Section Section 1 1 Standards-Based Instruction The Tang and Song Dynasties Reading Preview Standards at a Glance Students learned about the Aztec civilization in the previous chapter. In this section, students will explore the great accomplishments of the Tang and Song dynasties in China. H-SS 7.3.1 Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan. H-SS 7.3.6 Describe the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class. Section Focus Question How did the Tang and Song dynasties strengthen China? Before you begin the lesson for the day, write the Section Focus Question on the board. (Lesson focus: The Tang and Song dynasties brought stable government, economic growth, and a focus on arts and literature to China.) H-SS Historical Interpretation 2 Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the longand short-term causal relations. Reading Skill Understand Sequence In this section, you will read about several dynasties that ruled in ancient China. Understanding the sequence of rule in these dynasties is critical to fully understanding the history. Look for verbs that indicate sequence, such as led. Look for dates that indicate when different rulers and dynasties had power. Look for named time periods. Vocabulary Builder High-Use Words subtle (SUHT uhl), p. 270 minimize (MIHN ih mìz), p. 271 Key Terms and People Tang Taizong (tahng tì dzuhng), p. 268 bureaucracy (byoo RAH kruh see), p. 269 Empress Wu (woo), p. 269 Li Bo (lee boh), p. 270 scholar-official (SKAHL uhr uh FIHSH uhl), p. 271 merit system (MER iht SIHS tuhm), p. 272 urbanization (er buh nih ZAY shuhn), p. 273 Prepare to Read Build Background Knowledge Background Knowledge China is one of the world’s Review the concept of dynasty by reminding students of the Muslim dynasties (the Umayyads and the Abbasids) that they read about in Chapter 4. Ask: What is a dynasty? (a family that holds political power over several generations) Remind students, too, that these dynasties ultimately failed to keep control of the vast Muslim Empire. Ask: Why is a strong government important in a vast empire? (Possible answer: A vast empire is spread out and might include a variety of cultures. A strong government is needed to unite, control, and protect a vast empire.) Explain that students now will learn about the dynastic system in ancient China. Set a Purpose ■ Read each statement in the Reading Readiness Guide aloud. Ask students to mark the statements true or false. Have students discuss the statements in pairs or groups of four and then mark their worksheets again. Use the Numbered Heads strategy (TE p. T38) to call on students to share their group’s perspectives. The students will return to these worksheets later. 268 Chapter 10 The Splendor of the Tang After the Tang Dynasty unified China, their capital city became a rich center for trade and the arts flourished. The fall of the Han Dynasty in A.D. 220 left China divided into separate kingdoms. Finally, in 618, a new dynasty, the Tang, rose up to reunite China. The Tang ruled for nearly 300 years. They expanded the nation’s borders and built a strong central government. The Tang Rulers A military leader known as Tang Taizong founded the Tang Dynasty. Over many years, armies led by Taizong reunited China. Taizong also brought stable government back to China. L2 Teaching Resources, Unit 5, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 15 ■ oldest civilizations. More than 2,000 years ago, the Han Dynasty made China into a vast empire. But, eventually, the Han, too, fell from power. In this section, you will read about the development of China under the Tang and Song dynasties. L2 268 Chapter 10 China’s Golden Age Universal Access L1 English Language Learners L1 Less Proficient Readers Mastering Vocabulary Have students make a list of this section’s high-use words and key terms and people. Then, have them create flashcards with the word on one side and its definition (or, in the case of key people, a one-sentence identifying statement) on the other. Partners can use flashcards to quiz each other. L1 Special Needs Tracking Sequence To help students remember the order of events in Section 1, ask them to create a timeline of the important dates, starting with A.D. 618 (the start of the Tang Dynasty) and continuing to A.D. 1127 (the beginning of the Southern Song era). Students should annotate key dates with explanatory details. Taizong brought stability to his empire by reviving China’s official bureaucracy. A bureaucracy is a system of government with many departments and bureaus, all headed by appointed officials. Each official has a rank and fixed responsibilities. Taizong’s goal in setting up this bureaucracy was to create an efficient government. He was so successful that some historians today view him as China’s greatest emperor. Other strong rulers followed. One, Empress Wu, was the only woman emperor in Chinese history. To many Chinese, having a woman rule was as unnatural as having a “hen crow like a rooster.” To challenge such beliefs, the empress worked to raise the position of women. She had scholars write biographies of famous women. She also argued that the ideal ruler cares for the people like a mother cares for her children. Teach The Splendor of the Tang H-SS 7.3.1; HI 2 Instruction ■ High-Use Words Before teaching this section, preteach the high-use words subtle and minimize, using the strategy on TE p. 267. Key Terms Following the instructions on p. 7, have students create a See It– Remember It chart for the key terms in this section. The Tang Capital The Tang established their capital in Chang’an (chahng ahn). Under their rule, Chang’an became a great