practice
Take samples from one batch of minced meat or meat preparations or mechanically separated
meat per producing establishment per week.
All species of meat minced or processed into meat preparations or mechanically separated meat
are included.

Small quantities – the weekly frequency does not apply to small quantities. An average
combined volume of less than two tonnes a week of minced meat and meat preparations
intended to be eaten cooked is considered to be a small quantity and establishments regularly
producing less than this volume are not currently required to undertake testing.
All establishments producing minced meat and meat preparations intended to be eaten raw or
undercooked and or MSM irrespective of production volume must undertake weekly testing.
See – ‘B7. Samples of processed meat’.
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L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 5
B7. The analytical methods and the sampling plans and methods in Annex I
shall be applied as reference methods.
B7. Compliance regarding sampling of carcases

Follow the sampling plans in Annex I Chapters 1 and 2 and the sampling rules in Chapter 3 for
slaughterhouses.
B7. Good practice
Take five samples per sampling session from each of the specified species per slaughterhouse
and send to a testing laboratory. For species and when to take samples – see ‘Annex 1.’ and
‘Annex 2.’.
Training – the person undertaking the sampling needs to be trained in microbiological sampling.
The testing laboratory or the OV can provide training.
Supplies – the testing laboratory will be able to supply the equipment and consumables
necessary for sampling.
B7. Compliance regarding samples of processed meat

Take and send to the testing laboratory samples from establishments producing minced meat,
meat preparations, MSM and meat products.
B7. Good practice
Take a sufficient sample to enable the laboratory to take 5 x 10g or 5 x 25g test portions for
Salmonella 5 x 25g for Listeria Monocytogenes and 5 x 25g test portions for EC and ACP from
one batch per producing establishment of2:

minced meat or meat preparations – once a week

mechanically separated meat – once a week

meat products – at the frequency decided and recorded by the producer as part of the
HACCP- based plan
Batches
The product in the batch must be able to be identified and located and the information on how to
do this must be recorded. It is the ability to describe and identify batches of production that will
determine the batch size and this will differ under different production conditions.
2
Minced meat and meat preparation establishments producing on average less than 2 metric tonnes per week of product
(minced meat and meat preparations combined production) intended to be eaten cooked are not required to take sample.
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The following information is provided to assist food business operators in identifying a batch and
how to take the five samples.

Minced meat – a batch could be one hopper load of meat after mincing. If the meat is then
packed into retail packs, five packs should be selected throughout the batch of packs
produced from the hopper and either sent to the laboratory or a sample may be taken from
each pack. Samples may also be taken from the hopper attempting to sample as randomly
as possible or from one large pack if the meat is stored in bulk.

Meat preparations/meat products – for comminuted products such as burgers, sausages or
salami, a similar approach should be taken as for minced meat.
For meat preparations/products made with large pieces of meat then the description of batch
will determine when and how five units to sample are selected.

Mechanically separated meat – the production process will influence the definition of batch.
This must be recorded and the product in a batch must be able to be identified and
differentiated from product in other batches.
Sample information
Information about the batch of processed meat samples must be recorded on a sample form.
This should include:

name and species of product e.g. beef burger, turkey mince, pork kebabs

pack description e.g. retail 500g pack

physical state e.g. fresh or frozen

details of any modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

date of production

source of meat (slaughterhouse, farm), traceability code
B7. Compliance regarding laboratory practice

The laboratory testing the samples must use the specified ISO methods, alternative methods
and modifications can be agreed with the CA.
B7. Good practice
The laboratory undertaking testing for the food business operator should use the organismspecific method:

for Salmonella this is EN/ISO 6759

for Listeria Monocytogenes this is EN/ISO 11290 -1 and 2

for Enterobacteriaceae this is ISO 21528-2

for E.coli this is ISO 16649-1

for Aerobic Colony count this is ISO 4833
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Modifications to the methods such as the use of single plates for ACC can be used as long as the
laboratory is accredited for the modified procedure.
Official controls – if the testing is undertaken under official control procedures the laboratories
must be accredited by UKAS – see www.ukas.com.
Laboratory test portions – processed meat
The test portion size for minced meat, mechanically separated meat, meat preparations and meat
products is specified in the Regulation for Salmonella as either 25g or 10g and for Listeria
Monocytogenes in ready to eat meat as 25g.
The laboratory test portion weight for minced meat, mechanically separated meat or meat
preparations for ACC and EC examination is not specified in the Regulation so the ISO standard
(6887-2) should be followed which specifies a 25g sample.
The laboratory must be able to obtain both test portions from each sample it receives. Test
portions should be taken from throughout the sample including the surface and the interior.
Preparation of the initial suspension for meat and meat products is described in ISO 6887-2.
Laboratory methods
Ideally, the laboratory undertaking testing for the food business operator should be accredited by
UKAS for the examinations required in meat samples.
As a minimum, the laboratory should take part in a recognised proficiency testing scheme for the
examinations required e.g FAPAS proficiency testing, see: www.fapas.com/proficiency-testingschemes/fepas/.
If contracting a laboratory to undertake microbiological testing, ask to see the accreditation
schedule and the proficiency test results ideally for the two previous years.
Pooling of samples
For Salmonella examinations the five test portions can be pooled to give one 50g test portion (5 x
10g) or one 125g test portion (5 x 25g) saving on examination costs. These test portions must
then be enriched in a 10 fold dilution of BPW. The laboratory must demonstrate that there is no
major loss of sensitivity by pooling.
Samples from cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and goats
Sponges from red meat carcases are to be examined for Salmonella, ENT and ACC:

Add 90mls of Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) to the swab to make a total of 100mls (taking
into account the 10mls added previously).

Agitate the sample using a peristaltic homogeniser taking care to minimise foaming.

Remove 10mls of BPW for ACC and ENT enumeration and follow the ISO method incubate
the remainder with the sponge for 16-20 hours at 37°C and proceed with salmonella
determination as per the ISO method.
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Samples from spent hens, turkeys, broilers and breeding birds
Neck skins are to be examined for Salmonella.
Compose a 25g sample from 3 approximately 10g neck skins. Aim to include material from all
three skins avoiding fat.
Follow the ISO method for Salmonella by adding the 25g neck skin sample to 225ml BPW.
B1. and B7. Compliance regarding reporting results

Report results for ENT, ACC and Salmonella in accordance with the relevant regulations.
B1. and B7 Good practice
Results for red meat carcases for ENT and ACC must be calculated as the log number of
organisms per area of carcase tested.
The mean log value of the 5 carcases sponged per sampling session can then be calculated by
adding the five individual log results together and dividing by five. The mean log is then compared
with the criteria.
Results for Salmonella for red meat carcases must be reported as absence or presence in the
area sponged.
Results for Salmonella on poultry carcases must be reported as presence or absence in 25g of
neck skin sample.
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L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Annex I Chapter 3 (as amended by 1441/2007)
B8. The destructive and non-destructive sampling methods, the selection of
the sampling sites and the rules for storage and transport of samples are
described in standard ISO 17604.
B9. Five carcases shall be sampled at random during each sampling
session. Sample sites should be selected taking into account the slaughter
technology used in each plant.
B10. When sampling for analyses of Enterobacteriaceae and Aerobic
Colony Counts, four sites of each carcase shall be sampled. Four tissue
samples representing a total of 20 cm² shall be obtained by the destructive
method. When using the non-destructive method for this purpose, the
sampling area shall cover a minimum of 100 cm² (50 cm² for small ruminant
carcases) per sampling site.
B11. When sampling for Salmonella analyses, an abrasive sponge
sampling method shall be used. The sampling area shall cover a minimum of
400 cm².
B12. When samples are taken from the different sampling sites on the
carcase, they shall be pooled before examination.
B8. to B12. Compliance regarding sampling of red meat

