HWF 1314 Unit 2 Fitness

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FITNESS
Health, Wellness & Fitness
Brenda Brown
[email protected]
480-727-1972
Adapted From Glenco Teen Health
Standards
STRAND 1: Comprehension of Health Promotion and
Disease Prevention Concepts
STRAND 2: Analysis of Factors Affecting Health Behaviors
STRAND 3: Access to Health Information, Products, and
Services to Enhance Health
STRAND 4: Use of Interpersonal Communication Skills to
Enhance Health
STRAND 5: Use of Decision-Making Skills to Enhance
Health
Physical Activity
Choosing an Active Lifestyle
Health experts advise teens to get 60 minutes of
physical activity on most days.
physical activity Any form of bodily movement that
uses up energy
This activity can be done all at once
or divided into 10- or 15-minute bursts.
Why is Physical Activity
Important ?
Physical Health
Mental/Emotional
Health
Physical activity
benefits each side
of the health
triangle.
Social Health
Why is Physical Activity
Important ?
Physical activity improves coordination, improves
balance, and burns calories.
coordination The smooth and effective working
together of your muscles and bones
balance The feeling of stability and control over
body
calories Units of heat that measure the energy
available in foods
Physical activity benefits each side of the health triangle.
• Physical health:
–Helps you heart and lungs work more efficiently
–Strengthens bones
–Improves sleep
–Burns extra calories that could lead to extra pounds
your
Physical
Health
Why is Physical Activity
Important ?
Physically active people are better able to handle
the stress and challenges of everyday life.
Physically active people have higher
self-esteem.
What else can you add to this list?
Mental/Emotional
Health
Physical activity benefits each side of the health triangle.
• Mental/emotional health:
–Being physically active will help you think more clearly and concentrate better in school.
Why is Physical Activity
Important ?
Physical activity can help you meet new
people.
How?
Social Health
Physical activity benefits each side of the health triangle.
• Social health:
–People who are physically fit are able to resolve conflicts effectively and work with others as a team.
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ physical
activity
Any form of bodily movement that uses up
energy
§ coordination
The smooth and effective working together of
your muscles and bones
§ balance
The feeling of stability and control over your
body
§ calories
Units of heat that measure the energy available in
foods
Physical Activity & Fitness
Physical activity is a key to physical fitness.
physical fitness The ability to handle the physical demands of
everyday life without becoming overly tired
People who are
physically fit have
enough energy to do
the things they want to
do.
People who are
physically fit have a
reserve of energy for
times when their body
needs it.
People who are
physically fit tend to live
longer and healthier
lives.
The Importance of Exercise
While every physical activity works various muscles,
exercise targets specific muscles.
exercise Planned physical
activity done regularly
to build or maintain
one’s fitness
The Importance of Exercise
The two categories of exercise are:
Aerobic exercise
Anaerobic exercise
aerobic exercise Rhythmic, nonstop, moderate to vigorous
activity that requires large amounts of oxygen
anaerobic exercise Intense physical activity that requires little
oxygen but uses short bursts of energy
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ physical
fitness
The ability to handle the physical demands of
everyday life without becoming overly tired
§ exercise
Planned physical activity done regularly to build or
maintain one’s fitness
§ aerobic
exercise
Rhythmic, nonstop, moderate to vigorous activity
that requires large amounts of oxygen
§ anaerobic
exercise
Intense physical activity that requires little oxygen but
uses short bursts of energy
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Recall
What are some health
benefits of becoming and
staying physically active?
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Evaluate
Evaluate your current activity level
by noting how many minutes you
are active in a typical day.
Tell what steps, if any,
you need to take to boost your
current activity level.
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Analyze
Alex would like to become more
physically active
but only if he can avoid exercising.
What advice would you give Alex?
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
Physical Activity Today
Warm Up & Stations
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ heart and
lung endurance
A measure of how efficiently your heart and
lungs work when you exercise and how quickly
they return to normal when you stop
§ muscle
strength
A measure of the most weight you can lift or the
most force you can exert at one time
§ muscle
endurance
A measure of a muscle’s ability to repeatedly
exert a force over a prolonged period of time
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ flexibility
The ability of your body’s joints to move easily
through a full range of motion
§ body
composition
The ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, such as
bone, muscle, and fluid
§ heredity
The passing of traits from parents to children
Measures of Fitness
Organizing Information
Copy this graphic organizer onto a sheet of paper.
Complete the organizer with information from the lesson.