city. With a population of about 2 million, it was the largest city in the world. A million people crowded within the city walls, and another million lived just outside. ■ Read The Splendor of the Tang with students, using the Structured Silent Reading strategy (TE p. T36). ■ Ask: How did Tang Taizong bring stability to China? (He revived China’s beaurocracy.) Why do some historians consider him China’s greatest emperor? (because he created a vast, efficient government) ■ When students have read about Empress Wu, ask: Why did many Chinese worry that she would weaken rather than strengthen China? (As a woman, people thought she was an “unnatural” ruler.) How did Empress Wu show personal strength? (Possible answer: by standing up for women and trying to make people appreciate the contributions of women) China Under the Tang and Song Dynasties 50°N 0˚E 15 °N 40 50˚ E °N 30 ng R . KEY H Song Dynasty, 1100 Ch Silk Road Tang capital W S °N 20 1,000 90˚E 80˚E 110˚E 100˚E 70˚E 0 miles 1,000 Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection South China Sea 130˚E City 0 km East China Sea R. 120˚E Song capital g an E Hangzhou ˚E 140 Grand Canal N Kaifeng Chang’an 60˚E Great Wall Yellow Sea ua Tang Dynasty, 660 L2 Vocabulary Builder 10° N This map shows the areas controlled by the Tang and Song dynasties at the height of their power. (a) Locate Describe Chang'an's location in relation to the Silk Road. (b) Draw Conclusions Why would this city be important both politically and economically? For: Interactive map Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxp-5101 Section 1 The Tang and Song Dynasties 269 History Background Big Wild Goose Pagoda The Big Wild Goose Pagoda in Chang’an is one of the best-known Buddhist pagodas in China. Begun in A.D. 589 as a place to store and translate hundreds of volumes of Buddhist scriptures brought to China from India, the pagoda was completed in A.D. 652. It was built of brick, without mortar, and stood five stories in height. During the Tang era, everyone who passed the civil service examinations was required to climb up the pagoda and write a poem or other inscription on it. This tradition symbolized the hope of a successful government career. Although much of the original pagoda has been destroyed and renovated, many of the old inscriptions still can be read today. Answer (a) It is at the start of the Silk Road. (b) Trade caravans started and ended there. Chapter 10 Section 1 269 Chang’an may also have been the largest planned city ever built. It was laid out in the form of a square. Its avenues and streets formed a grid pattern. Two large markets were located on opposite sides of the city. Great homes, temples, and gardens stood inside the walls. The imperial palace lay at the end of a broad avenue leading to the city’s main gate. It was a sight designed to impress visitors with the power and magnificence of the Tang government. Chang’an was a thriving cultural and commercial center. People from all over Asia came there to trade. Turks, Indians, Persians, Koreans, Jews, and other visitors filled its streets and markets. Camels carried goods out of the city along the Silk Road. Actors, musicians, and other performers provided public entertainment. Instruction (continued) ■ ■ Ask: What was one purpose of the design of Chang’an? (to attract visitors and commerce) At this point, distribute the Primary Source worksheet Descriptions of Chang’an to students. After students have completed it, ask: How do Lu Zhaolin’s words reflect the glory of the Tang era? (They describe a place of grandeur and great beauty.) At this time, you may also assign the worksheet Map of Chang’an (see Universal Access activity below). Teaching Resources, Unit 5, Descriptions of Chang’an, p. 19; Map of Chang’an, p. 18 ■ Discuss the Art and Literature subsection with students. Ask: Why were Chinese artists and writers able to focus on their work during the Tang era? (Possible answer: China was peaceful and well organized, leaving surplus time and energy for the arts.) Independent Practice Have students begin to fill in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide. What ideas inspired the poetry of Li Bo? Fast Facts The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Who: Li Bo Li Bo What: Poet When: 701–762 Where: Tang China Why important: He was one of China’s greatest writers. Fast Find How: Go online to find out about the philosophy and life of Li Bo. For: More about Li Bo Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxe-5101 Vocabulary Builder subtle (SUHT uhl) adj. delicate; finely detailed Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 10, Section 1 (Adapted version also available.) Monitor Progress was a golden age for Chinese arts and literature. Artists created fine paintings in subtle colors. Potters turned clay into beautiful ceramic pieces. The best works were glazed pottery figures of horses, camels, and other subjects. Tang architects and sculptors designed inspiring Buddhist temples and decorated them with statues. The Tang period is also considered the greatest era of Chinese poetry. One of the most famous poets was Li Bo. He typically wrote in a playful, easygoing style. As this poem suggests, one of his favorite subjects was the beauty of nature. “ As students fill in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, circulate to make sure individuals understand the role of the Tang Dynasty in the history of China. Provide assistance as needed. Art and Literature The Tang era Sunlight steams the river stones. From high above, the river steadily plunges— three thousand feet of sparkling water— the Milky Way pouring down from Heaven. ” —Li Bo, “Waterfall at Lu-shan” How did the capital at Chang’an reflect Tang power and success? 