Take samples from red meat carcases.
B8. to B12. Good practice
Take five sponge samples per sampling session from carcases after dressing but before chilling.
One sponge sample is from one carcase.
The reference sampling method for Salmonella on red meat carcases is using an abrasive swab
covering a minimum of 400 cm2.
For ENT and ACC four sites of the carcase should be sampled using excision or a non-destructive
method.
The carcase sponge swab method can be used for all three tests:

is an abrasive sponge

is a non-destructive method

covers four sites

covers a minimum of 400cm2
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Wet and dry swabbing or excision can be used for ENT and ACC3 but not for Salmonella testing.
Operators are encouraged to use the simple sponge sampling method for all three tests.
Apparatus
Use sterile dry abrasive sponge swabs (10 x 10 cm or 5 x 10 cm, folded in half) in sterile plastic
sample bags (waffle style cellulose sponge dishcloths and stomacher bags).
Diluent sterile 0.9% unbuffered sodium chloride solution.
Sampling method
Rehydrate the sponge in the sample bag with approximately 10ml diluent. The sponges should
be damp without excess diluent in the bag. Alternatively, sponges can be rehydrated, stored
frozen and defrosted prior to use.
Grasp the sponge through the bag folding the bag back over the hand.
Avoid allowing the sponge, diluent, or the internal surface of the bag to come into contact with
other surfaces.
Randomly choose one side of a randomly chosen carcase after inspection and before chilling.
Wipe the sponge with firm pressure and a slight side to side movement down one side of the
carcase starting at the back leg and moving across the carcase. Use a firm consistent pressure.
The length of the wipe should be approximately 1000 cm for adult sheep, goats and pigs and
1500 cm for adult cattle and horses.
Refold the bag over the sponge and secure the bag with a closure.
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Annex I Chapter 3 (as amended by 1441/2007)
B13. For the Salmonella analyses, a minimum of 15 carcases shall be
sampled at random during each sampling session and after chilling. A piece
of approximately 10g from neck skin shall be obtained from each carcase. On
each occasion the neck skin samples from three carcases shall be pooled
before examination in order to form 5 x 25g final samples.
B13. Compliance regarding sampling of poultry

Take samples from poultry carcases.

Take samples from cut poultry meat.
B13. Good practice
3
This method is not described in this guidance.
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Take five samples from spent hens, broilers, turkeys and breeding birds. One sample is three
neck skins, so 15 carcases are required to be sampled. Collect samples from carcases after
chilling.
Take 5 x 25g samples from pieces of poultry meat (spent hens, broilers, turkeys and breeding
birds). Take samples on a risk basis including pieces with skin as a priority.
Apparatus
Use gloves, clean sharp scissors, alcohol wipes, sample bags, labels.
Sampling method


For carcases:

Put on pair of gloves then wipe the surfaces of the gloves with alcohol wipes to kill any
bacteria that may be present.

Wipe the scissors with an alcohol wipe.

Grip the plastic bag at the bottom and fold back over the gloved hand. Avoid the internal
surface of the bag or the scissors contacting other surfaces.

Grasp the neck skin through the bag and cut off approximately 10g with the clean
scissors, repeat with two further neck skins to make a total of three in one bag.

Fold the bag back over the sample and tie to secure the neck skin samples inside.

Clean gloves and scissors with alcohol wipes and repeat.
For pieces of poultry meat:

Aseptically remove 25g taking any skin as a priority and supplementing with surface
muscle slices. Whole pieces can be taken and sent to the laboratory for skin and muscle
slice removal.
Labelling of carcase samples
Label the bag and record the following information:

date of sampling

species

origin of animal (farm postcode, slaughtering reference)

length of wipe for red meat: an estimate is sufficient

width of wipe for red meat (normally 10cm)
Temperature control during storage and transport
Sponge and neck skin samples should be kept cool and delivered to the laboratory within 2 hours.
If longer than two hours the samples should be placed into an insulated coolbox containing frozen
freezer blocks or crushed ice. Keep the samples cold but do not allow them to freeze.
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Sample testing should commence within 24 hours of sampling.
Further information on taking samples is included in the ISO standard 17604 – see ‘B7.
Laboratory practice’.
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 5 point 2
B14. Samples shall be taken from processing areas and equipment used in
food production when such sampling is necessary for ensuring the criteria are
met. In that sampling the ISO standard 18593 shall be used as a reference
method.
B14. Compliance regarding the processing environment