Measures of
Fitness
Measures of Fitness
Five Elements of Fitness
Heart and Lung
Endurance
Flexibility
Muscle
Strength
Muscle
Endurance
Body
Composition
Elements of Fitness
Heart and Lung Endurance
When you have high heart and lung endurance,
you can work or play for long periods without
running out of “steam.”
heart and lung endurance A measure of how efficiently your heart
and lungs work when you exercise and how quickly they return to
normal when you stop.
• Activities that build heart and lung endurance include swimming and cycling. Swimming carries the added advantage of
providing a total body workout.
• Other related exercises that can improve heart and lung endurance are walking, jogging, and running.
• If you walk, your goal should be 30 minutes at a brisk pace. If you jog or run, aim for at least 20 minutes.
• Try alternating walking and jogging and slowly work up to 20 minutes of jogging.
Elements of Fitness
Muscle strength and muscle endurance
are important to overall fitness.
muscle strength A measure of the most weight you can lift or
the most force you can exert at one time
muscle endurance A measure of a muscle’s ability to
repeatedly exert a force over a prolonged
period of time
Elements of Fitness
Muscle Endurance
• Push-ups strengthen muscles in your arms and chest
• Another approach to building muscles strength is weight lifting, which is also known as resistance training. Weight
lifting can be used to strengthen every muscle group. Your workout should be supervised by a fitness instructor.
Elements of Fitness
Flexibility permits bending, turning, and stretching.
flexibility The ability of your body’s joints to move easily
a full range of motion
through
Flexibility helps reduce your risk of muscle injury.
You can improve your flexibility through regular stretching, bending, and twisting exercises. Move slowly and gently, holding
each stretch. This will gradually improve the flexibility of your muscle groups.
Elements of Fitness
Body Composition
One of the keys to improving body composition
is to eat healthy foods and increase your physical activity.
body composition The ratio of body fat to lean body tissue,
such as bone, muscle, and fluid
Teens with too much body fat generally have a weight problem.
By taking in less calories and burning more calories through exercise, they
will lose some of the excess weight.
The skinfold test involves pinching a fold of skin on the back of your upper arm and on the inside of your lower leg.
Each fold is measures with and instrument called a skinfold caliper. Ask your fitness instructor about the skinfold test.
Elements of Fitness
Fitness and a Healthy Attitude
Heredity is one factor that influences
how a person performs on fitness tests.
heredity The passing of traits from parents to their children
• Speed is an example of a trait that is often inherited, or passed down, from parents. People who can run fast have
more of one type of muscle fiber than another.
• Differences like these don’t make one person better—or worse—than another.
Elements of Fitness
Fitness and a Healthy Attitude
If you want to improve your level of
fitness, you will need to set goals for
yourself.
Even more important is to keep a positive
outlook about what you can do.
Remember that everyone has limits. You can only make so much progress in a short period of time.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Identify
What are some exercises that will
improve muscle strength and
endurance?
What are some that will improve
flexibility?
muscle strength and endurance: curls, chin-ups, step-ups, push-ups, and weight-training; flexibility: stretching, bending,
and twisting
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Evaluate
Natalie wants to become
a ballet dancer.
What area of fitness should she
concentrate on improving?
How should she go about doing this?
She should concentrate on improving flexibility by doing exercises such as stretching.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Synthesize
When Don scored low on the test
for muscle strength and
endurance, he decided that fitness
is simply “not for him.”
What is wrong with Don’s attitude?
What advice would you give him?
Don's attitude is negative. Students should advise him to exercise to improve his muscle strength and endurance and then
take the test again.
Physical Activity Today
Warm Up & Stations
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ crosstraining
Switching between different activities and exercises on
different days
§ FITT
principle
A method for safely increasing aspects of your
workout without injuring yourself
§ resting
heart rate
The number of times your heart beats per minute
when you are relaxing
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ target
heart rate
The range of numbers between which your heart and
lungs receive the most benefit from a workout
§ warm-up
A period of low to moderate exercise to prepare your
body for more vigorous activity
§ cool down
A period of low to moderate exercise to prepare your
body to end a workout session
FITNESS GOALS
Identifying Fitness Goals
Your goals should include strategies that
will help you improve and maintain all
three sides of your health triangle.
• You wouldn’t start a long road trip without first mapping out a route. In the same way, reaching a fitness goal requires a
plan.
• A first step in developing a plan is deciding what your goals are. What do you personally hope to accomplish?
