An Introduction to Rhetoric English 11AP Mr. Llewellyn What is Rhetoric? ● Defined by the Greek philosopher Aristotle as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.” ● What does this mean? Why Use Rhetoric? ● Effective communication ● The rational exchange of opposing viewpoints ● Appealing to an audience ● Resolving conflicts without confrontation Why Use Rhetoric? ● What are some occasions in which you need to argue or persuade? ● What effective methods do you use? ● In what contexts might you need rhetoric in later life? Key Elements of Rhetoric ● Lou Gehrig – 7/4/39 ● Farewell Speech ● Why is this an effective speech? ● What is the context? ○ The occasion ● What is the purpose? ○ The goal The Rhetorical Triangle Speaker Audience Subject Consider Gehrig’s speech in light of these interactions. The Rhetorical Triangle ● Subject ○ What do you know about it? ○ What has already been said about it? ○ What evidence or proof can you show? ● Speaker ○ What is your persona? ● Audience ○ Who is your audience? ○ What does your audience already know? ○ What is its attitude? Ethos, Logos, and Pathos ● How to appeal to your audience. ● Ethos: Character ● Logos: Reason ● Pathos: Emotion Ethos, Logos, or Pathos? Ethos, Logos, or Pathos? Ethos, Logos, or Pathos? Ethos, Logos, or Pathos? Ethos (Character) ● Why should I listen to you? ● The writer is credible and trustworthy ● Shared values between speaker and audience ● Expertise, knowledge ● Tone ● How does Gehrig establish ethos? Logos (Reason) ● Clear, rational ideas ● A thesis and details ● Examples, facts, data, support ● Concede and then refute counterargument ● How does Gehrig use logos? Pathos (Emotion) ● Connotative language ● Vivid, concrete description ● Figurative language ● Visual elements ● Propaganda? ● How does Gehrig appeal to pathos? Review 1. What is rhetoric? 2. Define context and purpose. 3. Draw the rhetorical triangle. 4. Define ethos, logos, and pathos.