270 Chapter 10 China’s Golden Age Universal Access L1 English Language Learners Answers He was inspired by nature and landscapes. It was a well-organized and thriving city. 270 Chapter 10 L1 Special Needs Using Paired Worksheets To enhance student understanding of the city of Chang’an, assign the worksheet Map of Chang’an. Tell students they should be prepared to contribute to the class discussion on this topic. As students complete the worksheet individually or with part- L1 Less Proficient Readers ners, monitor their responses to the worksheet questions. Then, as part of a class discussion, ask students to describe the basic shape of the city. (square) Teaching Resources, Unit 5, Map of Chang’an, p. 18 The copyright holder has not granted permission to display The copyright holder this image in electronic format. has not granted Please see the teacher's edition permission to display this The copyright holder has not granted permission of your textbook for this image. image in electronic format. to display this image in electronic format. Please Please see the teacher's see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this edition of your textbook for image. this image. Tang Art The Tang Dynasty is known for its colorful glazedpottery figures, such as the warrior, camel carrying trade goods, and female musician. Critical Thinking: Evaluate Information What do these figurines reveal about everyday life in Tang China? The Song Era of Good Government Eventually, the Tang Dynasty collapsed. After a period of unrest, a new dynasty arose. This new ruling family was called the Song. The Song Dynasty ruled China for more than 300 years, from 960 to 1279. For much of that time, barbarian tribes threatened China’s northern borders. To minimize conflict, the Song pulled back from border areas. Instead, they focused on the Chinese heartland and southern China. The Song Dynasty was governed by civil servants chosen for their abilities rather than for their wealth or status. The Song Era of Good Government H-SS 7.3.6 Instruction L2 ■ Read The Song Era of Good Government aloud with students. Remind students to look for support of the main idea. ■ Ask: How did government officials qualify for their jobs during the Song era? (They had to pass a test.) Remind students that the exams were an expansion of a practice begun under previous dynasties. Ask: How was this system different from those of the past? (The system was based on merit rather than on wealth or social class.) Then, ask: How did the Song government ensure honesty in its scholar-officials? (The government forbade these officials from serving in their home districts, and it made them change jobs every three years.) Discuss with students the fact that these practices helped strengthen China’s government. Vocabulary Builder minimize (MIHN uh m¯ z) v. to reduce to as little or as few as possible The Scholar-Official Class The Song period was an era of good government. Song rulers depended on a class of scholar-officials to run China’s bureaucracy. These were highly educated civil servants who entered government only after passing special examinations. Earlier dynasties had hired officials based on their wealth or status. The use of civil service examinations began during the Han Dynasty. It was later revived by the Tang and expanded by the Song. Every year, the government held exams for people who wanted to become officials. The tests were tough, and few students passed. Those who did qualified for government jobs. Section 1 The Tang and Song Dynasties 271 History Background The Song Civil Service Examination The civil service exam was a long and very competitive test. Candidates had to memorize the Five Classics of Confucius, interpret them, and create political advice based on them. By the time of the Song Dynasty, only wealthy men could afford to spend the time and money needed to prepare for the exam. (Women were permitted to take the exam only during the reign of the Tang Empress Wu.) People who took the test were assigned numbers. The tests were graded without names to ensure fairness. The few who passed the first exam then had to take a second test at the capital city. About 200 people a year, or 15 to 20 percent of those who took it, passed the second test. Answer Evaluate Information Possible answer: Life was rich and diverse. Chapter 10 Section 1 271 The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Instruction (continued) ■ ■ Make sure that students understand what is meant by the term merit system. Ask: Is the merit system the way that most people today advance at work? Explain. (Students should realize that most workers today advance because superiors recognize their talents and skills. Students may base their explanations on real-life examples of people they know who have received merit pay raises or promotions.) How might a focus on merit improve quality? (By hiring and promoting based on merit, good performance would be encouraged and poor performance would be weeded out.) Ask: In what way did the scholarofficials and the emperor help China by helping each other? (Possible answer: The emperor promoted the scholar-officials; the scholar-officials supported the emperor and became closer to him. This arrangement made for a tightly knit government, which was to the benefit of China.) Independent Practice The Song Civil Service The silk painting at right shows students taking the civil service exam required for government jobs. The cloth badge at left indicated a civil servant’s rank. Critical Thinking: Link Past and Present Are there any