FITNESS GOALS
Choosing Activities and Exercises
Personal tastes and the specific
equipment requirements of an activity are
factors to consider when choosing
activities and exercises.
• Make sure you choose activities that you will enjoy doing.
• Some activities will require special equipment, such as racquets, balls, and gloves. Many activities require protective
gear, such as helmets or knee pads.
FITNESS GOALS
Choosing Activities and Exercises
Cross-training is a way to keep your
interest level high.
cross-training Switching between different activities and
exercises on different days
Working on improving many areas should be the goal of every fitness plan. Your plan, for example, should include at least
20 to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise 3 to 5 times a week.
FITNESS GOALS
Choosing Activities and Exercises
FITNESS GOALS
Creating a Schedule
Questions to consider when creating a
schedule are:
Will your fitness schedule conflict with other
aspects of your daily activities?
Will the seasons interfere with your fitness
schedule?
Does the community have fitness centers
that are open to the public?
Be practical and realistic when creating a fitness schedule.
FITNESS GOALS
Creating a Schedule
Putting your plan in writing will help you stay
on track and help you stick with your goal.
Start by listing all physical activities that are currently part of your routine. Be sure to count any outside activities that
involve physical movement, such as dance lessons.
FITNESS GOALS
Building Fitness Levels
As you progress in your activities, adjust each activity
using the FITT principle.
FITT principle A method for safely increasing aspects of
your workout without injuring yourself
FITNESS GOALS
Building Fitness Levels
The FITT Principle
Frequency
How often you work different muscle groups.
Intensity
How hard you work different muscle groups.
Time
A measure of how long you spend per session.
Type
The type of activity you choose to do.
Frequency:
• Gradually increase the number of times per week you work a muscle group.
Intensity:
• If you are lifting weights, you increase intensity by adding more weight. If you are running laps, you increase intensity
by increasing your speed.
Time, or duration:
• Teens should get a total of 60 minutes of activity on most days. If you are just beginning and activity or exercise, you
will need to start by doing less than that. You will slowly build up your endurance to a point where you can do the full
hour.
Type:
• A complete workout package should feature aerobic and anaerobic exercises.
FITNESS GOALS
Monitoring Your Heart Rate
During exercise, there are two heart rate measures to
take. They are resting heart rate and target heart
rate.
resting heart rate The number of times your heart beats per minute when
you are relaxing
target heart rate The range of numbers between which your heart
lungs receive the most benefit
Resting heart rate should be taken when you are relaxing.
and
FITNESS GOALS
Monitoring Your Heart Rate
Calculating Your Target Heart Rate
• Subtract your age from 220.
• Multiply the resulting number by 0.6 and again
by 0.8.
• The range of numbers between the two
products represents your target heart rate.
FITNESS GOALS
Warming Up and Cooling Down
Every exercise should begin with a warm-up and end
with a cool down.
warm-up A period of low to moderate exercise to prepare your
body for more vigorous activity
cool down A period of low to moderate exercise to prepare
your body to end a workout session
FITNESS WORKOUT
Warming Up and Cooling Down
Warm-ups:
Should last around ten minutes
Should include light aerobic exercise to get the
blood flowing
Should be finished with some simple stretches
• Your goal should be to get your muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints primed for action.
• Stretch only the muscles that have been warmed up. Stretching cold muscles could lead to injury.
• Walking or jogging in place are excellent warm-up activities.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Warming Up and Cooling Down
Cool downs:
Return blood circulation and body temperature to
normal
Should last ten minutes
Should include gentle stretching exercises
The gentle stretching exercises you do in a cool-down can be the same stretches you did in the warm-up.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Recall
Name two factors that need to be considered when
choosing activities or exercises.
Any two: whether you enjoy them; what, if any, special equipment is needed; whether you need lessons or special
instruction; and whether a partner is required
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Explain
Why are warm-ups and cool downs important parts of any
fitness routine?
to prevent injuries to muscles, joints, and connective tissue
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Synthesize
Rich has made more progress than he expected in the
first three weeks of weight lifting. He now plans to
increase his load and the length of his sessions. Do you
think Rich has made a good decision? What positive
health behavior should Rich do to prevent health
problems?
No; he should increase only one FITT element at a time.
Physical Activity Today
Warm Up & Stations
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Evaluate
Anne has planned out a schedule that includes four hours
of activity and exercise each day. Previously she has
been sedentary. What do you think are her chances of
success with her fitness program?
Anne is likely to fail at her fitness program because it is too ambitious, especially given her previously sedentary lifestyle.
