Chapter 14: Motivation -

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PowerPoint Presentation
to Accompany
Management, 10/e
John R. Schermerhorn, Jr.
Chapter 13:
Motivation Theory and Practice
Prepared by: Jim LoPresti
University of Colorado, Boulder
Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Planning Ahead — Chapter 13 Study Questions
 How do individual needs influence
motivation?
 What are the process theories of
motivation?
 What role does reinforcement play in
motivation?
 What are the alternative approaches
to job design?
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence
motivation?
Types of content theories:
 Hierarchy
 ERG
of needs theory
theory
 Two-factor
 Acquired
theory
needs theory
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence
motivation?
 Motivation and individual needs
 Motivation—the forces within the individual that
account for the level, direction, and persistence of
effort expended at work.
 Needs




Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of
an individual.
Explain workplace behavior and attitudes.
Create tensions that influence attitudes and
behavior.
Good managers and leaders facilitate employee
need satisfaction.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Figure 13.1 Opportunities for satisfaction in
Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Hierarchy of needs theory

Deficit principle

A satisfied need is not a motivator of
behavior.

Progression principle

A need at one level does not become
activated until the next lower-level need is
satisfied.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Hierarchy of needs theory




Developed by Abraham Maslow.
Lower-order and higher-order needs affect
workplace behavior and attitudes.
Lower-order needs:
 Physiological, safety, and social needs.
 Desires for physical and social well being.
Higher-order needs:
 Esteem and self-actualization needs.
 Desire for psychological growth and
development.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 ERG theory


Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
Three need levels:
Existence needs — desires for
physiological and material well-being.
 Relatedness needs — desires for
satisfying interpersonal relationships.
 Growth needs — desires for continued
psychological growth and development.

Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 ERG theory

Any/all needs can influence behavior at
one time.

Frustration-regression principle.

An already satisfied lower-level need
becomes reactivated when a higher-level
need is frustrated.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Two-factor theory


Developed by Frederick Herzberg.
Hygiene factors:
Elements of the job context.
 Sources of job dissatisfaction.


Satisfier factors:
Elements of the job content.
 Sources of job satisfaction and
motivation.

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Figure 13.2 Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Acquired needs theory
 Developed by David McClelland.
 People acquire needs through their life
experiences.
 Needs that are acquired:
Need for Achievement (nAch)
Need for Power (nPower)
Need for Affiliation (nAff)
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Acquired needs theory

Need for Achievement (nAch)


Desire to do something better or more
efficiently, to solve problems, or to
master complex tasks.
People high in (nAch) prefer work that:
Involves individual responsibility for
results.
 Involves achievable but challenging goals.
 Provides feedback on performance.

Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Acquired needs theory
 Need for Power (nPower)
Desire to control other persons, to
influence their behavior, or to be
responsible for other people.
 Personal power versus social power.


People high in (nPower) prefer work
that:
Involves control over other persons.
 Has an impact on people and events.
 Brings public recognition and attention.

Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Acquired needs theory

Need for Affiliation (nAff)


Desire to establish and maintain friendly
and warm relations with other persons.
People high in (nAff) prefer work that:

Involves interpersonal relationships.

Provides for companionship

Brings social approval.
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Study Question 2: What are the different types of
individual needs?
 Questions for summarizing the
content theories of motivation:
 How many different individual needs
are there?
 Can a work outcome or reward satisfy
more than one need?
 Is there a hierarchy of needs?
 How important are the various needs?
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Process theories of motivation …


How people make choices to work hard or not.
Choices are based on:
 Individual preferences.
 Available rewards.
 Possible work outcomes.
 Types of process theories:



Equity theory.
Expectancy theory.
Goal-setting theory.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Equity theory


Developed by J. Stacy Adams.
When people believe that they have
been treated unfairly in comparison to
others, they try to eliminate the
discomfort and restore a perceived
sense of equity to the situation.

Perceived inequity.

Perceived equity.
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Figure 13.3 Equity theory and the role of social
comparison.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Equity theory

People respond to perceived negative
inequity by changing …

Work inputs.

Rewards received.

Comparison points.

Situation.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Managerial implications of equity
theory—
 Underpaid people experience anger.
 Overpaid people experience guilt.
 Perceptions of rewards determine motivational
outcomes.
 Negative consequences of equity comparisons
should be minimized, if not eliminated.
 Do not underestimate the impact of pay as a
source of equity controversies in the workplace.
 Gender equity.
 Comparable worth.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Expectancy theory


Developed by Victor Vroom.
Key expectancy theory variables:
Expectancy — belief that working hard
will result in desired level of performance.
 Instrumentality — belief that successful
performance will be followed by rewards.
 Valence — value a person assigns to
rewards and other work related
outcomes.