exams today that are as important to a person’s future as the civil service exams of Song China? Explain. Have students complete the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide. (Adapted version available.) Monitor Progress Tell students to fill in the last column of the Reading Readiness Guide. Probe for what they learned that confirms or invalidates each statement. Teaching Resources, Unit 5, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 15 HI 2 Understand Sequence According to this paragraph, what two processes were happening in China at the same time? China’s scholar-officials were monitored to make sure they were honest and efficient. They could not serve in their home district, where they might feel pressure to do favors for family and friends. They had to change jobs every three years, so that they could not build up too much power in one place. In this way, Song civil servants avoided corruption in government. The Merit System Under the Song, China developed a merit system for choosing and promoting civil servants. A merit system is a process for hiring and promoting people based on talent and skills, rather than on wealth or social status. Scholar-officials who performed well moved up in the government bureaucracy. They enjoyed great prestige in society. Their promotions also guaranteed continuing good government. The rise of the scholar-official class was paralleled by an increase in the emperor’s power. As you may recall, the emperor ruled under the Mandate of Heaven. In theory, this meant that he was an all-powerful ruler with heavenly support. In practice, most early emperors had needed the backing of nobles and warlords to stay in power. By promoting the scholar-official class, the emperor developed his own base of loyal supporters. As the scholar-officials gained power, they pushed aside the noble families. Nobles whose power had come from close alliances with the emperor in the past soon found that power reduced. At the same time, the emperor became more and more isolated, until only his top officials could approach him. Over time, the scholar-official class became the highest ranking group in Chinese society. 272 Chapter 10 China’s Golden Age Universal Access Answers Link Past and Present Possible answer: The SATs are as important, since many jobs and careers require a college education and people cannot get into college unless they take the SATs. Reading Skill The scholar-official class was gaining prestige at the same time that the emperor was gaining power. 272 Chapter 10 L3 Advanced Readers L3 Gifted and Talented Interviewing Emperors Ask pairs of students to choose an emperor from Section 1 (Tang Taizong or Empress Wu) or an emperor who is not specifically named in the text, such as Chao K’uang-yin, who became Song Taizu, the first of the Song rulers. Instruct students to conduct research and use their findings to prepare a set of interview questions and answers about the emperor. Each interview should include a variation of the Section Focus Question: How did the Tang and Song dynasties strengthen China? Invite students to present their interviews in class. The Shift to the South Good government led to economic growth under the Song. Along with economic growth came urbanization, or the growth of cities. By 1100, Song China had several cities with a population of one million or more. Many of these cities were in southern China, south of the Chang River, which is also known as the Yangtze. The Southern Song period began in 1127. In this year, after a barbarian invasion, the Song Dynasty withdrew from northern China and shifted its capital south to the city of Hangzhou (hahng joh). Hangzhou was a major port and trading center. A European visitor wrote that Hangzhou was “the first, the biggest, the richest, the most populous, and altogether the most marvelous city that exists on the face of the earth.” Assess and Reteach Assess Progress Have students complete Check Your Progress. Administer the Section Quiz. Teaching Resources, Unit 5, Section Quiz, p. 23 To further assess student understanding, use the Progress Monitoring Transparency. Progress Monitoring Transparencies, Chapter 10, Section 1 Reteach In what way was the Song era a period of good government? read about the Tang and Song dynasties. You learned that they united China under an efficient bureaucracy. In the next section, you will read about religion and thought during the Tang and Song eras. 1 Check Your Progress H-SS: 7.3.1, 7.3.6; HI 2 Comprehension and Critical Thinking 1. (a) Describe Describe three Tang achievements in architecture and the arts. (b) Draw Inferences What might be the connection between the Tang bureaucracy and progress in the arts? 2. (a) Recall Who ran the Song government? (b) Explain How were the people who ran the government selected? (c) Analyze Cause and Effect How did the Song bureaucracy increase the emperor’s power? Reading Skill Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 10, Section 1 (Adapted version also available.) Extend For: Self-test with instant help Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxa-5101 Writing 3. Understand Sequence Reread the first paragraph under the heading The Shift to the South. Which came first: efficient government or economic growth and prosperity? Vocabulary Builder L1 If students need more instruction, have them read this section in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide and complete the accompanying question. Looking Back and Ahead In this section, you have Section L2 5. Plan a topic for a research paper on the Tang and Song dynasties. Choose an idea from this section that you would like to learn more about. Write a working thesis statement—a sentence that states the main idea of your paper. 