Undertake sampling and testing of the processing environment.
B14. Good practice
Sampling the process environment can be useful to validate and verify the cleaning procedures.
When the criteria for carcases or processed meat are not met, sampling of the processing
environment must be considered as part of your investigatory action.
The ISO standard 18593 provides useful information and should be used as the reference
method.
Rapid methods – can also provide valuable information on the effectiveness of cleaning.
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C. Labelling requirements
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 6
C1. When the requirements for Salmonella in minced meat, meat
preparations and meat products intended to be eaten cooked of all species
set down in Annex I are fulfilled, the batches of those products placed on the
market must be clearly labelled by the manufacturer in order to inform the
consumer of the need for thorough cooking prior to consumption.
C1. Compliance regarding cooking information

Label minced meat, meat preparations and meat products from species other than poultry
intended to be eaten cooked, to inform the consumer of the need for thorough cooking prior to
consumption.
C1. Good practice
Food business operators responsible for the production of raw minced meat, meat preparations
and meat products intended to be cooked before consumption, for which there is a Salmonella
criterion, must label products to be sold at retail with cooking information.
The Agency has taken advice from the advisory committee on the microbiological safety of food,
and considers that it will be sufficient to indicate clearly that the food requires cooking aided by
cooking times and temperatures where appropriate, for example, for burgers and sausages.
Best practice
The wording should not include internal temperatures, as these are not easily measured by the
consumer. Symbols can be used, as long as they are used in conjunction with appropriate
wording.
The FSA’s ‘Safer food better business’ advice pack provides guidance: see
www.food.gov.uk/foodindustry/regulation/hygleg/hyglegresources/sfbb/
Examples of good practice including:

Cook in a hot ( x °C) oven for x minutes until piping hot in the centre.

Grill for x minutes per side until piping hot in the centre.

Raw meat requires cooking.
Safe handling
In addition to cooking information, label raw meat and products containing raw meat appropriately
to give the following safe handling advice:

Store raw meat separately from cooked meat and other ready to eat foods.
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
Wash hands and preparation utensils after handling raw meat.

Keep refrigerated until use.
Guidance for caterers
Guidance produced for caterers may be helpful:

See ‘Food Standards Agency - Safer food, better business’ produced by FSA England.

See ‘Food Standards Agency – CookSafe’ produced by FSA Scotland.

For information about ‘Safe catering’ contact FSA Northern Ireland.