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Figure 13.4 Elements in the expectancy theory of
motivation.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Expectancy theory

Motivation (M), expectancy (E),
instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are
related to one another in a
multiplicative fashion:
M=ExIxV

If either E, I, or V is low,
motivation will be low.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Managerial implications of
expectancy theory—

To maximize expectancy, managers
should:

Select workers with ability.

Train workers to use ability.

Support work efforts.

Clarify performance goals.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Managerial implications of
expectancy theory—

To maximize instrumentality, managers
should:

Clarify psychological contracts.

Communicate performance-outcome
possibilities.

Identify rewards that are contingent on
performance.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Managerial implications of
expectancy theory—

To maximize valence in a positive
direction, managers should:
 Identify
 Adjust
individual needs.
rewards to match individual
needs.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Goal-setting theory



Developed by Edwin Locke.
Properly set and well-managed task goals can
be highly motivating.
Motivational effects of task goals:

Provide direction to people in their work.

Clarify performance expectations.

Establish a frame of reference for feedback.

Provide a foundation for behavioral selfmanagement.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Key issues and principles in the
goal-setting process:






Set specific goals.
Set challenging goals.
Build goal acceptance and
commitment.
Clarify goal priorities.
Provide feedback on goal
accomplishment.
Reward goal accomplishment.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Goal-setting theory
 Participation in goal setting



unlocks the motivational potential of goal
setting.
management by objectives (MBO) promotes
participation.
when participation is not possible, workers
will respond positively if supervisory trust
and support exist.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Self-Efficacy Theory
 a person’s belief that he or she is capable
of performing a task
 Capability directly affects motivation


higher self-efficacy will have higher
expectancy.
self-efficacy is linked to performance goal
setting.
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Study Question 2: What are the process theories of
motivation?
 Self-Efficacy Theory
 Enactive mastery – person gains confidence
through positive experience
 Vicarious modeling – learning by observing others
 Verbal persuasion – encouragement from others
that one can perform a task
 Emotional arousal – high stimulation or energy to
perform well in a situation
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement
play in motivation?
 Fundamentals of reinforcement theory
Reinforcement theory focuses on the impact
of external environmental consequences on
behavior.


Law of effect — impact of type of consequence on
future behavior.
Operant conditioning:


Developed by B.F. Skinner.
Applies law of effect to control behavior by
manipulating its consequences.
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement
play in motivation?
 Operant conditioning strategies:

Positive reinforcement


Increases the frequency of a behavior
through the contingent presentation of a
pleasant consequence.
Negative reinforcement

Increases the frequency of a behavior
through the contingent removal of an
unpleasant consequence.
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement
play in motivation?
 Operant conditioning strategies:

Punishment


Decreases the frequency of a behavior
through the contingent presentation of
an unpleasant consequence.
Extinction

Decreases the frequency of a behavior
through the contingent removal of an
pleasant consequence.
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement
play in motivation?
 Successful implementation of
positive reinforcement is based on
 Law of contingent reinforcement —
 Reward

delivered only if desired
behavior is exhibited.
Law of immediate reinforcement —
 More immediate the delivery of a
reward, the more reinforcement
value it has.
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement
play in motivation?
 Guidelines for using positive
reinforcement:





Clearly identify desired work behaviors.
Maintain a diverse inventory of
rewards.
Inform everyone about what must be
done to get rewards.
Recognize individual differences when
allocating rewards.
Follow the laws of immediate and
contingent reinforcement.
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement
play in motivation?
 Guidelines for using punishment:

Tell the person what is being done
wrong.

Tell the person what is being done right.

Match the punishment to the behavior.

Administer punishment in private.

Follow laws of immediate and contingent
reinforcement.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Figure 13.5 Applying reinforcement strategies: case
of total quality management.
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Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play
in motivation?
 Schedules of reinforcement:





Continuous reinforcement administers a reward
each time a desired behavior occurs.
Intermittent reinforcement rewards behavior only
periodically.
Acquisition of behavior is quicker with continuous
reinforcement.
Behavior acquired under an intermittent schedule
is more permanent.
Shaping is the creation of a new behavior by
positive reinforcement of successive
approximations to it.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Job

A collection of tasks performed in support of
organizational objectives.
 Job design


The process of creating or defining jobs by
assigning specific work tasks to individuals and
groups.
Jobs should be designed so that both
performance and satisfaction result.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Job simplification.