4. Write two definitions for each of the following terms: bureaucracy, merit system, urbanization. First, write a formal definition for your teacher. Second, write a definition in everyday English for a classmate. Section 1 The Tang and Song Dynasties L3 Have students use the library or Internet to learn more about Chinese art of the Tang and Song eras. Students should work to create a short scrapbook of work typical of this era, including captions that explain each piece’s significance. Students should present their scrapbooks to the class. For: Help in starting the Extend activity Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxe-1050 Section 1 Check Your Progress 1. (a) paintings, ceramics, and poetry (b) Possible answer: The government valued the arts and provided time to artists to pursue their crafts. 273 2. (a) the scholar-official class (b) They took an exam. (c) The scholar-officials were loyal to the emperor. 3. efficient government Writing Rubrics Share rubrics with students before they write their thesis statements. 4. Answers will vary but should reflect understanding of terms. Score 1 Thesis statement is incomplete or fails to address a main idea in Section 1. Score 2 Thesis statement attempts to address a key idea in Section 1 but does so in 5. Students’ thesis statements should state a vague or unclear manner. Score 3 Thesis statement states a key idea from Section 1 and is relatively clear. Score 4 Thesis statement focuses on a main idea from Section 1 and states it in a way that is clear and broad enough to allow for supporting details. Answer a key idea from the section that can be supported in the rest of the paper. It was a time of economic growth. Chapter 10 Section 1 273 History-Social Science 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. Wei Zheng: An Honest Official Build Background Knowledge The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. L2 Using the Idea Wave technique (TE p. T38), have students define honesty (Possible answers: the practice of not lying, cheating, or stealing; truthfulness). Explain that this feature focuses on the truthfulness shown by two citizen heroes who lived almost 1,400 years apart. Instruction L2 ■ Read the information about Wei Zheng with students. Have students explain how Wei Zheng’s honesty endangered his life. (He made the emperor angry by speaking the truth too boldly for the emperor’s liking.) ■ Ask: How did the emperor come to value Wei Zheng? (With some prompting from his wife, Emperor Taizong realized that he always could count on Wei Zheng to tell him the truth.) ■ Honesty is an important quality for both citizens and government officials. Wei Zheng (way juhng), a government adviser of the Tang Dynasty, was greatly admired for his truthfulness. Have students read aloud the information about Aung San Suu Kyi. Ask them to compare her with Wei Zheng in terms of honesty. (They both spoke the truth even when it was unpopular, and they risked their lives for it.) Then, ask: Why do you think they both took such a risk? (Possible answer: They felt that truth was more important than their personal safety.) Wei Zheng told Emperor Taizong exactly what he thought, even if it displeased the emperor. Taizong praised Wei Zheng’s honesty and made him his chief minister. However, one day the emperor lost his temper. He said that Wei Zheng was too bold, and he threatened to execute him. But the empress Zhangsun (jahng suhn) congratulated the emperor for having an adviser who was brave enough to speak his mind. The emperor quickly calmed down. The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Aung San Suu Kyi (owng sahn soo chee) has devoted her life to a struggle for democracy. In 1988, she began protesting against the military dictators of Burma, her homeland in Southeast Asia. Since then, Suu Kyi has spent years under arrest. Her courage has earned her many awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize. When asked how she could endure separation from family and friends, Suu Kyi had this to say: “Yes, we have given up our right to a normal life. But we have stayed true to that most precious part of our humanity—our conscience.” Monitor Progress Ask students to name other historical figures who were known for being honest and speaking the truth. (Answers will vary, but many students may suggest people who were involved in human rights issues and who suffered for remaining true to their beliefs. Encourage students to support their choices with examples.) Wei Zheng and Aung San Suu Kyi both needed courage to speak out against their governments. Describe a situation in school where it takes courage to be honest and to speak the truth. 274 Citizen Heroes Universal Access L1 English Language Learners L1 Less Proficient Readers Exploring Honesty Today Have students Answer Analyze CITIZEN HEROES Possible answer: Real-life examples will vary but may include standing up for a classmate who has been falsely accused, or voicing disagreement with a school policy. 274 Chapter 10 think of one person alive today whom they consider to be especially honest, someone who has spoken the truth (as he or she sees it; make sure that students allow for differences in points of view) regardless of the consequences. The person may be a well- L1 Special Needs known figure or a friend or family member; in the case of students who are firstgeneration Americans, it may be a historical figure from their country of origin. Ask students to share their choices, explaining how the concept of honesty can be seen in the person they have chosen.