For information about guidance materials in Wales, contact the Environmental Health
Department of the local county borough council or FSA Wales.
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D. Unsatisfactory results
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 7
D1. When the results of testing against the criteria set out in ‘Annex 1.’ are
unsatisfactory the food business operator shall take the measures laid down
in paragraphs 2 to 4 of this article together with other corrective actions
defined in their HACCP based procedures and other actions necessary to
protect the health of consumers. In addition they shall take measures to find
the cause of the unsatisfactory results in order to prevent the recurrence of
the unacceptable microbiological contamination.
When testing against food safety criteria provides unsatisfactory results the
product or batch of foodstuffs shall be withdrawn or recalled from the market
in accordance with Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002. However
products that are not yet at retail may be subject to further processing by a
treatment eliminating the hazard.
218/2014 Article 2.4
D2. In relation to carcases of pigs, if the Salmonella process hygiene
criterion is not complied with at several occasions, the competent authority
shall require an action plan from the food business operator concerned and
strictly supervise its outcome.
D1. Compliance regarding unmet food safety criteria
•
Take the action specified in the last column of ‘Annex I.’ together with other actions specified in
a food safety management plan when the criteria have not been met.
D1. Good practice
Test for Salmonella in minced meat, meat preparations MSM and meat products.
The batch tested must be removed from the market if one or more of the five samples is positive
for Salmonella. If the test portions have been combined into a single test portion for examination
then this action is triggered if the combined test portion is positive – see ‘B7, Samples of processed
meat’.
If the product is at retail and intended to be cooked it must be withdrawn. If the product is ready to
eat a recall is required. Regulation 178/2002 provides the legal basis for these actions and the
requirements for providing point of sale notices and informing the Food Standards Agency must be
followed. For product intended to be cooked, the Agency would not normally place this information
on its website. However, in appropriate circumstances (such as an ineffective withdrawal) the
Agency may decide to inform consumers.
In all cases when the criteria have not been met and Salmonella has been detected in one or more
of the five samples, action should be taken to improve future production and improve consumer
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protection. This should include a review of the source of meat and on-farm action plans for control
of Salmonella.
Note this corrective action is triggered when one or more processed meat samples is positive for
meat produced under the derogation. It is only the withdrawal from the market that is triggered
when two or more samples are positive.
D1 and D2. Compliance regarding unmet process criteria
•
•
Take the action specified in the last column of ‘Annex I.’ tables together with other actions
specified in a food safety management plan when the criteria have not been met.
Draw up an action plan to address repeated unsatisfactory Salmonella testing results (pig
carcases).
D1 and D2. Good practice
When the process criteria have not been met, Annex I to the Regulation requires that a review of
the hygiene of production is undertaken. Additionally, for Salmonella on poultry and pig meat
carcases, review the biosecurity procedures of the farm of origin.
In case of repeated failure to obtain satisfactory results against the Salmonella process hygiene
criterion for pig carcases, the food business operator is required to produce an action plan to
address the unsatisfactory results.
Salmonella typing
Serotyping Salmonella isolates will provide information that can be useful in pinpointing the source
and also provide information on the significance of the Salmonella detected in terms of human
disease.
The Agency has established a typing and anti-microbial resistance facility for Salmonella isolates
from meat carcases and processed meat.
Instruct the testing laboratory to retain the records of Salmonella isolates at the end of the ISO
procedure and follow the procedure for arranging typing.
Isolating laboratories may also claim a small fee to cover the costs involved with processing the
isolate.
Corrective action
Useful information for producers can be found in:

Defra codes of practice for producing poultry and pigs

ZAP 13 point action plan for pig producers

FSA guidance on biosecurity for poultry production

FSA red meat safety information booklet

FSA producing beef for slaughter a guide for producers
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L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 7
D3. Food business operators shall analyse trends in test results.
D3. Compliance regarding analysis of trends
•
Use trends in results to inform future production.
D3. Good practice
Trends in results may reveal unwanted developments in the manufacturing process enabling the
food business operator to take corrective actions before the process is out of control.
Results must be expressed in a format that allows trends to be seen.
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13.7. Official control requirements
L
Legal requirement
2073/2005 Article 1
The competent authority shall verify compliance with the rules and criteria laid
down in this Regulation in accordance with Regulation EC No 882/2004.
218/2014 Article 2
The competent authority shall verify the correct implementation by food
business operators of the point 2.1.4 (process hygiene criterion for Salmonella
on pig carcases) of Annex I to Regulation (EC) 2073/2005 by applying the
following measures: (...) (b) collecting all information on the total number and
the number of Salmonella positive samples taken by food business operators
in accordance with Article 5(5) of Regulation (EC) 2073/2005, within the frame
of point 2.1.4 of Annex I thereof.
854/2004 Article 4 point 5a
Audits of HACCP-based procedures shall verify that food business operators
apply such procedures continuously and properly, having particular regard to
ensuring that the procedures provide the guarantees specified in Section II of
Annex II to Regulation (EC) 2004. They shall, in particular, determine
whether the procedures guarantee, to the extent possible, that products of
animal origin: (a) comply with microbiological criteria laid down under
Community legislation.
13.8. Applying procedures continuously and properly
L
Legal requirement
852/2004 Article1 point 1a
The operator is responsible for food safety in the food business.
178/2002 Article 17
Food … business operators at all stages of production, processing, and
distribution within the businesses under their control shall ensure that foods ( )
satisfy the requirements of food law which are relevant to their activities and
shall verify that such requirements are met.
13.8. Compliance regarding operator responsibilities for microbiological criteria