Standardizing work procedures and
employing people in well-defined and
highly specialized tasks.
Simplified jobs are narrow in job scope
and low in job depth.
Automation.
Total mechanization of a job.
 Most extreme form of job simplification.

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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?

Potential
advantages of
job
simplification:




Easier and quicker
training of workers.
Workers are less
difficult to supervise.
Workers are easier to
replace.
Development of
expertise in doing
repetitive tasks.

Potential
disadvantages of
job simplification:



Management 10/e - Chapter 13
Productivity suffers.
Cost increases due
to absenteeism/
turnover of unhappy
workers.
Poor performance
may result from
worker boredom/
alienation.
43
Figure 13.6 A continuum of job design alternatives.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Job rotation and job enlargement:

Expands job scope.

Job rotation.


Increases task variety by periodically shifting
workers among jobs involving different task
assignments.
Job enlargement.


Increases task variety by combining two or
more tasks previously assigned to separate
workers.
Horizontal loading.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Job enrichment.

Building more opportunities for
satisfaction into a job by expanding its
content.

Expands both job scope and job depth.

Frequently accomplished through
vertical loading.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Critical psychological states:
 Experienced meaningfulness of work.

Experienced responsibilities for work
outcomes.

Knowledge of actual results of work
activities.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Core job characteristics:
 Skill variety.

Task identity.

Task significance.

Autonomy.

Feedback.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Moderating variables:

Growth-need strength (GNS).

People with high GNS will respond most
positively to enriched jobs.

Knowledge and skills.

Context satisfactions.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Improving core job characteristics:

Form natural units of work.

Combine tasks.

Establish client relationships.

Open feedback channels.

Practice vertical loading.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Checklist for enriching jobs:





Remove controls that limit people’s discretion
in their work.
Grant people authority to make decisions
about their work.
Make people understand their accountability
for results.
Allow people to do “whole” tasks or complete
units of work.
Make performance feedback available.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Figure 13.7 Job design and individual work outcomes
using the core characteristics model.
Source: Reprinted by permission from J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980), p. 90.
Management 10/e - Chapter 13
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Compressed workweek.



Any work schedule that allows a fulltime job to be completed in less than
the standard 5 days of 8-hour shifts.
Benefits — more leisure time, lower
commuting costs, lower absenteeism,
and potentially improved performance.
Disadvantages — increased fatigue,
family adjustment problems, increased
scheduling problems, possible customer
complaints, and union opposition.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Flexible working hours.

Any work schedule that gives employees
some choice in the pattern of their daily
work hours.
 Core
time — all employees must be
at work.
 Flextime — allows employees to
schedule around personal and family
responsibilities.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Potential benefits of flexible working
hours:



People have greater autonomy in work
scheduling while ensuring maintenance
of work responsibilities.
Organizations can attract and retain
employees who have special non-work
responsibilities.
Worker morale may be improved.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Job sharing.

One full-time job is split between two
or more persons.
 Work sharing.

An agreement between employees to
cut back their work hours to avoid
layoffs or termination.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Potential advantages of work sharing


Trained and loyal workers can be retained while
temporarily cutting labor costs.
Continued work  but with reduced earnings  for
those who would otherwise be laid off.
 Potential disadvantages of work sharing

Employees who might otherwise be protected by
seniority may suffer an income loss.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Telecommuting.

A work arrangement that allows a
portion of scheduled work hours to be
completed outside of the office.

Hoteling.

Virtual offices.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Potential advantages of telecommuting:





Freedom from
 Constraints of commuting.
 Fixed hours.
 Special work attire.
 Direct contact with supervisors.
Increased productivity.
Fewer distractions.
Being one’s own boss.
Having more personal time.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Potential disadvantages of
telecommuting:







Working too much.
Having less personal time.
Difficulty in separating work and personal life.
Less time for family.
Feelings of isolation.
Loss of visibility for promotion.
Difficulties supervising work-at-home
employees from a distance.
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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Part-time work.


Work done on any schedule less than
the standard 40-hour workweek and
does not qualify person as a full-time
employee.
Contingency workers
Part-time workers who supplement the
full-time workforce, often on a long-term
basis.
 Now constitute 30 percent of the
American workforce.

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Study Question 4: What are the alternative
approaches to job design?
 Implications of part-time work:



Provides employers with flexibility in
controlling labor costs and dealing with
cyclical labor demands.
Temporary workers may lack
commitment and be less productive.
Contingency workers are often paid
less and don’t receive important fringe
benefits.
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