Meteorology Study Guide (Chaps 18, 19, and 20)

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Meteorology Study Guide (Chaps 18, 19, and 20)
Vocabulary: (Use your book to find the definitions)
Coriolis Effect
Precipitation
Evaporation
Condensation
Humidity
Relative humidity
Saturated air
Dew point
Orographic lifting
Front
Condensation nuclei
Cirrus
Cumulus
Stratus
Air pressure
Air mass
Front
Warm front
Cold front
Stationary front
Occluded front
Thunderstorm
Tornado
Hurricane
Questions:
1. Current, short-term variations in the atmosphere
are referred to as ____.
c. weather
a. humidity
d. the ionosphere
b. lapse rate
5. Lines on a map that connect points of equal or
constant pressures are called ____.
a. boundaries
c. fronts
b. isobars
d. station models
6. Areas where isobars are closer together indicate
__stronger winds___
7. Match each item with the correct type of air
mass. (mT, mP, cT, or cP)
a. warm and humid c. cool and humid
maritime tropical maritime polar
d. warm and dry
b. cold and dry
continental polar
continental tropical
8. Match each item with the correct statement
below.
i. trade winds
iii. prevailing westerlies
ii. polar easterlies iv. jet streams
a.
b.
c.
d.
Systems that lie between the poles and
about 60° latitude in both hemispheres
Polar easterlies
Narrow bands of fast, high-altitude westerly
winds
Jet streams
Winds occurring between 30° north and
south latitude and the equator
Prevailing westerlies
Winds that flow between 30° and 60° north
and south latitude
Polar easterlies
2. The Coriolis effect is due to the ____ of Earth.
a. revolution
c. shape
b. rotation
d. density
9. Would a six-month period with no rain in a place
that usually gets plentiful rainfall be considered a
weather phenomenon or a climate phenomenon?
climate
3. Low-pressure systems are usually associated with
____ weather.
a. cold and dry
c. sunny and dry
b. cloudy and rainy d. warm and humid
10. Describe how a cool, dry air mass can modify
into a warm, moist air mass
4. Lines on a map that connect points of equal or
constant temperatures are called ____.
a. boundaries
c. fronts
b. isotherms
d. station models
11. Compare and contrast the characteristics of a
high pressure system and a low pressure system.
High pressure = clear conditions; low pressure =
rainy conditions
Moves over a warm water source. Air takes on the
temperature and moist of the surface it lies over.
12. Compare and contrast air masses and fronts.
Meteorology Study Guide (Chaps 18, 19, and 20)
Air masses = large masses of air that have similar
temperatures and moisture levels; fronts =
boundary between air masses
19. Describe the formation of a tornado and
hurricane.
*See your notes from class on 4/17
13. Explain how air masses form
Read section 20.1 – Most important: know that it
takes on the characteristics of the surface it forms
over
20. Explain the relationship between temperature
and pressure. (Think about the cloud lab!)
As pressure increases, temperature increases
14. Explain how clouds form.
21. Rising air (ascending air) is associated with….
Read pages 512-516. Know the differences between
orographic lifting and frontal wedging.
Low pressure systems
15. Identify the four types of fronts and the weather
conditions associated with each one.
Cold – With greatly contrasting air masses on
either side of the front and potentially unstable
conditions, violent weather can form.
Warm – temperature warms and light to no
precipitation
Stationary – Gentle to moderate precipitation can
fall along the stationary front
Occluded – heavy, then light rain
22. Sinking air (descending air) is associated with…
High pressure systems
Reminders:
•
•
•
•
•
Be sure to review figure 3 on page 560,
pictures of the fronts, figure 3 on page 534,
and figure 12 on page 518
Review the processes that lift air
Know which direction the Coriolis Effect
deflects in the N. and S. Hemispheres
Review cloud types
Be able to read a weather map (Weather
Model class activity)
16. Compare and contrast a continental polar air
mass and a maritime tropical air mass.
Continental = forms over land; maritime = forms
over water; polar = forms in colder regions (higher
latitudes); tropical = forms in warmer regions
17. You examine two weather maps of your area for
two different days. One map shows isobars that are
closely spaced; the other shows isobars that are far
apart. Predict the difference in weather conditions
for those days.
Windy the first day and not windy the next day.
•
High Pressure
18. What are the 3 stages of a thunderstorm?
Cumulus, mature, dissipating
•
Low Pressure
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