Operator responsibility includes applying and verifying the company’s procedures for
complying with microbiological criteria. This will include any microbiological sampling and
testing procedures, keeping relevant records and the taking of corrective action if those
procedures fail.
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13.8. Good practice
Operator responsibility – includes maintaining and monitoring procedures for complying with
microbiological criteria and taking corrective action if there is a failure. These procedures should
be based on HACCP principles – see chapter 9 on ‘HACCP principles’.
Delegation – responsibility for applying and verifying the company’s products comply with
microbiological criteria may be delegated to a nominated person. The HACCP based procedures
would require microbiological problems to be reported to that person, who must have authority to
ensure that corrective action is taken when necessary.
Verification – undertake regular management checks to check if company procedures are being
followed regarding the compliance with microbiological criteria.
Frequency of verification – this will depend on the likelihood of a problem being found. Once a
month may be sufficient for checking experienced staff who are following established procedures
and if microbiological test results are generally acceptable/satisfactory and corrective action has
not been required. The work of new or temporary people who are less familiar with the
procedures and premises may need to be monitored more frequently.
Records – keep an accurate, dated account (e.g. in the food safety management diary) of the
date and result of the periodic verification checks, test results and of any corrective action taken.
Corrective action – take action when there is evidence of non-compliance with criteria. Further
action may be necessary if there has been a failure to initiate corrective action or the planned
corrective action fails to prevent a reoccurrence, this may include:

investigating the hygiene of slaughter, dressing and or processing

investigations in relation to the laboratory service; and

improving staff instructions and training
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Annex 1. Sampling frequency for red meat carcases
Category
Standard
1
Annual throughput
per species
per year
Over:
Sampling frequencies
Initial frequency
Reduced frequency if
results are satisfactory
Enteros and ACC:
Enteros and ACC:
5 carcases once every 2
weeks for each species.

20,000 cattle or
horses;
Five carcases once a week for
six weeks for each species.

100,000 pigs or
sheep or goats.
(6 x 5 = 30 samples / species)
(>400 or 2,000/week)
Salmonella:
Salmonella:
5 carcases once a week for 30
weeks for each species.
5 carcases once every 2
weeks for each species.
(30 x 5 = 150 samples /
species)
2
Below 20,000 but over:

7,500 cattle or
horses;
5 carcases once a week for 2
weeks for each species.

Below 100,000 but
over 37,500 pigs or
sheep or goats.
(5 x 2 = 10 samples / species)
(>150 or 750/week)
3


Small
Enteros and ACC:
Below 7,500 but
over 1,500 cattle or
horses;
Below 37,500 but
over 7,500 pigs or
sheep or goats.


Below 1,500 but
over 500 cattle or
horses;
Below 7,500 but
over 2,500 pigs or
sheep or goats.

Below 500 cattle or

Horses or 2,500
pigs or sheep or
goats.
Salmonella:
5 carcases once every 4
weeks for each species
No reduction
Enteros and ACC:
5 carcases once a week for 2
weeks for each species.
(5 x 2 = 10 samples/ species)
Enteros and ACC:
5 carcases on one day
every 12 weeks for each
species.
Salmonella:
not required
Enteros and ACC:
Enteros and ACC:
5 consecutive carcases for
each species.
(5 samples/ species)
(>10 or 50/week)
5
5 carcases once every 4
weeks for each species.
Salmonella:
(>30 or 150/week)
4
Enteros and ACC:
5 consecutive carcases 1
year after last
satisfactory series for
each species.
Salmonella:
Not required
Enteros and ACC:
Not required
Salmonella:
Not required
(<10 or 50/week)
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Annex 2. Sampling frequency for poultry meat carcases
Standard
Category
1
Annual throughput
of turkeys or
broilers
Over 7,500,000
(>150,000/week)
Sampling frequencies
(One sample is three neck skins)
Initial frequency
Reduced frequency if
results are satisfactory
Salmonella:
Salmonella:
5 samples once a week for 30
weeks for each species.
5 samples once every 2
weeks for each species.
(30 x 5 = 150 samples)
2
Below 7,500,000 but
over 1,000,000
Small
(>20,000week)
3
Salmonella:
Salmonella:
5 samples once every 4 weeks
for each species.
No reduction
Below 1,000,000
Salmonella:
(<20,000/week)
Not required
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