01 - An Introduction to Rhetoric

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An Introduction to Rhetoric
English 11AP
Mr. Llewellyn
What is Rhetoric?
● Defined by the Greek
philosopher Aristotle as
“the faculty of observing
in any given case the
available means of
persuasion.”
● What does this mean?
Why Use Rhetoric?
● Effective
communication
● The rational
exchange of
opposing viewpoints
● Appealing to an
audience
● Resolving conflicts
without confrontation
Why Use Rhetoric?
● What are some occasions in which you
need to argue or persuade?
● What effective methods do you use?
● In what contexts might you need rhetoric
in later life?
Key Elements of Rhetoric
● Lou Gehrig – 7/4/39
● Farewell Speech
● Why is this an
effective speech?
● What is the context?
○ The occasion
● What is the purpose?
○ The goal
The Rhetorical Triangle
Speaker
Audience
Subject
Consider Gehrig’s speech in light of these interactions.
The Rhetorical Triangle
● Subject
○ What do you know about it?
○ What has already been said about it?
○ What evidence or proof can you show?
● Speaker
○ What is your persona?
● Audience
○ Who is your audience?
○ What does your audience already know?
○ What is its attitude?
Ethos, Logos, and Pathos
● How to appeal to
your audience.
● Ethos: Character
● Logos: Reason
● Pathos: Emotion
Ethos, Logos, or Pathos?
Ethos, Logos, or Pathos?
Ethos, Logos, or Pathos?
Ethos, Logos, or Pathos?
Ethos (Character)
● Why should I listen to you?
● The writer is credible and trustworthy
● Shared values between speaker and
audience
● Expertise, knowledge
● Tone
● How does Gehrig establish ethos?
Logos (Reason)
● Clear, rational ideas
● A thesis and details
● Examples, facts, data, support
● Concede and then refute
counterargument
● How does Gehrig use logos?
Pathos (Emotion)
● Connotative language
● Vivid, concrete description
● Figurative language
● Visual elements
● Propaganda?
● How does Gehrig appeal to pathos?
Review
1. What is rhetoric?
2. Define context and purpose.
3. Draw the rhetorical triangle.
4. Define ethos, logos, and pathos.
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