VOCABULARY
Click to reveal the definitions.
§ conditioning
A regular activity and exercise that prepares a
person for a sport
§ PRICE
formula
Protect, Rest, Ice, Compress, and Elevate
§ dehydration
A condition caused by excessive water loss
§ heat
exhaustion
An overheating of the body that can result from
dehydration
FITNESS WORKOUT
Sports Conditioning and Avoiding Injury
Athletes devote many hours off the field to
physical conditioning.
conditioning A regular activity and exercise that
prepares a person for a sport
Maintaining a healthy diet and getting
enough rest are important aspects of
conditioning.
• Some conditioning takes place right before a contest. For example, baseball players practice batting and fielding.
• Conditioning may also include weight training and other exercises.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Sports Nutrition
Guidelines for sports nutrition include:
Eat carbohydrates before a game.
Avoid foods high in simple sugars.
Before and during a contest, drink plenty
of water.
•
•
•
•
The term nutrition refers to a person’s eating habits.
Carbohydrates include whole-grain foods, fruits, and vegetables.
Sugars provide a burst of energy, but one that lasts only briefly.
During a game, your body loses water through perspiration. Drink at least eight ounces of water before a game. Then
take sips periodically during the game to replenish fluids.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Minimizing Risk
Two ways to reduce the risks during sports include:
Use the right equipment.
Know your limits.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Minimizing Risk
Proper Gear
P Wear shoes appropriate to the game.
P Wear shoes that fit properly and provide adequate support.
P Wear sunglasses for sports played outdoors.
P Wear the appropriate protective gear such as athletic supporters, knee pads,
elbow pads, and helmets.
Choose shatterproof sunglasses with lenses that offer UV protection.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Minimizing Risk
Know your limits. Pain is your body’s
way of telling you to slow down or stop.
If someone tells you “No pain, no gain,” do not believe them.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Treating Injuries
When a muscle stiffens or aches, the
PRICE formula will provide some relief.
PRICE formula Protect, Rest, Ice, Compress, and Elevate
• Sometimes even when you are cautious, injuries can occur, especially when you are playing contact sports.
• The PRICE formula should be used as soon as possible after the game, event, or activity.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Treating Injuries
P
Protect the injured part from further injury by keeping it still.
R
Rest the injured part.
I
Ice the part using an ice pack.
C
Compress, or put pressure on, the part using an elastic bandage.
E
Elevate the injured part above the level of the heart.
Compressing the part will keep the injury from swelling. It will also help keep that part of your body motionless. Be
careful not to wrap the bandage too tightly. This could cut off the flow of blood.
FITNESS WORKOUT
Weather-Related Injuries
If you are not careful to replace water lost
through perspiration, you risk dehydration.
dehydration A condition caused by
excessive water loss
Dehydration can lead to heat exhaustion.
heat exhaustion An overheating of the body that can result
from dehydration
• When the temperature rises in the summer, so does your body’s. You perspire more, which is your body’s way of
cooling you down.
• Symptoms of heat exhaustion include dizziness and headache. People who have heat exhaustion have skin that feels
clammy when touched.
• If someone shows the signs of heat exhaustion, he or she needs to be taken to a cool, shady spot. The person should
receive plenty of fluids. If the symptoms do not go away, call for help immediately.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Recall
Recall
What type of treatment is used for an
exercise-related or sport-related injury such
as muscle soreness?
Protect, Rest, Ice, Compress, and Elevate
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Analyze
Analyze
Mel has tried on several pairs of cleats. The only
pair he thinks look good on him are a size too
small. He plans to buy the shoes anyway. How
could you help Mel make a healthful decision if
you were the salesperson?
How the shoes fit is more important than how they look. He should buy shoes that are the correct size and provide support.
Words For Life
Critical Thinking: Apply
Thinking Critically
Apply
Keely has one more lap to run around the track
to finish her routine for the day. She is feeling
light-headed and dizzy. What steps would you
take to help Keely if you were there at the
track?
You might assume that Angela has heat exhaustion. You should tell Angela to stop exercising and sit in a cool, shady spot.
You should make sure she drinks plenty of fluids. If the symptoms do not clear up, you should call for help right away.
Physical Activity Today
Warm Up & Stations
Aerobic exercise:
• Aerobic exercise works a very important muscle in your body—your heat. It also benefits the lungs.
• Examples include stair climbing, swimming, running, biking, and many forms of dancing.
Anaerobic exercise:
• Examples include lifting weights, gymnastics, and football.
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